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PROCEEDINGS 


CtENeral  meetings  for  scientific  business 


ZOOLOGICAL     SOCIETY 

OF    LONDON. 


1901,   vol  II. 

(MAY~Di:OEMBER.) 


J^ 


JAN  5 -1929 


PRINTED  FOR  THE  SOCIETY, 
AKD  SOLD  AT  THEIR  HOUSE  IN  HANOVEE-SQUARE. 

LONDON : 

MESf>RS.    LONGMANS,    GREEN,    AND    CO., 

PATER^■O^TKR  ECSV. 


1.  1  S  T 

Oh-  'nui 

COUNCIL     AND     OFFICERS 

OF  THE 

ZOOLOGICAL    SOCIETY    OF    LONDON. 

1901. 


COUNCIL. 

{Elected  April  29th,  1901.) 
His  GiiACE  The  Duke  of  BEDroBD,  K.G.,  President. 


William  Batlsok,  Esq.,  F.ll.S., 
Yice-Prealdent. 

William    T.     Blanfokd,    Esq., 
LL.D.,  E.R.S.,  Vice-President. 

Geoege    a,    Boulejstger,    Esq., 
E.II.S. 

William  E.  de  Winton,  Esq.- 

Hekbert  Deuce,  Esq. 

CuAELES  Deummond,  Esq.,  Trea- 
surer. 

8iii  Joseph  Fayeee,  Bt.,  F.Il.8., 
Fice-Presider.t. 

Dr.  Charles  H.  Gattx,  LL.D. 

Peoeessoe   Gteoege    B.    Howes, 
LL.D.,  E.E.S.,  Vice-PresideM. 

Lt.-Ool.  Leonaed  H.  Ieby. 


Sir  Hugh  Low,  G.C.M.G. 
George     S.     Mackenzie,    Esq., 

C.B. 
The  Lord  Medway. 
P.    Chalmers    Mitchell,   Esq., 

D.Sc. 
Sir  Thomas  Paike. 
Howard  Saunders,  Esq.,  F.L.S,, 

Vice-President. 
Philip   Luxley   Sclater,  Esq., 

M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.B.S.,  Secretary. 
Dr.  David  Sharp,  F.R.S. 
Oldeibld  Thomas,  Esq.,  E.li.S. 
Dr.  Henry  Woodward,   E.B.S., 

■Vice-President. 


PBINCIPAL   OEEICEBS. 

P.  L.  Sclater,  Esq.,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  E.li.S.,  Secretary. 

Frank  E.  Beddard,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  Vice-Secretary  aud 
Prosector. 

Me.  Claeence  Barxlett,  Superintendent  of  the  Gardens. 

Me.  Arthur  Thomson,  Head-Keeper  and  Assistant  Super- 
intendent. 

Mr.  F.  H.  Wateehouse,  Lihrarian. 

'Mr.  John  Baeeow,  Accountant.  ■  - 

Mr.  W.  H,  Cole,  Chief  Clerl-. 

Mr.  George  Aexhue  Dourleday,  Clerh  of  Publications. 


LIST   OF  CONTENTS. 


May  7,1901. 

The  Secretary.     Report  on    the    xidditious  to  the    Society's 

Menagerie  in  April  1901 , .        1 

Mr.    Sclater.     Notice  of  a  Zebi'a  (apparently  Equua    fjrcvyi) 

taken  from  Ludolphus's  work  on  iibyssinia     2 

Mr.  C.  Uavies  8herborji,  1\Z.8.     Remarks  on  tlie  progress 

of  the  '  Index  Auimalium  '    , 2 

Dr.  W.  Gr.  Ridewood,  E.Z.8.  Exhibition  of,  and  remarks 
upon,  some  microscopic  preparations  of  the  hairs  of 
Antelopes,  Giraffe,  and  Zebra 3 

Mr.  Sclater.  Exhibition  of  an  original  Avater-colour  painting 
by  Sir  Harry  Johnston,  K.C.B.,  and  remarks  upon  the 
newly- discovered  African  Mammal,  the  Okapi.     (Plate  I.)       3 

1.  On  Spiders  of  the  Eamily  Attidce  found  in  Jamaica.     By 

Gr.  W.  Peokham  and  E.  Gr.  Peckham.     (Plates  II.-IY.)        0 

2.  On  the  Hymenoptera  collected  during  the  "  Skeat    Ex- 

pedition "    to    the    Malay  Peninsula,  1899-1900.      By 

P.  Oameeok IG 

3.  Ou  the  Arachnida  collected  during  the  "  Skeat  Expedition  " 

to  the  Malay  Peninsula,  1899-1900.     By  M.    Eugene 
Si:mox,  President  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Erance.     45 


May  21,  1901. 

Mr.  R.  1.  Pocock,  P.Z.S.     Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon, 
nests  of  a  tree  Trap-door  Spider  from  Rio  Janeiro    .... 

-(  2 


Page 

1.  Oil    the    more    notable  Mauimals  obtained  by   Sir  Harry 

Johnston  in  the  Uganda  Protectorate,  By  OLDriELD 
Thomas.     (Plate  V.) 85 

2.  On  some  Arctic  Nemerteans.     By  R.  C.  Puxnett,  B.A. 

(Plates  VI.  &  yJI.) '. 90 

3.  On  the  Anatomy  of  Gogia  breviceps.     By  AV.  BlaxlajS'D 

Benham,  M.A.,  U.Sc,  F.Z.S.,  Professor  of  Biolojry  in 
the  University  of  Otago,  New  Zealand.  (Plates  Vlil.- 
XI.)   " 107 

4.  Descriptions  of  two  new  Chameleons  from  Mount  Euwen- 

zori,  British  East  Africa,  By  Gr.  A.  Boulenger,  P.R.S. 
(Plates  XII.  &  XILL) 135 

■5.  A  List  of  the  Reptiles  and  Batrachiansobtained  by  Mr.  A. 
Blayney  Percival  in  Southern  Arabia.  By  the  late  Dr. 
J,  Andee?::on,  LL.D.,  P,E.S.  With  Notes  by  the  Collector. 
(Plates  XJV.  &  XV.)    137 

6.  Description  ot  a  now  Fish  of  the  Genus  Gohius  obtained 
by  Mr.  A.  Blayney  Percival  in  South  Arabia.  By  G.  A. 
BOIJLEI^GEE,  F.E.S 152 


June  4,  1901. 

1.  Notes  on  the  Type  Specimen  of  Rhinoceros  lasiotis  Sclater  ; 

with  Remarks    on  the  (xeuerie  Position  of   the  Living 
Species  of  Rhinoceros.     By  Olbfieli)  Thomas 154 

2.  On  a  small  Collection  of  Fishes  from  Lake  Victoria  made 

by  order   of    Sir  li.    H.  Johnston,  K.C.B.     By  G-.  A. 
BouLEm-{ER,  F.E.S 158 

3.  On   the    Structure    and  xAffinities  of  Udenodon.     By  R. 

Beoom,  M.D.,  B.Sc.     (Plates  XVI.-XVIII.)    ...."....    162 

4.  On  some  Species  of  Earthworms  of  the  Genus  BenJuimia 

from  Tropical  Africa.    By  Feank  E.  Beddaed,  F.R.S.  &c.  190 

5.  On  the  Second  Occurrence  of  Becli stein's  Bat  (VespertiUo 

becJisteini)  in  Great  Britain,     By  J,  G.  Millais,  F.Z,S,     216 

6.  On  Australian  and  New  Zealand  Spiders  of  the  Suborder 

Mygalomorphse,     By  H,  E,  Hogg,  M.A,,  F.Z.S 218 


June  18,  1901. 

The   Secretary,     Report   on   the  Additions  to   the   Society's 

Menagerie  in  May  1  iMil    279 


V 

Piiga 

Prof.  E.  liny  Laiikester,  F.E.S.  Exhibition  of,  and  remarks 
upon,  two  skulls  and  a  skin  of  the  neAvly-discovered 
African  Mammal  [Ohaina  johnstoni)    279 

Tlie  Hon.  Walter  Eothsc-liild,  E.Z.S.  Exhibition  of,  and 
remarks  upon,  sj^ecimens  of  the  Ibex  of  Abyssinia 
{Capra  ivalie  Kiipp.) 281 

The  Hon.  Walter  Eothschild,  E.Z.S.  Exhibition  of,  and 
remarks  iipon,  a  specimen  of  the  Abyssinian  Wolf  (Canis 
simeiisis  Rlipp.)    283 

Mr.  Oldfield  Thomas,  F.Z.S.    Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon, 

a  peculiar  Stag's  frontlet  and  horns  from  Borneo 284 

Mr.  E.  Shelford,  C.M.Z.S.  Exhibition  of  a  series  of  lantern- 
slides  illustrative  of  mimicry  amongst  Bornean  Insects.  .   284 

1.  On  a  new  Hedgehog  from  Transcaucasia  ;    with  a  Eevision 

of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Erinaeeus  of  the  Eussian 
Empire.     By  Constantino  Satunin,  C.M.Z.S 284 

2.  Field-IVotes  on  the  xintelopes   of  the  White  Nile.     By 

Captain  Henry  N.  Dunn     ".    291 

3.  On  a  Collection  of  Birds  made  by  Dr.  Donaldson  Smith  in 

Northern  Somali-land.  By  E.  Boavdlbr  Sharpe,  LL.D., 
E.Z.S '. , 298 

4.  Oil  the  Evolution  of  Pattern  in  Feathers.     Bv  J.  L.  Bon- 

HOTE,  M.A.,  F.Z.S.     (Plates  XTX.  &  XX.)  ' 316 

5.  The  Mollusca  of  the   Persian  Gulf,  Gulf  of  Oman,  and 

Arabian  Sea,  as  evidenced  mainlv  through  the  Collections 
of  Mr.  F.  W.  Townsend,  1893-191J0  ;  with  Descriptions 
of  new  Species.  By  James  Cosmo  Meltill,  M.A., 
F.L.S.,  F.Z.S. ,  and  Eobert  Standee,  Assist.-Keeper, 
Manchester  Museum.— Part  I.     (Plates  XXI.-XXIV.)  327 

6.  Further  Eesearches  concerning  the  Molluscs  of  the  Great 

African  Lakes.  By  J.  E.  S.  Moore.  (Plates  XXV.  & 
XXVI.) ..' 46i 


November  19,  1901. 

The  Secretary.  Eeport  on  the  Additions  to  the  Society's 
Menagerie  in  June,  July,  August,  Septembei-,  and 
October,  1901    470 

The  Secretary.     Announcement  of  the  offer  of  a  pair  of  young 

Giraffes  to  the  Society  by  Col.  B.  Mahon ' 471 


A'l 

Pase 
The  Secretary.     Exhibition  of  a  small  collection  of  Mammals 

presented  to  the  Society  by  M.  C.  Satunin     472 

Ml-.  Sclater.  Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon,  some  heads 
of  Antelopes  obtained  by  Sir  W.  Grarstin  in  the  Egyptian 
Sudan     •  •  • -^72 

Mr.  Lydekker.  Exhibition  of,  on  behalf  of  the  President, 
aiid  remarks  upon,  a  photograph  of  shed  horns  of  Pere 
David's  Deer .  .  .  .\  .  . 472 

Prof.  E.  Hay  Lankester,   E.E  S.      Notice  of  a  Memoir  on 
■  Olcapia,  a  new  Grenus  of  Griraffidre,  from  Central  Africa.  .    472 

1.  On    ihe    Eive-horned    Giraffe    obtained    by    Sir   Harry 

Johnston  near  Mount  Elgoii.     By  Olbeield  Tho^sfas, 
P.E.S.,  P.Z.8 474 

2.  On  the   Male  Genito-Urinary  Organs  of  the  Leindosiren 

and  Protopterus.    By  J.  Graham  Kerr.    (Plates  XXVII. 

&  XXVIII.)  .....! 484 

3.  Pield-notes  on  the  Antelopes  obtained  during  a  Journey  in 

Somaliland  and  Southern  Abyssinia  in  1900-1901.     By 
Alfred  E.  Pease,  M.P.,  P.Z.S 499 


December  3,  190]. 

The  Secretary.     Report   on  the  Additions  to  the   Society's 

Menagerie  in  November  1901.     (Plate  XXIX.)    '.  .    503 

Mr.  Sclater.     Remarks  on  the  herd  of  Pi'jevalsky's  Horse  at 

Vi^oburn  Abbey      505 

Mr.  W.  E.  de  Winton,  P.Z.S.     Exhibition  of,  and  remarks 

upon,  a  large  specimen  of  the  Grey  Mullet    505 

1.  On  the  Myriapoda  collected  during  the  "  Slceat  Expedition  " 

to  the  Malay  Peninsula,  1899-1900.  By  F.  G.  Siwlair 
(formerly  P.  G.  Heathcote),  M.A., "  P.L.S.,  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge.     (Plates  XXX.-XXXII.) '.   505 

2.  On  the  Crustacea  collected  during  the  "  Skeat  Expedition  " 

to  the  Malay  Peninsula,  together  with  a  Note  on  the 
Genus  Actceopsis.  By  W.  P.  Lanchester,  M.A.,  King's 
College,  Cambridge.  —  Part  I.  (Plates  XXXIII.  ^& 
XXXIV.) , 533 


Vll 

Page 

3.  List  of  a  Collection  of  Snakes,  Crocodiles,  and  Chelonians 

from  the  Malay  Peninsula,  made  by  Members  of  tbe 
"  Skeat  ExpeditioD,"  1899-1900.  By  F.  F.  Laidlmv, 
B.A.,  Assistant  Lecturer  and  Demonstrator  at  Owens 
College.  With  an  Appendix  containing  a  list  of  the 
names  of  tbe  places  visited  hv  the  "  8J(eat  Expeditioi)." 
By  W.  W.  Skeat.     (Plate  XXXV.) i>7^ 

4.  Notes    upon   the   Anatomy    and    Systematic   Position  of  ' 

Jihynclma.  By  Fbakk  E.  Bbddard,  M. A. ,  F.K.S.,  Vice- 
Secretary  and  Prosector  to  the  Society   587 

5.  On  some  Anatomical  Differences  between  the  Common 

Snipe  (Gallinac/o  coeJestis)  and  the  Jaclv  Snipe  (GaUinar/o 
ffaUinnh).  By  Frank  E.  Beddabd,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  Yice- 
Secretary  and  Prosector  to  the  Society , 59G 

6.  Oji  the  Collection  of  Birds  made  by  Dr.  A.  Donaldson 

Smith  on  his  last  Expedition  to  Lake  Rudolf  and  the 
Nile.  Ey  R.  Bowdler  Shabpe,  LL.D.,  F.Z.S.,  &c. 
(Plate  XXXYI.)    602 

7.  Descriptions  of  two  new  Fishes  discovered  by  Dr.  W.  J. 

Ansorge  in  Southern  Nigeria.  By  G.  A.  "Bottlenger, 
F.R.S.     (Plate  XXXVTL) " 623 


December  17,  1901. 

Mr.  Gr.  Metcalfe  and  Mr.  0.  Thomas.  Eemarks  on  the  repro- 
duction of  the  Duckbill    62-1 

Dr.  C.  I.  Forsyth  Major,  F.Z.S.  Exhibition  of,  and  remarks 
upon,  the  skull  of  a  new  Fossil  Mammal  {Enliydrictis 
galictoides) 625 

Mr.  J.  S.  Budgett.     Notice  of  a  Memoir  on  the  Structure 

of  the  Larval  Poly]pierus 628 

1.  On  the  Anatomy  of  Gruiform  Birds  ;  with  special  reference 

to  the  Correlation  of  Modilicatious.  By  P.  Chalaiees 
Mitchell,  M.A.,  D.Sc.Oxon.,F.Z.S., Lecturer  on  Biology 
at  the  London  Hospital  Medical  College,  University  of 
London 629 

2.  On  the  Muscles  of  the  Ungulata.      By  Bertram  C.  A. 

WiwDLE,  D.Sc,  M.D.,  M.A.,  F.R.S. ,  Professor  of 
Anatomy  in  the  University  of  Birmingham  ;  and  F.  G. 
PxVBSONS,  F.R.CS.,  F.Z.S. ,  F.L.S.,  Lecturer  on  Fluman 
and  Comparative  Anatomy  at  St.  Thomas's  Hospital,  and 
Hunterian  Professor  in  the  Roval  College  of  Surgeons, 
Enfflaud.— Part  1 * ' 656 


Till 

Pngo 

8.  On  the  Spermatophores  of  the  Earthworms  of  the  Genus 

Benhamm.     By  Fbats^k  E.  Beddabd,  M.A.,  E.R.8 701 

4.  Eurther  Notes  on  the  African  Batrachians  Trichohatrachus 

and  Gampsosteonyx.  By  G.  A.  Boulen&er,  E.E.S, 
(Plate  XXXVIII'.)    709 

5.  On  Butterflies  from  St.  Lucia,  W.  Indies,    collected  by 

Major  A.  H.  Cowie.  By  Aethue  G.  Butlee,  Ph.D", 
E.L.S.,  E.Z.S.,  &c ■ 711 

6.  On  the   Spawn  and  Young  of  a  Polychsete  Worm  of  the 

Genus  Marphysa.  By  L.  A.  Boeeadaile,  M.A.,  E.Z.S., 
Lecturer  in  Natui'ai  Sciences  of  Selv^yn  College, 
Cambridge.     (Plate  XXXIX.) 714 


ALPHABETICAL      LIST 


C  O  N  T  R I  B  U  T  0  11 S, 


WuJi  References  to  the  several  Articles  contributed  bj/  each. 


Page 
Andebsok,  Dr.  Johk  (the  late),  LL.D,,  F.R.S. 

A  List  of  the  Reptiles  and  Batrachiaus  obtained  by 
Mr.  A.  Blayney  Percival  iii  fSouthern  Arabia.  With  Xotes 
by  the  Collector.     (Plates  XIV.  &  XY.) 137 

Beddaed,    Fra^^k   E.,    M.A.,   F.E.S.,    Vice-Secretary  and 
Prosector  to  the  Society. 

On  some  Species  of  Eai'thworms  of  the  Genus  Benhamla 
from  Tropical  Africa 190 

Notes  upon  the  Anatomy  and  Sj^steraatic  Position  of 
BhyncJicea 587 

On  some  Anatomical  Differences  between  the  Common 
Snipe  (Gallmacfo  coelestis)  and  the  Jack  Snipe  {GalHnago 
galUmda) 596 

On  the  Spermatophores  of  the  Earth  worms  of  the  Genus 
Benhamia , 704 


X 

Page 

Benham,  Prof.  W.  Blaxlawd,  D.Sc,  M.A.,  F.Z.S.,  Otago 
University. 

On  the  Anatomy  of  Ooc/ia  hreviceps.     (Plates  VIII. -XT.)     107 


BoisTHOTE,  J.  Lewis,  M.A.,  F.Z.S. 

On  the  Evolution  of  Pattern    in    Feathers.      (Plates 
XIX.  &  XX. ) B16 

BoRBADAiLE,    L.    A.,    M.A.,   F.Z.S.,    Lecturer  in  Natural 
Sciences  of  Selwyn  College,  Cambridge. 

On  the  Spawn  and  Young  of  a  Polychsete  Worm  of  the 
G-enus  Mariiliysa.     (Plate  XXXIX.)     ...-..■... 714 

BOULBNGEB,  GrEOEGE  ALBERT,  F.E.S.,  F.Z.S. 

Descriptions    of   two    new    Chameleons   from    Mount 
.Buwenzori,  British  East  Africa.     (Plates  XII.  &  XIII.)  .     135 

Description  of  a  new  Fish  of  the  Genus  Oohius  obtained 
by  Mr.  A.  Blayney  Percival  in  South  Arabia 152 

On  a  small  Collection  of  Fishes  from  Lake  Victoria  made 
by  order  of  Sir  H.  H.  Johnston,  K.C.B 158 

Description  of  two  new  Fishes  discovered  by  Dr.  W.  J. 
Ansorge  in  Southern  Nigeria.     (Plate  XXXVII.) Q23 

Further  Notes  on  the  African  Batrachians  Trichohatra- 
cJius  and  Gampsosteonyx.     (Plate  XXXVIII.)     709 

Broom,  Dr.  E,,  B.Sc,  Pearstown,  S.  Africa. 

On  the  Structure  and  Affinities  of   Udenoclon.     (Plates 
XVL-XVIII.) 162 

BUDGETT,  J.  S.,  M.A.,  F.Z.S. 

Notice  of  a  Memoir  on  the   Structure  of  the  Larval 
Polypterus     ()'2S 


Butler,  Arthur  Gr.,  Ph.D.,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S. 

On  Butterflies  from  St.  Lucia,  W.  Indies,  collected  by 
Major  A.  H.  Cowie     711 

CAMEROif,  Peter. 

On    the   Hymenopf-era   collected    dariDg   tlie    "  Skeat 
Expedition  "to the  Malay  Peninsula,  1899-1900 16 

De  Winto^,  W.  E.,  F.Z.S. 

Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon,  a  large  specimen  of 
the  Grey  Mullet .505 

Dunn,  Henry  N.,  Capt.  Egyptian  Army. 

Eield-Notes  on  the  Antelopes  of  the  White  Nile    291 

Hogg,  H.  E.,  M.A.,  E.Z.S. 

On  Australian  and  New  Zealand  Spiders  of  the  Sub- 
order Mygalomorphfe 218 

Kerr,  J.  Graham,  E.Z.S. 

On  the  Male  Genito-Urinary  Organs  of  the  Lepidosiren 
and  Protopterus.     (Plates  XXVII.  &  XX  VIII.) 484 

Laidlaw,  E.  E.,  B.A.,  Assistant  Lecturer  and  Demonstrator 
at  Owens  College. 
List  of  a  Collection  of  Snakes,  Crocodiles,  and  Chelonians 
froin  the  Malay  Peninsula,  made  by  Members  of  the 
"Skeat  Expedition,"  1899-1900.  With  an  Appendix 
containing  a  list  of  the  names  of  the  places  visited  by  the 
"Skeat  Expedition."    By  W.  W.  Skeat.    (Plate XXXV.)     575 

Lanchestbr,  W.  E.,  M.A.,  King's  College,  Cambridge. 

On  the  Crustacea  collected  during  the  "  Skeat  Expedi- 
tion "   to   t]\e   Malay  Peninsula,    together   -with   a  Note 
on  the  Genus  Actceojjsis. — Part  I.     (Plates   XXXIII.  & 
.  XXXIV.) 533 


Xlt 

Page 

Lankestee,  E.   Eay,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  E.Z.8.,  Director 

of  the  Natural  History  Departments  of  the  British 

Museum. 

Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon,  two  sliuUs  and  a  skin 
of  the  newly-discovered  African  Mammal  {Okapia 
johnstoni) 279 

Notice  of  a  Memoir  on  Ohapia,  a  ne^v  Gfenus  of  Giraffidte, 
from  Central  Africa    472 

Ltdekkee,  E.,  B.A.,  E.R.S.,  E.Z.S. 

Exhibition  of,  on  behalf  of  the  President,  and  remarks 
upon,  a  photograph  of  shed  horns  of  Pere  David's  Deer.  .      472 

Major,  Dr.  C.  I.  Foesyth,  E.Z.S. 

Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon,  the  skull  of  a  new 
Fossil  Mammal  (Enhi/dricfis  gcdietoides)    025 

Meltill,  James  Cosmo,  M.A.,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.8.,and  Sta^^bets-, 
EoBEET,  Assistant-Keeper,  Manchester  Museum. 

The  Mollusca  of  the  Persian  Gulf,  Gulf  of  Oman,  and 
Arabian  Sea,  as  evidenced  mainly  through  the  Collections 
of  Mr.  F.  W.  Townsend,  1898-1900  ;  with  Descriptions 
of  new  Species.— Part  I.     (Plates  XXI.-XXIV.) 327 

Metcalee,  G.,  of  Sydney,  N.S.W. 

Eemarks  on  the  reproduction  of  the  Duckbill 624 

MiLLAis,  J.  G.,  F.Z.S. 

On  the  Second  Occurrence  of  Bechstein's  Bat  (  Vespertilio 
bechsteini)  in  Great  Britain     216 

Mitchell,  P.  Chalmers,  M.A.,  D.Sc.  Oxon.,  F.Z.S. , 
Lecturer  on  Biology  at  the  London  Hospital  Medieul 
College,  University  of  Loudon. 

On  the  Anatomy  of  Gruiform  Birds ;  with  special 
reference  to  the  Correlation  of  Modifications   629 


Xlll 

Page 
MooEE,  J,  E.  8.,  fioyal  College  of  Science,  South  Keusiugtou. 

Further   Ee.searches   concerning  the    Molluscs    of    the 
Great  African  Lakes.     (Plates  XXV.  &  XXVI.)    4(31 

Pajisons,  p.  Gt.,  P'.R.C.S.,  P'.Z.S.,  P.L.S.,  Lecturer  on  Human 
and  Comparative  Anatomy  at  St.  Thomas's  Hospital, 
and  Hunterian  Professor  iii  the  Eoyal  College  of 
Surgeons,  England  ;  and  Windle,  Bebtram  C.  A., 
D.Sc,  M.D.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  Professor  of  Anatomy 
in  the  University  of  Birmingham. 

On  the  Muscles  of  the  Uugulata. — Part  1 656 

Pease,  Alfred  E.,  M.P.,  F.Z.S. 

F'ield-notes  on  the  Antelopes  ohtained  during  a  Journey 
in  Somaliland  and  Southern  Abyssinia  in  1900-1901 ....     499 

Peckham,  Gr.  W.,  and  Peckham,  Elizabeth  (1. 

On  Spiders  of  the  F'amily  Atti'Uc  found  in  Jamaica. 
(Plates  II.-IV.) 6 

PococK,  E.  I.,  F.Z.S. 

Exhibition  of,  and  remarlcs  upon,  ue.sts  of  a  tree  Trap- 
door Spider  from  Bio,  Janeiro 85 

PUNNETT,  E.  C,  B.A.,  F.Z.S. 

On  some  Arctic  Neuierteans.     (Plates  VI.  &  VII.)    .  .        90 

EiBEWOOD.  W.  Gr.,  D.Sc,  F\L.S.,  F\Z.S.,  Lecturer  on  Biology 
at  the  Medical  School  of  St.  Mary's  Hospital. 

Exhibition    of,    and   remarks   upon,    some  microscopic 
preparations  of  the  hair  of  Antelopes,  Giraffe,  and  Zebra.         3 

EoTHSCHiLD,  The  Hon.  L.  Walter,  M.P.,  Ph.D.,  F.Z.S. 

Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon,  specimens  of  the  Ibex 
of  Abyssinia  {Capra  ivalie  Eiipp.) 281 

Exhibition  of,   and   remarks  upon,  a  specimen  of   the 
Abyssinian  AVolf  (Oanis  mneiisis  Eiipp.) 288 


Satunin,  Gokstantin,  C.M.Z.S. 

On  a  new  Hedgehog  from  Transcaucasia ;  with  a  Revi- 
sion of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Erinaceus  of  the  Russian 
Empire     284 

ScLATER,    Philip    Lutley,    M.A.,   D.Sc,    Ph.D.,   F.R.S., 
Secretary  to  the  Society. 

Report  on  the  Additions  to  the  Society's  Menagerie  in 
April  1901   1 

Notice  of  a  Zehra  (apparently  Equus  grevyi)  taken  from 
Ludolphus's  work  on  Abyssinia 2 

Exhibition  of  an  original  water-colour  painting  by 
Sir  Harry  Johnston,  K.C.B.,  and  remarks  upon  the 
newly-discovered  African  Mammal,  the  Okapi.     (Plate  I.)         3 

Report  on  the  Additions  to  the  Society's  Menagerie  in 
May  1901     279 

Report  on  the  Additions  to  the  Society's  Menagerie  in 
June,  July,  August,  September,  and  October,  1 901     ....     470 

Announcement  of  the  offer  of  a  pair  of  young  Giraffes 
to  the  Society  by  Ool.  B.  Mahon 471 

Exhibition  of  a  small  collection  of  Mammals  presented 
to  the  Society  by  M.  C.  Satunin    472 

Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon,  some  heads  of  Ante- 
lopes obtained  by  Sir  W.  Garstin  in  the  Egyptian  Sudan.     472 

Report  on  the  Additions  to  the  Society's  Menagerie  in 
November  1901.     (Plate  XXIX.) 503 

Remarks  on  the  herd  of  Prjevalsky's  Horse  at  Woburn 
Abbey 505 

SiiAapE,   R.    BownLEii,    LL.U.,   P.Z.S.,   British    Museum, 
Natural  History,  South  Kensington. 

On  a  Collection  of  Birds  made  by  Dr.  Donaldson  Smith 
in  Northern  Somali-land     298 

On  the  Collection  of  Birds  made  by  Dr.  A.  Donaldson 
Smith  on  his  last  Expedition  to  Lake  Rudolf  and  the 
Nile.     (Plate  XXXVI.) 602 


Page 
WuELroEU)  R.,  C.M.Z.8.,  Curator,  Surawak  Museum. 

Exhibitiou  of  a  series  of  lautern-slides  illustrative  ol: 
mimicry  amongst  Bornean  Insects     284 

!Shee]30bn,  C.  Davies,  P.Z.S. 

Eemarks  on  the  progress  of  the  '  Index  Animalium  '  . .  2 

Simon,  M.  Eug-ene,  President  of  the  Entomological  Society 
of  Erance. 

On  the  Arachnida  collected  during  the  "  Skeat  Expedi- 
tion "  to  the  Malay  Peninsula,  1899-1900    45 

SiKOLAiB,  E.  Gr.  (formerly  E.  G-.  Heathoote),  M.A.,  F.L.S., 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

On  the  Myriapoda  collected  during  the  "  Skeat  Expedi- 
tion "  to  the  Malay  Peninsula,  1899-1900.  (Plates  XXX.- 
XXXII.) 505 

Skeat,  W.  W. 

List  of  Place-names  in  the  Siamese  Malay  States  visited 
by  Members  of  the  "  Skeat  Expedition  " 583 

StajSTDen,  Eobbbt,  Assistant-Keeper,  Manchester  Museum, 

and  Melvill,  Jambs  Cosmo,  M.A.,  E.L.S.,  E.Z.S. 

The  Mollusca  of  the  Persian  Gulf,  Gulf  of  Oman,  and 

Arabian  Sea,  as  evidenced  mainly  through  the  Collections 

of  Mr.  E.  W.  Townsend,  1893-1900  ;  with  Descriptious 

of  new  Species.— Part  I.     (Plates  XXI.-XXIV.)    327 

Thomas,  Oldeield,  E.E.S.,  E.Z.S. 

On  the  more  notable  Mammals  obtaiued  by  Sir  Harry 
Johnston  in  the  Uganda  Protectorate.     (Plate  V.) 85 

Notes  on  the  Type  Specimen  of  UJuuuccrun  limoiis 
Sclater  ;  with  Remarks  on  the  Generic  Position  of  the 
Living  Species  of  Rhinoceros     154 

Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon,  a  peculiar  Stag's 
frontlet  and  hox'ns  from  Borneo     284 

On  the  Eive-horned  Giraffe  obtained  by  Sir  Plarry 
Johnston  near  Mount  Elgon 474 


Page 
WiNBLE,  Bebtham  C.  A.,  D.Sc,  M.D.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  Pro- 
fessor of  Anatomy  in  the  University  of  Birmingham  ; 
and  Parsons,  F.  G-.,  F.E.C.S.,  F.Z.S.,  F.L.8.,  Lec- 
turer on  Human  and  Comparative  Anatomy  at 
8t.  Thomas's  Hospital,  and  Hunterian  Professor  in 
the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  England. 

On  the  Muscles  of  the  Ungulata. — Part  I,  . 656 


LIST   OF   TLATES, 

1901.— Vol.  II. 


Plate  Page 

I.     The  Okapi  {Okapia  jolmstoni)    3 


II.-] 

III.  \ : 

IV.  J 


III.  }>NewAttid£e  from  Jamaica. 

IV. 

V.     Genetta  victories    85 

VI   I 

■  >  Arctic  Nemerteans 90 

VIII.   ^ 

y'  r  Anatomy  of  Cogia   107 

XI.) 
XII.     Chamcuhon  xenorhinns 


.     135 
XIII.     Chamceleon  johnstoni 

XIV.  1.  Bunopus  spatalura.     2.  Aganiodon  arabicus  .  .  .  .  i     -,07 

XV.  Uromastix  le7iti   i 

XVI.  Skfileton  of  Udenodon  gracilis j 

XVII.  Skull,  Vertebra,  &  Hind  Limb  of  Udenodon    >    1 62 

XVIII.  Limb-bones  &  Sternum  of  Udenodon   ) 

XIX  I 

■  \  Evolution  of  Pattern  in  Feathers ..;...       316 

XX.  1 

XXI.  I 

^^'  [  MoUusca  of  the  Persian  Gulf  and  Arabian  Sea  ... .       327 

XXIV.  ) 
XXV.     Mollusca  of  Tanganyika  (iVeoif/iazw;?/?  and  Vivipara).       461 
XXVI.     Mollusica,  of  Taiagsinyika,  {Neothau7na  and  Kgtra)   ..       461 

XXVII.     Genito-Urinary  Organs  of  Male  Lepidoriiren 482 

XXVIII.     Genito-Urinary  Organs   of   Male   Lepidosiren   andl     ^g^ 

Protopterus 1 

XXIX.     Equus  granti 603 

XXX.  1 

XXXI.  i  Myriapoda  from  the  Malay  Peninsula 605 

XXXII. ) 

h 


XV  HI 

Plate  Page 

AAAiii.  [  Crustaceans  from  the  Malay  Peninsula    >534 

XXXIV.  I  "^ 

XXXV.     Snakes  from  the  Malay  Peninsula     575 

XXXVI.     1.   Cossi/pha  oinoensis.     2.  Floceipasser  clonaldsoni  .  .       C02 
XXX VII.     New  West- African  Fishes.     1.   Phractura  ansorgii.\ 

2.  Fundulus  ffularis,  meile.    S.  FundtdusffularisA    623 

female    ) 

XXXVIII.     1.  TricJiobatraclms   robustvs.      2,  3.  Gampsosteonyx  [    ^.qq 

batesi : i 

XXXIX.     Young  of  a  Worm  of  the  Genus  Marphysa 714 


LIST     OF    TEXT-FIGURES. 
1901.— Vol.  II. 


Page 

1.  Diagram  of  anterior  ■part  of  vascular  system  of  Amphiporus 

thompsoni 91 

2.  Drepanophorus   horealis.       Section   tlirough    the   commissural 

region  of  the  brain  showing  the  opening  of  the  cerebral 

organ   97 

3.  Drepanopliorus  horealis.     Section  slightly  behind  the  preceding 

one,  showing  the  expansions  of  the  rhyuchoccelomic  diverti- 
cula over  the  cerebral  organ     98 

4.  Amphiporus,  &c 103 

5.  Malacobdella    103 

6.  Malacobdella  according  to  Biirger 103 

7.  Muscles  of  penis  of  Eisso's  Grampus,  seen  from  below 128 

8.  Muscles  of  penis  of  Greenland  Right  Whale,  seen  from  below  .  129 

9.  Gohius  2^ereivali 153 

10.  A  composite  figure  of  the  SkuU  of  TJdenodon    165 

11.  Skull  of  a  primitive  Theriodont,  Ictidosuchus  pruncevus 165 

12.  Ventral  view  of  the  anterior  segments  ol  Benhamia  moorei.  .^,  193 

13.  Spermiitheca  of  Benhamia  moorei 197 

14.  Two  setse  of  Benhamia  johtistoni 200 

15.  Ventral  surface  of  clitellar  segments  of  ^e?i/(«w««yo7;??s^o?«'    ..  200 

16.  Peuial  setae  of  Benhamia 205 

17.  Penial  seta  of  Benhamia  aiisteni _ 208 

18.  Extremity  of  penial  seta  of  Benhamia  (jamhiana 212 

19.  Penial  seta  of  Benhamia  michaelseni   214 

20.  Vespertilio  hechsteini 217 

21.  Eriodon  rugosum.     Male  palp.     B.  insigne.     Eyes,  male  palp .  .  223 

22.  Eriodon  incerhim.     Eyes,  male  palp    224 

23.  Eriodon  rubrocapitatum.      Eyes  of  male,  eyes,  of  female,  left 

and  right  male  palps 226 

24.  Arhanitis  gilliesii.      Eyes,  rear   tarsal   claws.      Supposed  A, 

huttoni.     Rear  tarsal  claws  234 

25.  Maoriana    dendyi.      Eyes,  profile,   lip,  and   sternum  showing 

sigillas      237 


XX 

Page 

26.  Eyes  oi  Idioctis  helva.     I.  pahnarum.     Eyes  of  I.  paliiiarHm  .  ,  242 

27.  iSelenocosmia  stlrlviyi.     Mule  palpal  org-au,  extremity  enlarged 

from  upper  and  under  sides,  eyes    245 

28.  Selenocosmia   vulpina.      Papal  bulb  from   above  and  beneath, 

whole  of  palp,  eyes,  profile 247 

29.  Selenof,y2nis  pjlumipes.     Eyes      2J9 

30.  Anmne  grisea.     Eyes 253 

31.  Aname  arborea.     Eyes 254 

32.  Aname  pellucida.     Eyes     256 

33.  Ixamatus  gregorii.     Male  paip,  eyes   259 

34.  Ixamatus  broumi,     Male  palp,  tibial  joint  of  first  pair  of  legs, 

eyes 260 

35.  Chenistonia  maculata.      Tibial  and  metatarsal  joints  of  first 

pair  of  legs  of  male,  end  of  palp,  eyes   262 

36.  Chenistonia  major.     Eyes      264 

37.  Porrhothele  simoni.     Eyes,  profile    269 

38.  Steny grocer cus  hroomi.     Eyes,  profile 271 

39.  Atrax  rohustus.     Eyes,  tarsal  claws 273 

40.  Hadronyehe  cerberea.     Eyes,  right  and  left  male  palp      275 

41.  Hexathele  hochstetteri.     Eyes,  male  palp,  tibia,  and  metatarsus 

of  male,  underside  of  abdomen,  profile    277 

42.  Head  of  old  male  Eive-horned  Giraffe,  showing  the  position  of 

the  mizen  horns     476 

43.  Posterior  part  of  the  skull  of  an  old  Five-liorned  Giraffe 478 

44.  Postero-esterual   view  of    the   occipital    region    of    a   young 

Giraffe,  showing  the  swelling  wliich  represents  the  mizen 

horn     , ■i/8 

45.  Occipital  view  of  the  skull  of  an  old  male  Eive-horned  Giraffe .  479 

46.  Young  Okapi.     Postero-external  view  of  the  occipital  crest   .  .  480 

47.  Bramatherium  perimetise.       Diagrammatic   side-view  of    the 

skull,  showing  the  position  of  the  horns    ,  , 481 

48.  Bramatherium  perimense.      Diagrammatic  back-view   of  the 

skull .  .  48-2 

49.  The  genito-urinary  apparatus  of  the  male  Lepidosiren 485 

50.  Transverse  section  of  the  genito-urinary  apparatus  of  Lepido- 

siren      488 

61.  Section  through  the  Malpighian  capsule  of  Lepidosiren 489 

52.  Transverse  section  through  the  genito-urinary  organs  of  the 

male  Lepidosiren    490 

53.  The  genito-urinary  apparatus  of  Frotopiteriis 492 

54.  Diagrammatic  sketch  of  the  genito-urinary  system  in  certain 

Fishes 496 

55.  Grant's  Zebra 504 

66.  Portion  of  windpipe  of  RhynchcBa  capensis,  $    589 

67.  Portion  of  windpipe  of  Woodcock  {Scolopax  rusticula)     589 

68.  Portion  of  windpipe  of  Common  Snipe  (Gallinago  coelestis) ....  589 

69.  Skull  of  Rhynchcea  capensis,  ventral  aspect 591 

60.  Skull  of  Bliynclicea  capensis,  dorsal  aspect 591 


61.  Extremity  of  bouy  bill  of  Scolopax  rusticula 593 

62.  Extremity  of  bony  bill  of  Tringa  canutus 593 

63.  Extremity  of  bony  bill  of  Rhynchcsa  cnpensis     693 

64.  Base  of  skull  of  Common  Snipe  (Gallmago  ccelestis)     597 

65.  Base  of  skull  of  Jack  Snipe  (Gallinaf/o  r/allinula)     .  .    597 

66.  Skull  of  Common  Snipe  (G.  coelestis),  lateral  aspect 598 

67.  Skull  of  Jack  Snipe  ((?.  gnllinula),  lateral  aspect 598 

68.  Syrinx  of  Gallinago  gallinula  S  >  front  view 600 

69.  Syrinx  of  G.  gallinula  J ,  lateral  view    600 

70.  Wiug-structure  of  Rallus  longirostns 631 

71.  Wing-structure  of  Pso^^hia  obscura 633 

72.  Wing-structure  of  Otis  tarda 634 

73.  Wing-structure  of  Rhinochetiis  jiibatus   , 634 

74.  Shoulder-muscles  of  Rallus  longirostris 637 

75.  Shoulder-muscles  of  Psophia  obscura 637 

76.  Alar  muscles  of  Rhinochetus  jubatus    640 

77.  Alar  muscles  of  Rallus  longirostris 640 

78.  Alar  muscles  of  Seliornis  fulica 640 

79.  Thigh-muscles  of  Psophia  leucoptera    646 

80.  Thigh-muscles  of  Aramus  scolopaeeus      648 

81.  Knee-muscles  of  Rallus  longirostris 650 

82.  Knee-muscles  of  Aramus  scolopaeeus 650 

83.  Knee-muscles  of  Otis  tarda 651 

84.  Knee-muscles  of  Seliornis  fulica . 651 

85.  Deep  plantar  tendons  of  Gruiformes    654 

86.  Facial  muscles  of  the  Duiker-bok     662 

87.  Facial  muscles  of  the  Mouflon 663 

88.  Hyoid  muscles  of  the  Duiker-bok     669 

89.  Hyoid  apparatus  of  the  Duiker-bok 671 

90.  Shoulder-muscles  of  the  Hyrax    680 

91.  Arm  and  shoulder-muscles  of  the  Hyrax    682 

92.  Spermatheca  of  Benhamia  austeni   . 705 

93.  Spermatheca    of    Benhamia    austeni,   with    an    incompletely 

formed  spermatophoie 705 

94.  Longitudinal  section  through  duct  of  spermatheca  oi  Benhamia. 

atisteni,  to  show  portion  of  spermatophore  in  position 707 


LIST   OF   NEW    GENERIC    TEEMS 

PROPOSED  IN  THE  PRESENT  VOLUME  (1901.  vol.  II.). 


Page 

Actites  ( Crustacea)  574 

Argyropeza  (Moll.) 371 

Atanyjoppa  (Hyrnenopt.)  37 

Cheni'stonia  (Arachn.) 251,  261 

Enhydrictis  (Mamm.) 627 

Maoriana  (Arachn.)    230,  236 

Nilakantha  (Arachn . )  8 


Okapia  (Mamm.) 280 

Panysinus  (Arachn.)    74 

Skeatia  (Hyrnenopt. )   39 

Taurongia  (Arachn.)    279 

Vagenatha  (Hyrnenopt.) 41 

Verpulus  (Arachn.) 84 

Zygometis  (Arachn.)    63 


tx, 


PROCEEDINGS 


OF   THE 


aENERAL  MEETmaS  FOR  SCIEMIPIC  BUSINESS 


OF   THE 


ZOOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 

OF  LONDON. 
1901,  vol.  II. 


PART  I. 

CONTAINING  PAPERS  READ  IN 
MAY   AND    JUNE. 


OCTOBER  1st,  1901. 


M  h-Vz 


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LIST    OF    CONTENTS. 

1901._VoL.  11. 
Part  I. 


May  7,  1901. 

Pag« 
The  Secretary.     Report  on  the  Additions  to  the  Society's  Menagerie  in  ApriM901     1 

Mr.  Sclater.     Notice  of  a  Zebra  (apparently  Equus  grevyi)  taken  from  Ludolphus's  work 

on  Abyssinia    2 

Mr.  C.  Davies  Sherborn,  F.Z.S.     Remarks  on  the  progress  of  the  '  Index  Animalium  '  . . , .         2 

Dr.   W.    Gr.   Ridewood,    F.Z.S.      Exhibition   of,  and  remarks   upon,   some   microscopic 

preparations  of  the  hairs  of  Antelopes,  Giraffe,  and  Zebra  . . ". 3 

Mr.  Sclater.    Exhibition  of  an  original  water-colour  painting  by  Sir  Harry  Johnston,  K.C.B., 

and  remarks  upon  the  newly-discovered  African  Mammal,  the  Okapi.    (Plate  I.)  . .    .         3 

1.  On   Spiders   of  the   Family   Aftidm   found   in   Jamaica.     By   G.    W.   Peckham   and 

E.  G.  Peckham.     (Plates  II.-IV.)   6 

2.  On  the  Hvmenoptera  collected  during  the  "  Skeat  Expedition  "  to  the  Malay  Peninsula, 

1899-1900.     By  P.  Cameron    16 

3.  On  the  Arachnida  collected  during  the  "  Skeat  Expedition  "  to  the  Malay  Peninsula, 

1899-1900.     By  M.  Eugene  Simon,  President  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  France  .       45 


May  21,  1901. 

Mr.  R.  I.  Pocock.,  F.Z.S.     Exhibition  of,  and  remarks  upon,  nests  of  a  tree  Trap-door 

Spider  from  Rio  Janeiro   ■• 85 

1    On    the   more   notable   Mammals   obtained  by  Sir   Harry   Johnston   in  the  Uganda 

Protectorate.     By  Oldfield  Thomas.     (Plate  V.)    ■ 85 

2.  On  some  Arctic  Nemerteans.     By  R.  C.  Punnett,  B.A.     (Plates  VI.  &  VII.)     90 

3  On  the  Anatomy  of  Cogia  breviccps.     By  W.  Blaxland  Benham,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.Z.S., 

Professor  of  Biology  in  the  University  of  Otago,  New  Zealand.     (Plates  VIII. -XI.), .      107 

4  Descriptions  of  two  new  Chameleons  from  Mount  Ruwenzori,  British  East  Africa.     By 

G.  A.  BouLBNGER,  F.R.S.     (Plates  XII.  &  XIII.) 135 

f)  A  List  of  the  Reptiles  and  Batrachians  obtained  by  Mr.  A.  Blayney  Percival  in  Southern 
Arabia.  By  the  late  Dr.  J.  Anderson,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  Vi^ith  Notes  by  the  Collector. 
(Plates  XIV.  &  XV.) 137 

6    Description  of  a  new  Fish  of  the  Genus  Gobms  obtained  by  Mr.^A.  Blayney  Percival  in 

South  Arabia.     By  G.  A.  Boulenger,  F.R.S.    ...^ 152 

Contents  coiitinued  on  page  3  of  Wrapper. 


THE   ZOOLOGICAL   SOCIETY   OF  LONDON. 


This  Society  was  instituted  in  1826,  under  the  auspices  of  Sir 
Humphry  Davy,  Bart.,  Sir  Stamford  Raffles,  and  other  eminent 
Savants,  for  the  advancement  of  Zoology  and  Animal  Physiology, 
and  for  the  introduction  of  new  and  curious  subjects  of  the  Animal 
Kingdom,  and  was  incorporated  by  Royal  Charter  in  1829. 


COUN 

HIS   GEACE  THE  DUKE 

William  Bateson,  Esq.,  F.R.S., 

Vice-President. 
William    T.    Blanford,    Esq., 

LL.D.,  E.R.S.,  Vice-President. 

GrEORGE      A.     BoXJLENGER,      EsQ., 

E.R.S. 
William  E.  de  Win^ton,  Esq. 
Herbert  Drtjce,  Esq. 
Charles     Drummond,    Esq., 

Treasurer. 
Sir  Joseph  Fayrer,  Bt.,  E.R.S. , 

Vice-President. 
Dr.  Charles  H.  Gatiy,  LL.D. 
Professor    George   B.   Howes, 

LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  Vice-President. 


CIL. 

OF  BEDFOED,  President. 

Lt.-Col.  Leonard  H.  Irby. 
Sir  Hugh  Low,  G.C.M.G. 
George  S.  Mackenzie,  Esq.,  C.B. 
The  Lord  Medway. 
P.    Chalmers   Mitchell,   Esq., 

D.Sc. 
Sir  Thomas  Paine. 
Howard  Saunders,  Esq.,  F.L.S., 

Vice-President. 
Philip   Lutley   Sclater,  Esq., 

M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.,  Secretary. 
Dr.  David  Sharp,  F.R.S. 
Oldfield  Thomas,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
Dr.  Henry  Woodvv'ard,  F.R.S., 

Vice-President. 


The  Society  consists  of  Fellows,  and  Honorary,  Foreign,  and 
Corresponding  Members,  elected  according  to  the  Bye-Laws. 

The  Gardens  in  the  Regent's  Park  are  open  from  Nine  o'clock  a.m. 
till  Sunset. 

The  Offices  (3  Hanover  Square,  W.),  where  all  communications 
should  be  addressed,  are  open  from  Ten  till  Five,  except  on  Satur- 
days, when  they  close  at  Two  o'clock  p.m. 

The  Library  (3  Hanover  Square),  under  the  superintendence  of 
Mr.  F.  H.  Waterhoijse,  Librarian,  is  open  from  10  a.m.  to  5  p.m., 
on  Saturdays  to  2  p.m.     It  is  closed  in  the  month  of  September. 

The  Meetings  of  the  Society  for  General  Business  are  held  at  the 
Office  on  the  Thursday  following  the  third  Wednesday  in  every 
month  of  the  year,  except  in  September  and  October,  at  Four  p.m. 

The  Meetings  for  Scientific  Business  are  held  at  the  Office  twice 
a  month  on  Tuesdays,  except  in  July,  August,  September,  and 
October,  at  half-past  Eight  o'clock  p.m. 

The  Anniversary  Meeting  is  held  on  the  29th  April,  at  Four  p.m. 

TEEMS  FOR  THE  ADMISSION  OF  FELLOWS. 

Fellows  pay  an  Admission  Fee  of  £5,  and  an  annual  Contri- 
bution of  £3,  due  on  the  1st  of  January,  and  payable  in  advance, 
or  a  Composition  of  £30  in  lieu  thereof;  the  whole  payment, 
including  the  Admission  Fee,  being  <£35. 

No  person  can  become  a  Fellow  until  his  Admission  Fee  and 
F'irst  Annual  Subscription  have  been  paid,  or  the  annual  payments 
have  been  compounded  for. 

Fellows  elected  after  the  30th  of  September  are  not  liable  for 
the  Subscriptions  for  the  year  in  which  they  are  elected. 

PRIVILEGES  OF  FELLOWS. 

Fellows  have  Personal  Admission  to  the  Gardens  with  Two 
Companions  daily,  upon  signing  their  names  in  the  book  at  the 
entrance  gate. 

Fellows  receive  a  Book  of  Saturday  and  a  Book  of  Sunday  Orders 
every  year.  These  Orders  admit  two  persons  to  the  Gardens  on  each 
Saturday  and  two  on  each  Sunday  in  the  year.     But  the  Saturday 


Orders  are  not  available  if  the  Fellow  shall  have  used  his  privilege 
of  personally  introducing  two  companions  on  the  same  day. 

Eellows  also  receive  every  year  Twenty  Free  Tickets  (Green), 
each  valid  for  the  admission  of  one  adult  any  day  of  the  week, 
including  Sunday.  Children's  Tickets  (Buff)  can  be  had  in  lieu  of 
Green  Tickets  in  the  proportion  of  two  Children's  Tickets  to  on 
Adult's.  These  Tickets,  if  not  made  use  of  in  the  year  of  issue,  are 
available  for  following  years. 

Fellows,  if  they  wish  it,  can  exchange  the  Book  of  Saturday 
Orders  for  Twenty  Green  Tickets  available  for  any  day.  The  Book 
of  Sunday  Orders  can  also  be  exchanged  for  a  similar  packet  of 
Twenty  Tickets.  These  books  must,  however,  be  returned  entire, 
and  the  exchange  can  only  be  made  during  the  year  of  their  issue. 

The  annual  supply  of  Tickets  will  be  sent  to  each  Fellow  on  the 
1st  of  January  in  every  year,  on  his  filling  up  a  form  of  Standing 
Order  stating  in  what  way  they  should  be  made  up,  and  to  what 
address  they  should  be  sent.  Forms  for  this  purpose  are  supplied 
on  application. 

The  Wife  of  a  Fellow  can  exercise  all  these  privileges  in  his 
absence. 

Fellows  have  the  privilege  of  receiving  the  Society's  Publications 
on  payment  of  the  additional  Subscription  of  One  Guinea  every 
year.  This  Subscription  is  due  upon  the  1st  of  January  and  must 
be  paid  before  the  day  of  the  Anniversary  Meeting,  after  which 
the  privilege  lapses.  Fellows  are  likewise  entitled  to  purchase  the 
Transactions  and  other  Publications  of  the  Society  at  25  per  cent, 
less  than  the  price  charged  to  the  public.  A  further  reduction  of 
25  per  cent,  is  also  made  upon  all  purchases  of  Publications  issued 
prior  to  1871,  if  above  the  value  of  Five  pounds. 

Fellows  also  have  the  privilege  of  subscribing  to  the  Annual 
Volume  of  the  Zoological  Eecord  for  a  sum  of  £1,  payable  on  the 
1st  July  in  each  year,  but  this  privilege  is  forfeited  unless  the 
subscription  be  paid  before  the  1st  of  December  following. 

They  may  also  obtain  a  Teajjsfekable  Ivoey  Ticket  admitting 
Two  Persons,  available  throughout  the  whole  period  of  Fellowship, 


on  payment  of  Ten  Pounds  in  one  sum.     A  second  similar  ticket 
may  be  obtained  on  payment  of  a  further  sum  of  Twenty  Pounds. 

Any  Fellow  who  intends  to  be  absent  from  the  United  Kingdom 
during  the  space  of  one  year  or  more  may,  upon  giving  to  the 
Secretary  notice  in  writing,  have  his  name  placed  upon  the 
"  dormant  list,"  and  will  be  thereupon  exempt  from  the  payment  of 
his  annual  contribution  during  such  absence. 

Any  Fellow,  having  paid  all  fees  due  to  the  Society,  is  at  liberty  to 
withdraw  his  name  upon  giving  notice  in  writing  to  the  Secretary. 

Persons  who  wish  to  become  Fellows  of  the  Society  are  requested 
to  communicate  with  the  undersigned. 

PHILIP  LUTLEY  SCLATEE,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S., 

Secreta7y. 
3  Hanover  Square,  London,  W., 
October,  1901. 


MEETINGS 

OP  THE 

ZOOLOGICAL    SOCIETY     OF     LONDON 

POE 

SCIENTIFIC     BUSINESS. 

(AT   3    HANOVEB   SQUABE,  "W.) 

Session  1901-1902. 


igoi. 
TuESD AT,  November  19  |      Tuesday,  Decembee  3  and  17 


igo2. 


Ttjesdat,  Janitaey    14 

„        Febrttaet    4  and  18 
„        Maech  . .     4    „    18 


Tuesday,  Apeil    . .  15 

„        May 6 

„       June 3  and  17 


The  Chair  will  be  taken  at  half-past  Eight  o'clock  in  the  Evening 
precisely. 


LIST  OF  THE  PUBLICATIONS 

OF    THE 

ZOOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 


The  scientific  publications  of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London 
are  of  two  kinds — "  Proceedings/''  published  in  an  octavo 
form,  and  ^'  Transactions/'  in  quarto. 

According  to  the  present  arrangements,  the  ''  Proceedings'^ 
contain  not  only  notices  of  all  business  transacted  at  the  scien- 
tific meetings,  but  also  all  the  papers  read  at  such  meetings 
and  recommended  to  be  published  in  the  ''Proceedings^^  by 
the  Committee  of  Publication.  A  large  number  of  coloured 
plates  and  engravings  are  attached  to  each  annual  volume  of 
the  "  Proceedings/'  to  illustrate  the  new  or  otherwise  remark- 
able species  of  animals  described  in  them.  Amongst  such 
illustrations,  figures  of  the  new  or  rare  species  acquired  in  a 
living  state  for  the  Society's  Gardens  are  often  given. 

The  "  Proceedings ""  for  each  year  are  issued  in  four  parts, 
on  the  first  of  the  months  of  June,  August,  October,  and 
April,  the  part  published  in  April  completing  the  volume 
for  the  last  half  of  the  preceding  year.  Commencing  from 
January  1901  they  form  two  half-yearly  volumes. 

The  "Transactions'"  contain  such  of  the  more  important 
communications  made  to  the  scientific  meetings  of  the  Society 
as,  on  account  of  the  nature  of  the  plates  required  to  illustrate 
them,  are  better  adapted  for  publication  in  the  quarto  form. 
They  are  issued  at  irregular  intervals. 

Fellows  and  Corresponding  Members,  upon  payment  of 
a  Subscription  of  One  Guinea  before  the  day  of  the  Anni- 
versary Meeting  in  each  year,  are  entitled  to  receive  all  the 
Society's  Publications  for  the  year.  They  are  likewise 
entitled  to  purchase  the  Publications  of  the  Society  at  25  per 
cent,  less  than  the  price  charged  for  them  to  the  Public.  A 
further  reduction  of  25  per  cent,  is  made  upon  purchases  of 
Publications  issued  prior  to  1871,  if  they  exceed  the  value  of 
five  pounds. 

Fellows  also  have  the  privilege  of  subscribing  to  the 
Annual  Volume  of  the  Zoological  Record  for  a  sum  of  £\ 
(which  includes  delivery  in  the  United  Kingdom  only), 
payable  on  the  1st  July  in  each  year;  but  this  privilege 
is  forfeited  unless  the  subscription  be  paid  before  the  1st  of 
December  following. 

The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  the  publications  of 
the  Society  already  issued.  They  may  be  obtained  at 
the  Society's  Office  (3  Hanover  Square,  W.),  at  Messrs. 
Longmans',  the  Society's  publishers  (Paternoster  Row,  E.G.), 
or  through  any  bookseller. 

\_Octoher,  1901.] 


TRANSACTIONS  OF  THE  ZOOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 


4to.  15  vols,  and  Index. 

Price  to 
Fellows. 

Price  to  the 
Public. 

ol 

I., 

containing  69  Plates .  . 

..    (1833-35)   . 

. .  £3  13 

6  ... 

£4  18     Ot 

)> 

H., 

71    „      .. 

. .   (1835-41)    . 

..     4 

0 

0  ... 

5    6    6t 

»> 

ill., 

63     „      .. 

..   (1842-49)   . 

..     3 

8 

3  ... 

4  11  or 

)» 

IV., 

77    „      .. 

,.  (1851-62)    . 

..     6 

2 

0  ... 

8     2     6 

M 

v., 

67    „      .. 

..  (1862-66)  . 

..     5 

4 

3  ... 

6  19    0 

»» 

VI., 

92    „      .. 

..   (1866-69)  . 

..   11 

5 

0  ... 

15    0    0 

»» 

VIL, 

73    „      .. 

..   (1869-72)   . 

..   10 

4 

0  ... 

13  12    0 

?» 

vm., 

82    „      .. 

..  (1872-74)  . 

..     9 

8 

3  ... 

12  11     0 

IX., 

99    „      .. 

..   (1875-77)   . 

..  12 

1 

6  ... 

16    2    0 

X., 

95    „      .. 

..  (1877-79)   . 

..   10 

0 

3  ... 

13    7    0 

k1( 

;x,  Vols.  I.-X 

..   (1833-79)  . 

..     0 

7 

6  ... 

0  10    0 

ol. 

XL, 

containing  97  Plates 

..  (1880-85)   . 

..     9 

12 

0  ... 

12  16    0 

1? 

XII., 

„       65      „ 

..   (1886-90)   . 

..     5 

8 

0  ... 

7    4    0 

1? 

XIII., 

„      62      „ 

. .    (1891-95)   . 

..     6 

8 

3  ... 

8  11    0 

XIV., 

„       47      „ 

.  .   (1896-98)    . 

..     5 

5 

0  ... 

7    0    0 

XV., 

»       ^2      „ 

. .   (1898-1901) 

..     5 

15 

6  ... 

7  14    0 

XVI., 

Pt.  1      „        6      „ 

.   (Feb. 1901). 

..     0 

18 

0  ... 

14    0 

5? 

XVI., 

9                   Q 

.   (Oct.  1901)  . 

..     0 

15 

9  ... 

110 

PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  COMMITTEE  OF  SCIENCE  AND 
CORRESPONDENCE  OF  THE  ZOOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF 
LONDON.    8vo.  2  vols.  (Letterpress  only).    If^^l^l 

Part   I.     1830-31.     1  vol.  8vo 45.  6^". 

„    II.    1832.  „  As.  6d. 


Price  to  the 

Public. 
.     6s.t 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ZOOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 


8vo.  15  vols.  (Letterpress  only)  and  Index.     (First  Series.) 


Part 


1833. 


I 
II.  1834. 

III.  1835. 

IV.  1836. 
V.  1837. 

VI.  1838. 

VII.  1839. 

VIII.  1840. 


Price  to 
Fellows. 

1  vol.  8vo.  4s.  6d. 
„  4s.  Qd. 
„  4s.  Gd. 

„  4s.  6d. 

„  4s.  6d. 

„         4s.  6d. 
„  As.  6d. 

4s.  6d. 


Price  to  the 

Public. 
..   6s.t 
..   6s. 
..   6s. 
..   6s. 
..   6s. 


6s.t 
6s.t 


Part     IX.  1841. 
„  X.  1842. 

„  XI.  1843. 
„  XII.  1844. 
„  XIII.  1845. 
„  XIV.  1846. 
„  XV.  1847. 
Index  1830-1847. 


Price  to 
Fellows. 

1  vol.  8vo.  4s.  Qd. 

„  As.  6d. 

„  As.  Qd. 

„  As.  Qd. 

„  As.  Qd. 

„  As.  Qd. 

„  As.  Qd. 

„  4s.  Qd. 


Price  to  the 
Public. 


6s.t 
6s.t 


8vo.  13  vols,  and  Index.      (Second  Series.) 


Letterpress  only. 
Price  to  Price  to  the 


Part 


XVI.  1848. 
„  XVII.  1849. 
„  XVIII.  1850. 
.,  XIX.  1851. 

;,  XX.  1852. 

„  XXI.  1853. 

„  XXII.  1854. 
„  XXIII.  1855. 
„  XXIV.  1866. 
XXV.  1857. 
„  XXVI.  1858. 
„  XXVII.  1859. 
„  XXVIII.  1860. 
Index  1848-1860. 


1  vol, 


Fellows.  Public.  Fellows. 

8vo.  As.Qd.  , .     6s £1     0  8 

As.Qd.  . .     6s 1     0  8 

4s.  6^.  . .     6s 1     8  6 

As.Qd.  .  .     6s 0  15  9 

As.Qd.  . .     6s 0  15  9 

As.Qd.  ..     Gs 0  18  0 

As.Qd.  .  .     6s 0  19  6 

As.Gd.  .  .     Qs 1     8  6 

4s.  6^.  ..  6s.     ........  1     0  8 

4s.  6c;.  . .     6s 1     0  8 

4s.  6^;.  . .     6s 1  11  6 

As.Qd.  . .     6s 1  11  6 

As.Qd.  ..     6s 1  11  6 

4s.  Qd.  . .  Qs, 


With  Plates  coloured. 
Price  to  Price  to  the 


£1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 


Public. 

7 

7 
18 

1 

1 

4 

6 
18 

7 

7 

2 


6t 
6t 
Of 
Of 
Of 

ot 

Of 

ot 

6t 
6t 
Ot 
Of 
Ot 


t  Out  of  print. 


PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE   SCIENTIFIC   MEETINGS    OF  THE 
ZOOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON.     8vo.  30  vols,  and  3  Indices. 


Letterp 

pess  only. 

With  Plates  uncoloured. 

With  Plates  coloured. 

Price  to 

Price  to  the 

Price  to 

Price  to  the 

Price  to 

Price  to  the 

Fellows. 

Public. 

Fellows. 

PubUc. 

Fellows. 

Public. 

1861 

.  4s. 

6d.   .. 

..  6s 

..  9s. 

...    12s 

..  33s. 

9d.   .. 

..  45s.t 

1862 

.  4s. 

6d.   .. 

..  6s 

..  9s. 

...  12s 

..  33s. 

9^.   .. 

.  .  45s. 

1863 

.  4s. 

Qd.   .. 

..  6s 

.,  9s. 

...   12s 

..  33s. 

9d.  .. 

.  .  45s. 

1864 

.  4s. 

6d.  .. 

..  6s.* 

..   9s. 

...  12s.t.... 

.  .   33s. 

9d.  .. 

. .  45s.t 

1865 

.  4s. 

Gd.   .. 

.  .  6s 

..  9s. 

...  12s 

. .  33s. 

9d.  .. 

. .  45s. 

1866 

.   4s. 

(5d.   .. 

..   6s.*.... 

..  9s. 

...  12s.t.... 

..  33s. 

9d.   .. 

.  .  45s. 

1867 

..  9s. 

...  12s.*.... 

..  33s. 

9d.  .. 

.  .  45s. 

1868 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  33s. 

9d.   .. 

. .  45s. 

1869 

..  9s. 

...  12s 

. .  33s. 

9d.   .. 

. .  45s. 

1870 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

. .  33s. 

9d.   .. 

..  45s. 

Index, 

1861 

-1870 

..  4s. 

6d.  . 

. . .     6s. 

1871 

..  9s. 

...  12s.*.... 

. .  33s. 

Qd.  .. 

.  .  4os. 

1872 

..  9s. 

...  12s.*.... 
...  12s 

. .  33s. 
..  33s. 

9d.   .. 
9d.   .. 

.  .  45s.  t 

1873 

..  9s. 

. .  45s. 

1874 

..  9s. 

...   ISs.f.... 

..  36s. 

..  48s.t 

1875 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

1876 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

.  .  48s. 

1877 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

.  .  48s. 

1878 

•  .   •   . 

..  9s. 

...  12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

1879 

..  9s. 

...  12s 

..  365. 

..  48s, 

1880 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

Index, 

1871 

-1880 

..  4s. 

Gd.   . 

. . .     6s. 

1881 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

1882 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

1883 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

1884 

..  9s. 

...  12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

1885 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

1886 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

1887 

..  9s. 

...  12s 

..   3es. 

..  48s. 

1888 

..  9s. 

...  12s 

...   12s 

..  36s. 
..  36s. 

. .  485. 

1889 

..  9s. 

..  48s. 

1890 

..  9s. 

...   12s 

..  36s. 

..  48s. 

Index 

1881 

-1890 

..   4s. 

6^.  . 

...     6s. 

* 

So  perfect  copies  in  stock. 

t  Out  of  pi 

int. 

PROCEEDINGS  of  the  GENERAL  MEETINGS  for  SCIENTIFIC 
BUSINESS  OF  THE  ZOOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

8vo.  11  vols. 

Price  to  Price  to  the 

Fellows.  Public. 

1891  36s 485. 

1892  36s 48s. 

1893  36s 48s. 

1894  36s 48s. 

1895  36s 48s. 

1896  36s 48s. 

1897  36s 48s. 

1898  36s 48s. 

1899  365 48s. 

1900  36s 48s. 

1901,  vol.  I 18s 24s. 

,.  II.,  Pt.  1 9s 12s. 


LISTS  OF  THE  ANIMALS  IN  THE  SOCIETY'S  GARDENS. 

List  of  Vertebrated  Animals  Living  in  the  Gardens  of  the  Zoological 

Society  of  London.  (First  Edition.)  8vo.  1862.  Price  Is.  6c?.* 
List  of  Vertebrated  Animals  Living  in  the  Gardens  of  the  Zoological 

Society  of  London.  (Second  Edition.)  8vo.  1863.  Price  Is.  6cZ. 
List  of  Vertebrated  Animals  Living  in  the  Gardens  of  the  Zoological 

Society  of  London,  (Third  Edition.)  8vo.  1865.  Price  Is.  6d. 
List  of  Vertebrated  Animals  Living  in  the  Gardens  of  the  Zoological 

Society  of  London.  (Fourth  Edition.)  8vo.  1866.  Price  Is.  6<i. 
Revised  List  of  the  Vertebrated  Animals  now  or  lately  Living  in  the 

Gardens  of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London.     (Fifth  Edition.) 

8vo.     1872.  Price  2s.* 

Revised  List  of  the  Vertebrated  Animals  now  or  lately  Living  in  the 

Gardens  of   the   Zoological  Society  of  London. — Supplement, 

containing  Additions  received  in  1872,  1873,  and  1874.     8vo. 

1875.  Price  Is. 

List  of  the  Vertebrated  Animals  now  or  lately  Living  in  the  Gardens 

of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London.     (Sixth  Edition.)     Cloth. 

8vo.     1877.  Price  3s.  6d. 

List  of  the  Vertebrated  Animals  now  or  lately  Living  in  the  Gardens 

of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London.    (Seventh  Edition.)    Cloth. 

8vo.     1879.  Price  3s.  6d. 

List  of  the  Vertebrated  Animals  now  or  lately  Living  in  the  Gardens 

of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London. — First  Supplement,  con- 
taining Additions  received  in  1879.  8vo.  1880.  Price  Is.  Qd. 
List  of  the  Vertebrated  Animals  now  or  lately  Living  in  the  Gardens 

of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London.    (Eighth  Edition.)    Cloth. 

8vo.     1883.  Price  3s.  6d. 

List  of  the  Vertebrated  Animals  now  or  lately  Living  in  the  Gardens 

of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London.     (Ninth  Edition.)     8vo. 

1896.  *  Out  of  print.  Price  4s.  6d. 

THE^OOLOGICAL  RECORD. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  the  years  1864-1893.  Thirty  volumes. 
8vo.  Price  £9  10s.,  Net. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-first,  Being  Records  of 
Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1894.  Edited 
(for  the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by  David  Shakp,  Esq., 
M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.     London,  1895.     8vo.  Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-second,  Being  Records  of 
Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1895,  Edited 
(for  the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by  David  Shakp,  Esq,, 
M,A.,  r,R.S,,  F.Z.S.     London,  1896.     8vo.  Price  30s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-third.  Being  Records  of 
Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1896.  Edited 
(for  the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by  David  Sharp,  M.A., 
F.R.S.,  F.Z,S.,  &c,     London,  1897.     8vo.  Price  30s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-fourth.  Being  Records  of 
Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1897.  Edited 
(for  the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by  David  Shaep,  M.A., 
F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &c,     London,  1898,     8vo,  Price  30s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-fifth,  Being  Records  of 
Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1898.  Edited 
(for  the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by  David  Shakp,  M.A., 
F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &G.     London,  1899.     8vo.  Price  30s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-sixth.  Being  Records  of 
Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1899.  Edited 
(for  the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by  David  Sharp,  M.A., 
F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &G.     London,  1900.     8vo.  Price  30s. 

Catalogue  of  the  Library  of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London. 
(Fourth  Edition.)     Cloth,  8vo.     1887.  Price  4s. 

These  publications  may  be  obtained  at  the  Society's  Office 
(5  Hanover  Square,  ^V-),  d  Messrs.   Longmans'  {Paternoster  Roi 


THE    ZOOLOGICAL    RECORD. 


oJ<Ko 


'PHE  object  of  the  Zoological  Record  is  to  give,  by  means  of  an 
annua]  Yolume,  complete  lists  of  the  Works  and  Publications 
relating  to  Zoology  in  all  its  branches  that  have  appeared  during 
the  year  preceding  the  issue  of  the  Volume  ;  together  with  full 
information  as  to  the  points  they  deal  with,  arranged  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  serve  as  an  Index  to  the  literature  of  Zoology  in  all 
parts  of  the  globe,  and  thus  to  form  a  repertory  which  will  retain 
its  value  for  the  Student  in  future  years. 

The  '  Zoological  Record '  is  published  for  the  Society  by  Messrs. 
Gurney  and  Jackson  at  the  price  of  30s.  per  volume.  But  all 
Members  of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London  have  the  privilege 
of  receiving  it,  including  the  cost  of  delivery  (within  the  United 
Kingdom),  at  a  subscription  price  of  20s.  per  annum.  This  Sub- 
scription is  due  on  the  1st  of  July  in  every  year,  but  the  privilege 
of  Subscription  is  forfeited  unless  the  amount  be  paid  before  the 
1st  of  December  following. 

The  Zoological  Society,  having  purchased  the  entire  stock  of 
the  'Zoological  Record,'  are  able  to  supply  complete  sets  of  the 
first  thirty  volumes  at  the  price  of  £9  10s.  Yolumes  of  any 
single  year  (exclusive  of  the  last  five  volumes  and  Yol.  6)  can 
likewise  be  supplied  at  10s.  per  volume. 

Members  of  the  Society  wishing  to  subscribe  to  the  '  Record ' 
are  requested  to  apply  at  this  office  for  a  Form,  to  be  returned 
when  filled  up  and  signed  by  the  subscriber.  In  order  to  facilitate 
the  payment  of  the  subscription,  a  Banker's  Order  Porm  is  also 
furnished  to  those  who  prefer  that  mode  of  payment.  This  order, 
when  filled  up  and  signed,  should  be  sent  to  the  Society's  office  for 
registration ;  it  wiU  then  be  sent  to  the  Agents  named  therein. 

Learned  Societies  and  Institutions  and  members  of  the  former 

Zoological  Record  Association   are  permitted  to  subscribe  to  the 

'  Record '  on  the  same  conditions  as  are  accorded  to  Members  of 

the  Zoological  Society. 

P.  L.  SCLATER, 

Secretary. 
October,  1901. 

Zoological  Society  or  London, 
3  Hanover  Squark,  W. 


LIST  OF  VOLUMES  or  the  'ZOOLOGICAL  EECOED.' 


.  The  Eecord  of  Zoological  Literature,  1864.  Volume  First. 
Edited  by  Albert  C.  L.  G.  Gunthek,  M.A.,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  P.Z.S.,  &c. 
London,  1865.     Price  10*. 

The  Record  of  Zoological  Literature,  1865.  Volume  Second. 
Edited  by  Albert  C.  L.  G.  Gunther,  M.A.,  M.T).,  Ph.D.,  E.Z.S.,&c. 
London,  1866.     Price  10s. 

The  Record  of  Zoological  Literature,  1866.  Volume  Third. 
Edited  by  Albert  C.  L.  G.  GtiNiHEK,  M.A.,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S., 
F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1867.     Price  10s. 

The  Record  of  Zoological  Literature,  1867.  Volume  Fourth. 
Edited  by  Albert  C.  L.  G.  GiJnther,  M.A.,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S., 
F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1868.     Price  10s. 

The  Record  of  Zoological  Literature,  1868.  Volume  Fifth. 
Edited  by  Albert  C.  L.  G.  Gunther,  M.A.,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S., 
F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1869.     Price  10s. 

The  Record  of  Zoological  Literature,  1869.  Volume  Sixth. 
Edited  by  Albert  C.  L.  G.  Gijnther,  M.A.,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S., 
F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1870.     Price  30s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1870  ;  being  Volume  Seventh  of  the 
Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Alfred  Kewton,  M.A., 
F.R.S.,  F.L.S.,  V.P.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1871.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1871 ;  being  Volume  Eighth  of  the 
Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Alfred  Newtojst,  M.A., 
F.R.S.,  F.L.S.,  V.P.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1873.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1872  ;  being  Volume  Ninth  of  the 
Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Alfred  Newton,  M.A., 
F.R.S.,  F.L.S.,  V.P.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1874.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1873 ;  being  Volume  Tenth  of  the 
Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edward  Caldwell 
Rye,  F.Z.S.     London,  1875.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1874 ;  being  Volume  Eleventh  of 
the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edward  Caldwell 
Rte,  F.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London,  1876.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1875  ;  being  Volume  Twelfth  of  the 
Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edward  Caldwell  Rye, 
F.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London,  1877.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1876 ;  being  Volume  Thirteenth  of 
the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edward  Caldwell 
Rye,  F.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London,  1878.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1877 ;  being  Volume  Fourteenth  of 
the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edward  Caldwell 
Rye,  F.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London,  1879.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1878 ;  being  Volume  Fifteenth  of 
the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edward  Caldwell 
Rye,  F.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London,  ]  880.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1 879 ;  being  Volume  Sixteenth  of 
the  Record  of  Zoolgical  literature.  Edited  by  Edward  Caldayell 
Rye,  F.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London   1881.     Price  10s. 


The  Zoological  Record  for  1880  ;  being  Volume  Seventeenth  of 
the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edwaed  Caldwell 
Rye,  E.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London,  1881.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1881 ;  being  Volume  Eighteenth  of 
the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edwaed  Caldwell 
Rye,  E.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London,  1882.     Price  10*. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1882  ;  being  Volume  Nineteenth  of 
the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edwaed  Caldwell 
Rye,  E.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London,  1883.     Price  10*. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1883 ;  being  Volume  Twentieth  of 
the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Edwaed  Caldwell 
Rye,  E.Z.S.,  M.E.S.     London,  1884.     Price  10*. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1 884 ;  being  Volume  the  Twenty- 
first  of  the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  F.  Jepeeey 
Bell,  M.A.     London,  1885.     Price  10*. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1885  ;  being  Volume  the  Twenty- 
second  of  the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  F.  Jeffrey 
Bell,  M.A.     London,  1886.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1886 ;  being  Volume  the  Twenty- 
third  of  the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Feank  E. 
Beddaed,  M.A.,  F.Z.8.     London,  1887.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1887 ;  being  Volume  the  Twenty- 
fourth  of  the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Feank  E. 
Beddaed,  M.A.,  F.Z.S.     London,  1888.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1888  ;  being  Volume  the  Twenty- 
fifth  of  the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Feank  E. 
Beddaed,  M.A.,  F.Z.S.     London,  1890.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1889 ;  being  Volume  the  Twenty- 
sixth  of  the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Feank  E. 
Beddaed,  M.A.,  F.Z.S.     London,  1890.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record  for  1890  ;  being  Volume  the  Twenty- 
seventh  of  the  Record  of  Zoological  Literature.  Edited  by  Feank 
E.  Beddaed,  M.A.,  F.Z.S.     London,  1892.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Twenty-eighth  ;  being 
Records  of  Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1891. 
By  J.  A.  Thomson,  R.  Lydekker,  R.  Bowdler  Sharpe,  G.  A.  Boulenger, 
W.  A.  Herdman,  B.  B.  Woodward,  C.  Warburton,  R.  I.  Pocock, 
D.  Sharp,  E.  A.  Minchin,  A.  Willev,  and  S.  J.  Hickson.  Edited  by 
D.  Shaep,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1892.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Twenty-ninth ;  being 
Records  of  Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1892. 
By  J.  A.  Thomson,  R.  Lydekker,  R.  Bowdler  Sharpe,  G.  A.  Boulenger, 
W.  A.  Herdman,  B.  B.  Woodward,  R.  I.  Pocock,  D.  Sharp,  F.  A. 
Bather,  Florence  Buchanan,  S.  J.  Hickson,  and  R.  Hanitsch.  Edited 
by  D.  Shaep,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1893.     Price  10s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirtieth  ;  being  Records 
of  Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1893.  By  J.  A. 
Thomson,  R.  Lydekker,  R.  Bowdler  Sharpe,  G.  A.  Boulenger,  W^.  A, 
Herdman,  B.  B.  Woodward,  R.  I.  Pocock,  D.  Sharp,  F.  A.  Bather. 
Florence  Buchanan,  S.  J.  Hickson,  and  R.  Hanitsch.  Edited  by 
D.  Shaep,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1894.     Price  10s. 


The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-first ;  being 
Records  of  Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1894. 
By  J.  A.  Thomson,  R.  Lydekker,  R,  Rowdier  Sharpe,  G.  A.  Boulenger, 
W.  A.  Herdman,  B.  B.  Woodward,  D.  Sharp,  F.  A.  Bather,  Florence 
Buchanan,  and  R.  Hanitsch.  Edited  (for  the  Zoological  Society  of 
London)  by  D.  Shaep,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &c.  London,  1895. 
Price  10*. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-second ;  being 
Records  of  Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1895. 
By  J.  A.  Thomson,  R.  Lydekker,  R,  Bowdler  Sharpe,  G.  A.  Boulenger, 
W.  A.  Herdman,  B.  B.  Woodward,  R.  I.  Poeock,  D.  Sharp,  F.  A. 
Bather,  Florence  Buchanan,  R.  T.  Giinther,  R.  von  Lendenfeld, 
W.  F.  Hume,  and  F,  Chapman.  Edited  (for  the  Zoological  Society 
of  London)  by  D.  Shaep,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &c.  London,  1896. 
Price  30s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-third ;  being 
Records  of  Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1896. 
By  J.  A.  Thomson,  R.  Lydekker,  R.  Bowdler  Sharpe,  G.  A.  Boulenger, 
W.  A.  Herdman,  B.  B.  Woodward,  A.  W.  Brown,  D.  Sharp,  Florence 
Buchanan,  R.  T.  Giinther,  and  R.  von  Lendenfeld.  Edited  (for 
the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by  David  Shaep,  M.A,,  F.R.S,, 
F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1897.     Price  30s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-fourth ;  being 
Records  of  Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1897. 
By  J.  A.  Thomson,  R.  Lydekkei,  R.  Bowdler  Sharpe,  G.  A.  Boulenger, 
W.  A.  Herdman,  E.  R.  Sykes,  E.  A.  Smith,  G.  C.  Crick,  A.  W. 
Brown,  D.  Sharp,  F.  A.  Bather,  Florence  Buchanan,  and  R.  von 
Lendenfeld.  Edited  (for  the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by  David 
Sharp,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1898.     Price  '30s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirty-fifth ;  being  Records 
of  Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1898.  By  J.  A. 
Thomson,  R.  Lydekker,  R.  Bowdler  Sharpe,  G.  A.  Boulenger,  W.  A. 
Herdman,  E.  R.  Sykes,  E.  A.  Smith,  G.  C.  Crick,  A.  W.  Brown, 
D.  Sharp,  F.  A.  Bather,  Florence  Buchanan,  R.  T.  Giinther,  and 
R.  von  Lendenfeld.  Edited  (for  the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by 
David  Shaep,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &c.    London,  1899.     Price  30s. 

The  Zoological  Record,  Volume  the  Thirth-sixth  ;  being  Records 
of  Zoological  Literature  relating  chiefly  to  the  year  1899.  By 
J.  A.  Thomson,  R.  Lydekker,  R.  Bowdler  Sharpe,  G.  A.  Boulenger, 
W.  A.  Herdman,  E.  R.  Sykes,  E.  A.  Smith,  G.  C.  Crick,  A.  Willey, 
A.  W.  Brown,  D.  Sharp,  F.  A.  Bather,  and  R.  von  Lendenfeld. 
Edited  (for  the  Zoological  Society  of  London)  by  David  Shaep,  M.A., 
F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.,  &c.     London,  1900.  Price  30s. 


These  publications  may  be  obtained  at  the  Society's  Office 
(3  Hanover  Square,  W.),  of  Messrs.  Gueney  akd  Jackson  (Pater- 
noster Mow,  E.G.),  or  through  any  bookseller. 


LIST    OF    INSTITUTIONS 

TO    WHICH 

COPIES  OF  THE  SOCIETY'S  PUBLICATIONS  AEE  PEESENTED 


AFRICA. 

The  South- African  Museum,  Cape  Town. 

The  South-African  Philosophical  Society,  Cape  Town. 

The  Museum,  Durban,  Natal. 

AMERICA,  SOUTH. 

The  National  Museum,  Buenos  Ayres. 

The  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Santiago,  Chili. 

The  Museum  of  La  Plata,  La  Plata,  Buenos  Ayres. 

AUSTRALASIA. 

The  Royal  Society  of  Tasmania,  Hobart. 

The  Zoological  and  Acclimatization  Society  of  Victoria,  Melbourne. 

The  Linnean  Society  of  New  South  Wales,  Sydney. 

The  Royal  Society  of  New  South  Wales,  Sydney. 

The  New-Zealand  Listitute,  Wellington. 

AUSTRIA. 

The  Hungarian  National  Museum,  Budapest. 
The  Imperial  Academy  of  Sciences,  Vienna. 
The  Zoological  and  Botanical  Society,  Vienna. 

BELGIUM. 

The  Congo  Free  State  Museum,  Tervueren,  Brussels. 
The  Entomological  Society  of  Belgium,  Brussels. 
The  Malacologieal  Society  of  Belgium,  Brussels. 
The  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  Brussels. 
The  Royal  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Brussels. 

BRITISH  INDIA. 

The  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  Calcutta. 
The  Geological  Survey  of  India,  Calcutta. 
The  Indian  Museum,  Calcutta. 

CANADA  (DOMINION  OP). 

The  McGill  College,  Montreal.    . 

The  Geological  Survey  of  Canada,  Ottawa. 

The  University  of  Toronto,  Toronto. 


CHINA. 

The  China  Branch  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  Shanghai. 

EAST   INDIES. 
The  Eoyal  Society  of  the  Dutch  East  Indies,  Batavia. 

FRANCE. 

The  Linnean  Society  of  Normandy,  Caen. 

The  Agricultural  Society,  Lyons. 

The  Entomological  Society  of  France,  Paris. 

The  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Paris. 

The  National  Society  of  Acclimatization,  Paris. 

The  Zoological  Society  of  France,  Paris. 

GERMANY. 

The  Royal  Prussian  Academy  of  Sciences,  Berlin. 

The  Society  of  Friends  of  Natural  History,  Berlin. 

The  Natural-History  Union  for  Rhineland  and  Westphalia,  Bonn. 

The  Senckenbergian  Society,  Frankfort-on-Main. 

The  New  Zoological  Society,  Frankfort-on-Main. 

The  Natural  History  Society,  Freiburg-in-Breisgau. 

The  Royal  Society  of  Sciences,  Gottingen. 

The    Imperial     Leopoldino-Carolinian    Academy    of     Naturalists, 

Halle. 
The  Natural-History  Society,  Halle. 
The  Natural-History  Union,  Hamburg. 
The  Medical  and  Natural-History  Society,  Jena. 
The  Royal  Bavarian  Academy  of  Sciences,  Munich. 
The  Union  for  Natural  History  of  Wiirtemberg,  Stuttgardt. 

GREAT   BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND. 

The  Belfast  Natural  History  and  Philosoj)hica]  Society,  Belfast. 

The  Philosophical  Society,  Cambridge. 

The  Royal  Dublin  Society,  Dublin. 

The  Royal  Irish  Academy,  Dublin. 

The  Royal  Physical  Society,  Edinburgh. 

The  Royal  Society,  Edinburgh. 

The  Free  Public  Library  and  Museum,  Liverpool. 

The  Athenaeum  Club,  London. 

The  British  Museum  of  Natural  History,  London. 

The  Entomological  Society,  London. 

The  Geological  Society,  London, 

The  King's  College  Library,  London. 

The  Linnean  Society,  London. 

The  London  Instituiion. 


The  E.05-al  College  of  Physicians,  London. 

The  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  London. 

The  Eoyal  Geographical  Society,  London. 

The  Eoyal  Institution,  London. 

The  Royal  Society,  London. 

The  University  College,  London. 

The  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society,  Manchester 

The  Owens  College,  Manchester. 

The  Natural  History  Society,  N'ewcastle-on-Tyne. 

The  Plymouth  Institution  and  Devon  and  Cornwall  Natural-History 

Society,  Plymouth. 
The  Marine  Biological  Laboratory,  Plymouth. 
The  Yorkshire  Philosophical  Society,  York. 

HOLLAND. 

The  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  Amsterdam, 
The  Royal  Zoological  Society,  Amsterdam. 
The  Dutch  Society  of  Sciences,  Haarlem. 
The  Dutch  Entomological  Union,  The  Hague. 
The  Royal  Museum  of  the  Netherlands,  Leyden, 

ITALY. 

The  Royal  Institute  of  Superior  Studies,  Florence. 

The  Civil  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Genoa, 

The  Italian  Society  of  Natural  Sciences,  Milan. 

The  Zoological  Station,  Naples. 

The  Royal  Academy  of  the  Lincei,  Rome. 

The  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  Turin. 

JAPAN. 
The  Science  College  of  the  Imperial  University,  Tokyo. 

RUSSIA. 

The  Society  of  Naturalists,  JurjefF  (Dorpat). 
The  Society  of  Sciences  of  Finland,  Helsingfors. 
The  Imperial  Society  of  Naturalists,  Moscow. 
The  Entomological  Society  of  Russia,  St.  Petersburg. 
The  Imperial  Academy  of  Sciences,  St.  Petersburg. 

SCANDINAVIA. 

The  Bergen  Museum,  Bergen. 
The  Society  of  Sciences  of  Christiania,  Christiania. 
The  Royal  Danish  Society  of  Sciences,  Copenhagen. 
The  Royal  Swedish  Academy  of  Sciences,  Stockholm. 
The  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  Upsala, 


SPAIN. 
The  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  Madrid. 

SWITZERLAND. 

The  Philosophical  and  Natural-History  Society,  Geneva. 
The  Yaud  Society  of  Natural  Sciences,  Lausanne. 
The  Society  of  Natural  Sciences,  Neuchatel. 
The  Natural-History  Society,  Zurich. 

UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA. 

The  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History,  Boston. 

The  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

The  Field  Columbian  Museum,  Chicago. 

The  niinois  State  Laboratory  of  Natural  History,  Illinois. 

The  American  Journal  of  Science,  Newhaven. 

The  American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  New  York. 

The  New- York  Academy  of  Sciences,  New  York. 

The  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  Philadelphia. 

The  American  Philosophical  Society,  Philadelphia. 

The  Entomological  Society,  Philadelphia. 

The  Essex  Institute,  Salem,  Mass. 

The  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C. 

The  United  States  Fish  Commission,  Washington,  D.C. 

The  United-States  Geological  Survey,  Washington,  D.C. 

The  United-States  National  Museum,  Washington,  D.C. 

WEST  INDIES. 

The  Institute  of  Jamaica,  Kingston. 


The  Publications  (except  in  special  cases)  are  sent  out  direct  as 
soon  as  they  are  issued.  It  is  requested  that  they  may  be  ac- 
knowledged by  the  return  of  the  form  of  receipt  sent  with  them, 
in  order  that  any  mis-delivery  may  be  brought  to  notice. 

Publications  sent  in  exchange  to  this  Society  should  be  addressed 
to  the  Librarian  at  this  Office.  It  is  requested  that  they  may  be 
sent  direct  by  jyost,  as  much  delay  is  caused  by  their  transmission 
through  booksellers  and  in  other  ways. 

By  order  of  the  Councilj 

P.  L.  SCLATEE, 

Secretary, 
3  Hanover  SqtjapvE,  London,  W., 

October,  1901. 


PROCEEDINGS 


GENERAL  MEETINGS  FOR  SCIENTIFIC  BUSINESS 


ZOOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

1901,  Vol.  II.  (May  to  December). 


May  7,  1901. 


Prof.  Gr.  B.  Howes,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  Vice-President, 
in  the  Chair. 

The  Secretary  read  the  following  report  on  the  additions  made 
to  the  Society's  Menagerie  in  April  1901 : — 

The  registered  additions  to  the  Society's  Menagerie  during  the 
month  of  April  were  200  in  number.  Of  these  52  Avere  acquired 
by  presentation,  51  by  purchase,  2  were  born  in  the  Gardens,  and 
95  were  received  on  deposit.  The  total  number  of  departures 
during  the  same  period,  by  death  and  removals,  was  156. 

His  Majesty  The  King  has  ordered  some  animals,  lately  kept  at 
Windsor,  to  be  transferred  to  the  Society's  Gardens  and  placed 
under  our  care.  Amougst  these  is  the  beautiful  female  Grevy's 
Zebra  (Equus  grevyi)  which  was  presented  (along  with  a  male  of 
the  same  animal)  to  Her  late  Majesty  Queen  Victoria  in  August 
1899,  and  was  subsequently  removed  from  the  Gardens  (where 
they  were  temporarily  deposited)  to  Windsor.  This  animal  is  now 
in  most  perfect  health  and  condition,  and  through  the  kind  efforts 
of  Lt.-Col.  Harrington,  H.B.M.  Representative  in  Abyssinia, 
we  are  hoping  to  obtain  a  youug  male  of  the  same  species. 

I  may  also  call  attention  to  two  beautiful  birds — a  Rufous- 
necked  Scimitar  Babbler  (Pomatorhinus  ruficollis)  and  a  Golden- 
backed    Woodpecker     {Brachyjiternus    aurantins) — presented    on 

Pboc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II,  No.  I.  1 


2  ME.  C.  D.  SHEEBOE.N  OK  THE  '  INDEX  AKIMALIUM.'      [May  7, 

April  nth  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Harper,  F.Z.S.,  who  continues  to  send 
lis  most  interesting  additions  to  our  collection  of  Indian  Birds ; 
and  to  a  fine  young  male  Eland,  bred  at  Woburu,  and  presented  to 
us  on  April  26th  by  H.Gr.  the  Duke  o£  Bedford,  which  will  make 
an  excellent  match  for  our  young  female  purchased  in  April  1899. 


Mr.  Sclater  stated  that  Mr.  E.  Bidweli  had  kindly  pointed  out 
to  him  the  following  passage  in  Ludolphus's  work^  on  Abyssinia, 
published  in  1682,  which  apparently  referred  to  G-revy's  Zebra 
{Equus  grevyi) : — 

"  But  there  is  a  beast  which  is  called  Zecora,  which  for  beauty 
exceeds  all  the  four-footed  creatures  in  the  World.  They  of  Congo 
give  it  the  name  of  Zebra.  This  creature  is  about  the  bigness  of 
a  Mule,  and  is  brought  out  of  the  woods  of  Habessinia,  and  the 
countries  possessed  by  the  Galans,  and  easily  tam'd.  A  present 
of  great  esteem  and  frequently  given  to  the  Kings  of  Habessinia. 
TeJIez  briefly  desci'ibes  him  thus, — 'A  Circle  of  black  colour 
encompasses  his  Loyns  like  a  girdle ;  adjoining  to  which,  Nature 
has  pencilled  out  several  others,  some  broader,  some  narrower, 
some  black,  and  some  of  a  bright  shining  Ash -colour ;  with  so 
much  Elegancy  and  order,  as  no  Painter's  Art  can  equalize.  His 
ears  are  the  only  thing  that  disfigures  him  ;  being  of  a  dispro- 
portionable  length :  for  which  reason  he  is  called  by  the  Portugals 
"  Burro  do  Matto  "  (though  improperly)  the  wild  Ass.'  But  you 
may  guess  at  bis  beauty,  by  his  price,  for  King  Susneus  having 
given  one  of  these  beasts  to  the  Turkish  Basha  of  Suaqena,  be 
sold  the  same  for  Two  thousand  Venetian  Pieces,  to  a  certain 
Indian,  that  bought  him  for  a  present  to  the  great  Mogul." 


Mr.  C.  Davies  Sherborn,  F.Z.S.,  remarked  that  it  had  been  his 
privilege  to  bring  before  the  Society,  from  time  to  time,  the 
progress  of  the  '  Index  Animalium.'  He  had  now  to  inform  the 
Society  that  the  Index  was  completed  from  the  1st  of  January, 
1758,  to  the  31st  of  December,  1800.  This  portion  of  the  manu- 
script was  ready  for  press,  and  negotiations  with  the  Cambridge 
University  Press  w^ere  in  progress  for  printing  it. 

One  of  the  chief  difficulties  that  the  compiler  had  to  contend 
with  was  the  inaccessibility  of  much  of  the  literature.  With  the 
exception  of  about  twenty  books,  which  from  their  titles  might 
possibly  contain  specific  names,  this  difficulty  had  been  successfully 
grappled  with,  either  with  the  help  of  those  interested  in  the  work 
or  by  purchase.  He  alluded  to  the  impossibility  of  accurate  com- 
parison of  various  editions,  copies  of  which  were  in  different 
institutions,  and  lamented  the  fact  that  even  in  the  British 
Museum  (Nat.  Hist.),  where  the  collection  of  books  was  very  com- 
plete, this  matter  of  editions  had  not  been  fully  grasped.     He  had 

1  LuDOLPiius,  J.  A  New  History  of  Ethiopia,  being  a  full  and  Accurate 
Description  of  the  Kingdom  of  Abyssinia  ....  called  the  Empire  of  Prester 
John.  By  the  Learned  Job  Ludolphus.  Made  English  by  J.  P.  Gent. 
Plates.     Folio.     London,  1682, 


P.Z,S.1901,vol.]l.Pl.]. 


H.H.  JolixvstorL  pirac 
P.  J.STmtlitK, 


(xediicaoL  ( 


THE    OKAPI. 

(OKAPIA  JOHT^rSTONl) 

!  }\alf  iVom.  Sir  Harry  JoKriston's   orjg"ina-l  painting  ) 


JVli.i:vt  QTr\.  Bi-  o  s  .  im.p . 


190].]  Oj!f  A  ISfEW  AFRICAK  MAMMAL.  3 

himself  been  instrumental  in  purchasing  many  hundreds  of  volumes 
dealing  with  systematic  zoology,  published  before  1800,  and  these 
were  now  in  public  libraries  and  therefore  accessible  to  zoologists. 
Instancing  Buffon's  '  Histoire  Naturelle,'  Mr.  Sherborn  said  that 
he  had  purchased  no  less  than  six  editions,  published  before  the 
close  of  the  eighteenth  century,  all  of  which  included  specific 
names  of  importance  to  systematists,  and  none  of  which  had 
previously  been  seen  in  this  country.  These  and  many  other 
books  were  essential  to  proper  work. 

A  great  deal  of  manuscript  had  been  accumulated  towards  the 
1801-1900  portion  of  the  Index,  but  as  it  was  beyond  the  powers 
of  one  man  to  deal  with  the  vast  literature  of  the  last  hundred 
years,  progress  would  necessarily  be  slow  unless  further  assistance 
were  forthcoming.  Mr.  Sherborn  hoped  that  the  first  volume 
would  be  of  service  to  zoologists,  as  that  would  no  doubt  be  an 
incentive  to  the  further  support  desirable.  This  part  1,  1758- 
1800,  had  taken  him  over  eight  years  to  compile,  arrange,  and  get 
ready  for  press. 

Dr.  W.  G.  Eidewood,  T.Z.S.,  exhibited  and  made  remarks  on 
a  series  of  microscopic  preparations  of  the  hairs  of  Antelopes, 
Griraffe,  Zebra,  and  the  so-called  Eqims  jolmstoni,  pointing  out 
that  the  hairs  of  the  last-named  animal  were  similar  to  those  of 
the  Giraffe  as  well  as  those  of  the  Zebra,  but  differed  from  those 
of  the  Antelopes. 

Mr.  Sclater  exhibited  an  original  water-colour  painting  (Plate  I.) 
made  by  Sir  Harry  Johnston,  K.C.B.,  F.Z.S.,  of  the  new  Mammal  \ 
which  he  had  discovered  in  the  forest  on  the  west  side  of  the  SemJiki 
Eiver,  on  the  south-western  boundary  of  Uganda,  and  portions  of 
the  skin  of  which  had  been  already  laid  before  the  Society  (see 
P.  Z.  S.  1900,  pp.  774,  950 ;  1901,  vol.  i.  p.  50). 

Mr.  Sclater  read  the  following  extracts  from  a  letter  addressed 
to  him  by  Sir  Harry  Johnston  on  the  subject,  dated  Eldama 
E-avine,  Uganda  Protectorate,  31st  March,  1901  : — 

"  I  am  sending  you  by  this  mail  a  water-colour  painting  I  have 
made  of  the  new  animal.  I  have  done  this  painting  with  the 
utmost  care  from  the  skin  while  it  was  in  a  fresh  condition.  I 
have  used  the  skull  to  assist  me  in  delineating  the  exact  shape  of 
the  head.  I  have  also  questioned  various  Cougo  natives  who  are 
with  me  as  to  the  shape  and  appearance  of  the  animal,  and  the 
result  is  this  drawing,  which  I  think  will  be  found  to  be  a  fairly 
faithful  representation  of  this  wonderful  new  creature. 

"  I  wish  to  impress  on  you  this,  that  the  colours  in  the  drav/ing 
are  absolutely  not  exaggerated  in  any  way  in  brightness.  I  say 
this,  because  the  skin  may  have  a  dulled  and  faded  appearance 
when  it  reaches   England.      I   scarcely   remember   ever   coming 

^  See  below  (June  18tb)  for  the  origin  of  the  scientific  name  now  applied 
to  this  animal. — P.  L.  S. 


4  MR.  P.  L.  SCLATBR  OK  A  [May  7, 

across  the  skin  of  a  mammal  which  came  so  near  to  having  actual 
bright  red  in  it,  I  think  you  will  agree  with  me  that  the  general 
coloration  is  of  the  most  extraordinary  kind,  and  that  if  the  skin 
were  not  there  as  evidence,  it  would  be  thought  to  be  an  in- 
vention of  my  imagination.  If  you  examine  the  skin,  however, 
you  will  see  that  my  drawing  is  correct  in  the  tiniest  details  of 
the  stripes.  In  my  drawing  I  have  made  the  tail  a  trifle  longer, 
because  from  information  received  I  gathered  that  the  tail  of 
the  specimen  had  suffered  a  little  at  its  extremity.  I  am  also 
told  that  the  animal  having  been  roughly  skinned,  some  of  the 
skin  on  the  inner  side  of  the  legs  and  belly  is  absent. 

"  These  missing  portions  are  not  considerable,  and  were  of  a 
creamy-white  colour,  except  in  regard  to  the  stomach  and  chest, 
of  which  the  fur  is  blackish-brown.  The  missing  hoofs  were 
bluish-black." 

Mr.  Sclater  remarked  that  there  could  now  be  no  doubt  that 
Sir  Harry  Johnston  had  made  a  most  important  discovery.  The 
animal  portrayed  in  the  drawing  (Plate  I.)  was,  of  course,  not 
a  Zebra,  nor  even  a  member  of  the  family  Equidce.  "What  should 
be  its  proper  position  it  would  only  be  possible  to  say  when  the 
skin  and  two  skulls,  recently  obtained  by  Sir  Harry,  were  received 
in  this  country.  It  was  probable,  however,  that  Sir  Harry  was 
not  far  wrong  when,  in  one  of  his  letters,  he  called  it  a  Hellado- 
thenum,  and  that  it  would  be  found  to  be  allied  to  that  or  to  one 
of  the  other  extinct  forms  of  Mammals  allied  to  the  G-iraffe. 

The  leading  facts  as  yet  known  concerning  this  new  and  extra- 
ordinary discovery  had  been  fully  given  in  an  article  published  in 
'  The  Times '  of  this  day,  from  which  the  following  extracts  were 
read : — 

"  After  sending  home  incomplete  fragments  of  skin  which  he 
obtained  in  situ  from   the  natives  of  the  Congo  forest  near  the 
Semliki  Eiver  (fragments  of  which  were  considered  to  indicate 
the  existence  of  a  new  species  of  Horse,   which  was  tentatively 
named  by  Mr.  Sclater   Equus  jolmstoni),  Sir  Harry   Johnston  has 
at  last  secured,  through  the  kindness  of  the  Belgian  authorities  at 
the  frontier  post  of  Fort  Mbeni,  a  complete  skin  and  two  skulls 
of  this  animal,  which  is  now  shown  to  be  not  at  all  a  horse,  but  a 
cloven-hoofed  rimiinant  of  extraordinary  coloration  and  appear- 
ance, which  seemingly  is  either  of  the  extinct  genus  Uelladotherium, 
or   is   some  closely-allied  creature  belonging  to   that  somewhat 
vaguely-defined  group  of  which  the  Giraffe  is  an  exemplar.     The 
skin   and  the  skulls  which   have  been  forwarded  by  Sir  Harry 
Johnston  to  the  British  Museum  were  obtained  by  native  soldiers 
of  the  Congo  Free  State,  in  the  vicinity  of  Fort  Mbeni,  and  were 
very  kindly  presented  to  Sir  Harry  Johnston  by  Mr.  K.  Eriksson, 
a  Swedish  otficer  in  the  service  of  that  State,  who  has  until  recently 
been  the  Commandant  of  Fort  Mbeni.     It  is  to  be  hoped  that 
these  invaluable  specimens  will  reach  London  safely. 

"  We  are  informed  that  the  complete  skin  sent  home  now  shows 
the  animal  to  be  coloured  in  the  most  extraordinary  manner.    The 


1901.]  NEW  AFRICAN  MA.MMAL.  5 

cheeks  of    the  rather   large    head  are   yellowish-white,    and  the 
tapering  muzzle  is  blackish-brown.     The  foi'ehead  is  a  most  vivid 
red,  narrowing  down  into  a  thin  black   line  continued  along  the 
ridge  of  the  nose  to  the  nostrils.     The  long  ass-like  ears  are  of  a 
deep  reddish-brown,  with  silky  black  fringes.    The  neck,  shoulders, 
stomach,  and  back  are  a  deep  reddish-brown,  which  in  parts  has 
almost  a  crimson  tinge,  and  in  others  becomes  blackish.    The  hind- 
quarters and  hind  legs,  down  to  the  hocks,  and  the  front  legs  from 
the  elbow  to  the  wrist-joint  are  boldly  striped  in  purplish-black 
and  white,  the  white  having  here  and  there  faint  touches  of  orange. 
The  hind  legs  from  the  hock  downwards  are  of  a  creamy  colour. 
The  front  legs  are  also  cream-colour,  but  a  bold   black  line  rans 
dowji  the  front  of  the  leg  in  an  oblique  manner.     The  fetlocks  of 
all  four  feet  are  black  and  cream-colour.    The  tail  is  bright  reddish- 
brown,  with  a  black  tuft  at  the  end.     There  are  no  horns,  but  it 
may   be  seen   from  the  skulls  that  far  back  in  its  history  this 
creature  possessed  three  horn-cores  similar  to  those  of  the  Giraffe, 
but  that  by  long  disuse  these  horn-cores  have  degenerated  into 
rounded  bumps  on  the  skull,  two  of  them  being  situated  a  little 
above  the  eyes,  and  one  at  the  beginning  of  the  nasal  bones.     On 
the  skin,  just  over  the  two  bigger  bumps,  are  two  tiny  and  comical 
little  twists  of  hair,  which  I'e present  all  that  remains  outwardly 
of  horns  or  horn-cores.     The  animal  stands  slightly  higher  at  the 
withers  than  at  the  hindquarters,  but  its  neck  is  not  proportionately 
longer  than  that  of  a  horse.     The  head  is  rather  large  in  propor- 
tion to  the  body,  and  in  outline  slightly  resembles  the  head  of  a 
Tapir.     The  nostrils  are  two  long  slits,  completely  covered  with 
hair,  and  resembling  the  nostrils  of  the  Giraiie.    The  lips  apparently 
taper  to  a  point.     There  are,   of  course,  no  front   teeth  in  the 
upper  jaw,  as  the  animal  is  a  true  E-uminant.     The  front  teeth  in 
the  lower  jaw  are  so  small  and  feeble  as  to  suggest  the  idea  that 
the  creature,  like  the  Giraffe,  must  possess  a  prehensile  tongue  for 
furnishing  food  for  the  molar  teeth  to  grind.     If  this  is  not  the 
case,  then  the  rather  long  and  prehensile  lips   secure  most  of  the 
animal's  nutriment,  which  consists  of  leaves.     Other  particulars 
will,  no  doubt,  be  furnished  to  us  before  long  by  the  authorities  of 
the  British  Museum,  when  they  are  able  to  examine  the  specimens. 
The  build  of  the  animal  is  rather  heavy  in  the  case  of  the  male. 
The  female  is  said  to  be  much  more  lightly  built,  and  her  skull  is 
considerably  smaller  than  that  of  the  male.     It  is  not  yet  known 
whether  any  difference  of  coloration  exists  between  the  male  and 
female ;  the  natives  say  that  they  differ  only  in  size.     The  same 
authorities  state  that  the  creature  is  found  only  in  the  densest 
parts  of  the  forest,  and  that  it  goes  about  in  pairs  of  male  and 
female.     It  would  seem  to  be  quite  inoffensive,  and  very  easily 
killed.     It  is  ordinarily  captured  in  pitfalls,  and  from  what  Sir 
Harry  Johnston  ascertained  on  the  spot  its  extinction  is  being 
rapidly  carried  out  by  the  natives  of  the  Congo  Tree  State.     Now 
that  this  discovery  has  been  made  by  joint  action  on  the  part  of 
British  and  Belgian  officials,  we  may  look  with  confidence  to  King 


6  MR.  AND  MRS.  PBCKHAM  OK  [May  7, 

Leopold  to  issue  stringent  orders  for  the  protection  of  this 
remarkable  creature.  Its  flesh  is  said  to  be  excellent  eating,  and 
there  is  no  reason  why  an  attempt  should  not  be  made  to  domesti- 
cate it. 

"  At  the  present  time  the  known  habitat  of  the  Okapi  (as  this 
animal  is  called  by  the  natives)  consists  of  the  forests  of  the  Ituri 
and  the  western  banks  of  the  Semliki  in  the  Congo  Tree  State, 
and  the  adjoining  district  of  Mboga  in  the  Uganda  Protectorate." 


The  following  papers  were  read  : — 

1.  On  Spiders  of  the  Family  Attida  found  in  Jamaica. 
By  G.  W.  Peckham  and  E.  Gr.  Peckham  \ 

[Eeceived  April  12,  1901.] 

(Plates  II.-IV.') 

Most  of  the  Spiders  described  in  this  paper  were  collected 
by  us  some  years  ago.  "We  have  also  received  some  specimens 
from  Mr.  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell,  and  from  Mr.  Taylor  of  Kingston. 
Other  Attidse  that  have  been  described  from  Jamaica  are  : — 
Mayjjtusa  melanognathus  Lucas  ;  Saitis  annce  Cockerell,  '  Canadian 
Entomologist,'  p.  343,  1894  ;  AnoTca  peckhamii,  Cockerell,  'Journal 
of  Institute  of  Jamaica,'  vol.  ii.  p.  221,  1893 ;  Zygohallus  suavis 
Peckham,  "  Spiders  of  the  Homalattus  Group,"  Occ.  Papers 
Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  of  Wisconsin,  vol.  ii.  p.  173.  Anoica  moneagua 
Peckham,  "  Spiders  of  the  Marptusa  Group,"  Occ.  Papers 
Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  of  Wisconsin,  vol.  ii.  p.  127,  1894,  is  identical 
with  Anol'a  ^^ecMainu  Cockerell.  The  thirteen  species  now 
described  probably  give  a  fair  idea  of  the  Attid  fauna  of  the 
island.  The  genera  are  like  those  of  Central  and  North  America, 
excepting  Gybele,  which  we  have  from  St.  Vincent,  and  Nilalcantha, 
which  is  new. 

Key  to  the  Attidse  of  Jamaica. 

Males. 

(^Legs  of  the  first,  third,  and  fourth  pairs  nearly  equal ;  cephalo- 
I  thorax  with  red  hairs  and  white  bands  on  the  thoracic  slope 

1  ■{  and  lower  sides  ;  length  5"5-6'5  mm Cybele  grisea. 

I  First  and  fourth,  or  first  and  third,  or  third  and  fourth   legs 

^         plainly  longer  than  the  others    2 

f  Legs  13  4  2;  palpus  blackish,  with  a  fringe  of  very  long  white 

o  J  hairs  on  each  side  to  the  end  of  tarsus  Cybele  albopcdpis. 

1  First  and  fourth  legs  longer  than  the  others    3 

[Third  and  fourth  legs  longer  than  the  others   4 

1  Communicated  by  E.  I.  PococK,  F.Z.S. 

^  For  the  explanation  of  the  Plates,  see  pp.  15,  16. 


p.  Z.S.  1901,  vol.11   PL. 11. 


Bale  it  Daniels  son  L'.' 


NEW  ATTID^   FROM  JAMAICA. 


p.  Z.S.1901,  vol, 11.  PL.m 


Bale  ^Danielsson  L'."]- 


NEW  ATTID^   FROM  JAMAICA. 


p.  Z.S.1901,  vol.11.  PL.  IV. 


Bale  &Damelssoii  L'.4 


NEW  ATTID_^   FROM  JAMAICA. 


1901.]  SPIDERS  FROM  JAMAICA.  7 

/'Legs  14  3  2;  spiders  small  (4'5  mm.),  and  pale  yellow  in  colour, 
with  four  square  black  spots  on  the  eye-region 

Nilakantha  cockerelli. 

Legs  1  4  a  2 ;  small  spiders  (2-3  mm.) ;  palpus  brown,  with  a 

narrow  white  1  ine  on  the  outer  side     Pi-ostheclina  viaria. 

Legs  14  2  3;  small  spiders  (4'5   mm.)  ;    cephalothoras  brown, 
with  white  br.uds  on  sides  and  red  down  on  upper  surface 

and  around  eyes      Anoka  pecJchami. 

3  \  Legs  14  2  3;    small  spiders  (3"5  mm.) ;    abdomen  brown,  en- 
circled with  white,  with  tliree  or  four  pairs  of  white  spots  . . . 

Bendryphantes  i^rudens. 
Legs  14  2  3;  small  spiders  (4-5  mm.) ;  cephalo thorax  and  abdo- 
men bronze-brown  encircled  with  white    Benclryphanii    taylori. 

Legs  14  2  3;    medium-sized  spiders  (8  mm.)  ;    abdomen  with 

median  band  of  dark  rufous  and  white  sides 

MarpUisa  melaiiognathus. 
Legs  14  2  3;  falces  long,  oblique  ;  quadrangle  of  eyes  occupying 
V         more  than  one-half  cephalothorax Zygobcdlus  suavis. 

{ Legs  3  4  12;  length  about  4"5  mm.  ;  cephalothorax  fawn- 
coloured,  with  light  bands  on  sides,  curying  backwards  over 
thorax  to  dorsal  eyes Pellenes  translatus. 

Legs  3  4  12;  body  and  legs  with  crimson  and  green  iridescent 

scales    Prostheclina  perplexa. 

Legs  3  4  12;    abdomen  iridescent,    with   four  velvety   black 

spots     Prostheclina  morgani. 

4'{  Legs  3  4  12;  abdomen  brown,  with  longitudinal,  median,  yellow 

band   Prostheclina  venatoria. 

Legs  4  3  2  1;  cephalothorax  with  red  hairs  and  white  bands  on 

sides    Saitis  (?)  inutilis. 

Legs  4  3  12;  length  about  3'5  mm. ;  cephalothorax  and  abdo- 
men each  with  a  V-shaped  black  mark  ;  palpus  with  terminal 
portion  red-brown,  becoming  black  at  end ;  middle  portion 
*-         with  tuft  of  shining  white  hairs  Saitis  annce. 

Females. 

1  /  Legs  1  423   Anoka  peckhami. 

I  Legs  not  14  23    2 

o  rLegs4  1  23  or  4T  2  3    3 

"lLegsnot41  2  3  or  4  1  23     4 

f  Quadrangle  occupying  plainly  more  than  one-half  of  the  cephalo- 
j  thorax  ;  cephalothorax  plainly  widest  at  the  dorsal  eyes ; 

3;  legs  4  1  2  3     Zygoballus  siiavis. 

I  Quadrangle  occupying  less  than  one-half  of  the  cephalothorax ; 

I  cephalothorax  not  widest  at  dorsal  eyes  ;  legs  4  12  3     

^  Bendryphantes  prudens, 

fLegs43  1  2  orT3  1  2    6 

I  Legs  3  4  12,  3  4T2or34  1  2 6 

f  Spiders  small  (4'5  mm.),  pale  yellow,  with  four  square  black 

I  spots  on  eye-region  ;  legs  43  12    Nilakantha  cockerelli. 

Spiders  large  (9'5  mm.) ;  dorsum  of  abdomen  grey,  with  wavy 

kJ  outlines;  dark  bands  on  sides  ;  legs  4  3  1  2 

'  Marptusa  melanognathus. 

Spiders  small  (4'5  mm.) ;  cephalothorax  with  golden  iridescent 

scales  except  a  white  band  on  thorax  ;  legs  4  3  1  2 

I  Saitis  defl'OCcatiis. 


8  ME.  AND  MES.  PECKHAM  ON  [May  7, 

f  Spiders  covered  with  light  brown  hairs  and  a  few  longer  black 

I  hairs;  34  12 Pellenes  banksi. 

I  Abdomen  brown,  with   a   longitudinal,    median,  yellow  band  ; 

Qj  legs  3  4  1  2    Prostheclina  venatoria. 

\  Abdomen  iridescent,  with  four  velvety  black  spots ;  legs  3  4  12. 

1  Prostheclina  morgani. 
Grreen  and  crimson  iridescent  scales  on  cephalothoras,  abdomen, 

^         and  legs  Prostheclina  perplexa. 

NiLAKANTHA,  n.  gen. 

Small,  pale  spiders. 

The  cephalothorax  is  moderately  high  and  is  widest  and  highest 
behind  the  dorsal  eyes.  The  sides  are  slightly  contracted  in  front 
and  behind.  The  cephalic  part  is  a  little  inclined,  and  the  thorax 
falls  steeply  from  just  behind  the  dorsal  eyes.  The  quadrangle 
of  the  eyes  is  one-third  wider  than  long,  is  a  little  wider  behind 
than  in  front,  and  occupies  one-half  of  the  cephalothorax.  The 
first  row  of  eyes  is  plainly  curved  downward,  the  eyes  being  all 
close  together,  with  the  middle  twice  and  a  half  as  large  as  the 
lateral.  The  second  row  is  nearer  the  first  than  the  third,  and 
the  third  row  is  as  wide  as  the  cephalothorax  at  that  place.  The 
legs  in  the  male  are  1  4  3  2,  and  in  the  female  4  3  12. 

This  genus  resembles,  in  a  general  way,  our  Plexippus  puerjoerns 
Hentz  (Attidae  of  North  America,  p.  33),  but  the  spiders  are 
smaller,  the  curve  of  the  first  row  is  different,  and  the  middle 
eyes  of  this  row  are  larger. 

NiLAKANTHA  COCKEEELLI,  n.  sp.      (Plate  II.  figs.  1-1  g.) 

(S  .  Length  4'5  mm.     Legs  14  3  2,  first  a  little  stoutest. 

2  .  Length  4-5-5-5  mm.     Legs  4  3  12,  first  stoutest. 

This  is  a  small,  pale,  yellow  species,  with  four  square  black 
spots  on  the  eye-region.  The  lateral  eyes  of  the  first  row  and 
the  small  eyes  of  the  second  row  are  upon  the  front  pair  of  spots, 
and  the  dorsal  eyes  on  those  that  are  further  back.  The  clypeus 
and  the  sides  of  the  cephalothorax  are  covered  with  light  yellow 
hairs,  which  are  found  also  in  the  spaces  between  the  four  black 
spots.  The  abdomen  is  marked  with  black  specks,  which  form, 
more  or  less  distinctly,  lines  of  chevrons  over  the  dorsum.  The 
male  has  a  baud  of  yellow  hairs  around  the  front  end  and  the 
sides.  The  falces,  palpi,  and  legs  are  yellow,  a  little  darker  in 
the  male. 

We  have  one  male  and  three  females  from  Moneague  and 
Kingston,  Jamaica. 

This  species  is  named  after  Mr.  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell,  of  Las 
Cruces,  New  Mexico. 

Ctbelb  geisea,  n.  sp.     (Plate  II.  figs.  2-2  e.) 

Length,  cf  5"5-6'5  mm.,  5  6-7  mm. 

Legs,  cJl342;    $4312,  not  very  unequal. 

The   cephalothorax  is  high,   with   the   cephalic  part  inclined. 


1901.]  SPIDERS  FROM  JAMAICA.  9 

while  the  thoracic  falls  very  slightly  in  the  first  third,  and  then 
abruptly.  The  sides  are  vertical  and  nearly  parallel,  there  being 
a  very  slight  widening  behind  the  dorsal  eyes.  The  anterior  eyes 
are  close  together  in  a  straight  row.  They  are  large,  the  lateral 
being  two-thirds  the  size  of  the  middle.  The  second  row  is  about 
halfway  between  the  first  and  the  third,  and  the  third  is  about  as 
wide  as  the  cephalo thorax.  The  quadrangle  of  the  eyes  is  one- 
fourth  wider  than  long,  occupies  one-half  of  the  eephalothorax, 
and  is  equally  wide  in  front  and  behind. 

In  the  male,  the  eephalothorax  is  covered  with  red  hairs, 
excepting  bands  of  white  hairs  on  the  lower  sides,  and  a  white 
median  band  on  the  thoracic  slope,  running  backward  from  the 
third  row  of  eyes.  On  the  abdomen  the  hairs  are  golden-yellow ; 
down  the  middle,  in  the  anterior  half,  is  a  narrow  white  band, 
which  changes,  in  the  posterior  half,  into  a  band  of  white  chevrons. 
A  narrow  white  baud  runs  around  the  anterior  end  and  onto  the 
sides,  curving  upward  and  inward  opposite  the  point  at  which 
the  chevrons  begin.  The  legs  are  pale,  with  the  femur  dark  in 
some  specimens.  The  palpus  has  the  patella  much  elongated, 
nearly  equalling  the  tibia  and  tarsus.  The  patella  and  tibia 
are  flattened  and  rugose  on  the  dorsal  surface,  and  there  is  an 
apophysis  on  the  inner  distal  end  of  the  patella.  There  is  a 
fringe  of  white  hairs  throughout  the  whole  length  of  the  palpus, 
on  the  inner  side.  The  falces  are  as  wide  as  the  middle  eyes 
and  are  transversely  rugose.  In  the  middle,  on  the  outer  edge, 
is  a  small  apophysis  which  is  edged  with  minute  notches,  and 
below  this,  near  the  insertion  of  the  fang,  there  is  a  longer, 
pointed  apophysis.  The  lip  is  narrow,  and  only  half  as  long  as 
the  maxillas,  which  are  notched  on  the  middle  of  the  outer  edge 
and  project  at  the  outer  corner.  The  female  has  golden-yellow 
hairs  on  the  cephalic  plate,  and  has  the  eyes  on  dark  spots. 
There  are  indistinct  bands  of  a  lighter  colour  on  the  sides  and 
down  the  median  line  of  the  thoracic  part.  On  the  abdomen  the 
hairs  are  red,  and  there  is  a  yellowish  band  which  passes  around 
the  front  end  onto  the  sides,  from  which  a  short  projection  runs 
backward  in  the  middle  line.  On  the  middle  dorsum  there  is  a 
white  region  with  wavy  outlines,  which  is  mottled  with  red. 

We  have  numerous  examples  of  both  sexes. 

Ctbele  albopalpis,  n.  sp.     (Plate  II.  figs.  3-3  b.) 

S .  Length  5*5  mm.  Legs  13  4  2,  the  first  plainly  stoutest, 
and  longer  than  the  second  by  the  tarsus  and  half  the  metatarsus. 

The  eephalothorax  is  rather  high,  and  slants  in  both  directions 
from  the  dorsal  eyes,  the  hinder  slope  being  almost  continuous. 
The  anterior  eyes  are  large,  and  form  a  slightly  curved  row,  the 
middle  ones  touching,  and  the  lateral  a  little  separated  from  them. 
The  middle  are  less  than  twice  as  large  as  the  lateral.  The  second 
row  is  about  halfway  between  the  first  and  the  third.  The  dorsal 
eyes  are  large,  and  form  a  row  which  is  as  wide  as   the  cephalo- 


10  MR.  AND  MRS.  PECKHAM  ON  [May  7, 

thorax  at  that  place.  The  sides  of  the  cephalothorax  are  vertical, 
and  are  nearly  parallel,  widening  a  little  in  the  middle.  The 
quadrangle  of  the  eyes  is  plainly  wider  in  front  than  behind,  is 
one-fifth  wider  than  long,  and  occupies  one-half  of  the  cephalo- 
thorax. 

In  our  specimen  the  hairs  are  all  rubbed  from  the  abdomen. 
The  cephalothorax  is  blackish,  with  red  hairs  on  the  eye-region,  a 
white  band  down  the  middle  of  the  thoracic  slope,  and  white  bands 
low  on  the  sides.  Under  alcohol  the  pattern  appears  as  in  the 
drawing.  The  palpus  is  blackish,  v/ith  a  fringe  of  very  long  white 
hairs  on  each  side,  extending  to  the  end  of  the  tarsus.  The  tibia 
is  flattened.  The  first  leg  has  the  femur  and  tibia  reddish,  but 
otherwise  the  legs  are  pale,  with  many  line  black  spines.  The 
falces  are  vertical  and  moderately  stout.  This  species  differs  from 
C.  grisea  in  having  no  apophyses  on  the  falces,  in  the  maxillae, 
which  are  rounded  and  short,  and  in  having  the  patella  of  the 
palpus  shorter  than  the  tibia,  instead  of  much  longer. 

We  have  a  single  male  of  this  species. 

Saitis  (?)  inutilis,  n.  sp.     (Plate  III.  figs.  4-4  6.) 

S '  Length  3"5  mm.  Legs  4  3  2  1,  all  slender,  and  decreasing 
very  gradually  in  length  from  the  fourth  to  the  first.  Second 
longer  than  first  by  tarsus. 

The  cephalothorax  is  rather  high,  and  falls  distinctly,  in  both 
directions,  from  the  dorsal  eyes.  Its  widest  point  is  plainly  at 
the  front  end,  the  sides  contracting  gradually  behind.  The  quad- 
rangle of  the  eyes  occupies  about  one-half  of  the  cephalothorax. 
It  is  only  one-fifth  wider  than  long,  and  is  a  very  little  wider  in 
front  than  behind.  The  anterior  eyes  are  all  large,  and  are  placed 
close  together  in  a  plainly  curved  row,  the  middle  being  less  than 
twice  as  large  as  the  lateral.  The  eyes  of  the  second  row  are 
about  halfway  between  the  lateral  and  the  dorsal,  and  the  thii'd 
row  is  as  wide  as  the  cephalothorax  at  that  place. 

When  under  alcohol  the  cephalothorax  is  brown  above,  with  a 
pale  scalloped  band  down  the  middle,  and  is  pale  on  the  sides. 
The  abdomen  has  the  sides  brown  speckled  with  white,  and  a  pale 
central  band,  which  has  an  enlargement  at  the  middle  point,  and 
which  is  crossed  by  a  number  of  short  pale  bars,  which  form 
chevrons.  In  one  specimen  there  is,  on  each  of  the  anterior  sides, 
a  pale  spot,  and  further  back  there  is  a  short  curved  pale  band,  of 
which  only  the  extremities  are  visible  from  above.  When  dry  the 
upper  part  of  the  cephalothorax  is  seen  to  be  covered  with  red, 
and  the  sides  with  white  hairs.  The  red  hairs  grow  a  little  longer 
above  the  eyes  of  the  first  row,  and  below  them  the  clypeus  is 
covered  with  white  or  yellowish-Avhite  hairs.  On  the  abdomen 
the  dark  parts  are  covered  with  red,  and  the  pale  with  white  hairs. 
The  legs  are  brown,  flecked  with  pale,  the  first  and  second  being 
darker  than  the  third  and  fourth.  The  palpus  is  brown,  with 
rather  long  white  hairs  on  the  tibia  and  tarsus.  The  falces  are 
small,  vertical,  and  brown. 

We  have  two  males  of  this  spider. 


1901,]  SPIDERS  FROM  JAMAICA.  11 

Saitis  defloccatus,  11.  sp.     (Plate  III.  figs,  5,  5  a.) 

2  .  Length  4-5  mm.  Legs  4  3  12,  all  slender.  The  first  is 
almost  as  long  as  the  third  and  fourth,  but  the  second  is  distinctly- 
shorter,  the  first  exceeding  it  by  the  length  of  the  tarsus. 

The  cephalothorax  is  high  at  the  dorsal  eyes,  from  which  point 
it  is  strongly  inclined  in  both  directions.  The  upper  surface  is 
rounded.  The  sides  are  widest  at  the  dorsal  eyes,  narrowing 
before  and  behind,  and  widening  again  at  the  front  end.  The 
anterior  eyes  are  close  together,  the  middle  being  nearly  twice  as 
large  as  the  lateral,  and  form  a  row  which  is  a  little  curved  down- 
ward. The  clypeus  is  narrow.  The  quadrangle  of  the  eyes  is 
wider  in  front  than  behind,  is  one-fourth  wider  than  long,  and 
occupies  nearly  one-half  of  the  cephalothorax. 

Under  alcohol  the  spider  appears  as  in  Mr.  Emerton's  drawing, 
but  when  dry  the  cephalothorax  is  seen  to  be  covered  with  light, 
golden,  iridescent  scales,  excepting  a  central  white  band  on  the 
thoracic  part.  The  abdomen  has  a  white  band  around  the  front 
end,  but  is  otherwise  covered  with  silvery  iridescent  scales,  there 
being  some  wavy  black  lines  and  spots  on  the  posterior  part  of  the 
dorsum.  The  legs  and  palpi  are  pale  brown,  ringed  with  darker 
brown.     The  falces  are  small  and  brown. 

We  have  one  female  from  Kingston. 

Pelleites  translatus,  n.  sp.     (Plate  III.  figs.  Q-6  c.) 

J  .  Length  4*5  mm.  Legs  3  4  12.  The  first  and  second  are 
considerably  shorter  than  the  third  and  fourth,  and  the  third  is 
longer  than  the  fourth  by  the  length  of  the  tarsus  ;  first  stoutest. 

The  cephalothorax  is  moderately  high.  The  cephalic  plate 
slants  forward  ;  the  upper  surface  and  sides  are  normal  for  the 
genus.  The  anterior  legs  are  close  together  in  a  straight  row ; 
the  middle  are  not  twice  as  large  as  the  lateral.  The  quad- 
rangle is  a  little  wider  behind,  and  nearly  one-fourth  wider  than 
long.  The  second  row  is  halfway  between  the  outer  two,  and 
the  third  row  is  as  wide  as  the  cephalothorax  at  that  place.  One 
specimen  is  a  good  deal  rubbed,  and  under  alcohol  it  appears  as  in 
Mr.  Emerton's  drawing ;  but  when  dry,  the  upper  surface  of  the 
cephalic  part  is  covered  with  fawn-coloured  hairs,  and  on  each 
side  of  the  head  and  thorax  there  is  a  wide  band  of  white  hairs. 
These  bands  are  on  the  lower  edge,  and  unite  behind  with  a  wide 
white  band  that  runs  back,  on  each  side,  from  just  behind  the 
dorsal  eye,  down  the  posterior  slope  of  the  thorax.  The  space 
between  the  t\AO  white  bands  on  the  posterior  slope  of  the  thorax 
is  dark-coloured.  The  lower  white  bands,  as  they  pass  forward, 
do  not  unite  in  front  on  the  clypeus,  but  turn  down  and  end  in  a 
narrow  point  on  the  front  face  of  each  falx.  The  space  thus  left, 
under  the  'middle  eyes  of  the  first  row,  is  dark-coloured.  There 
are  a  very  few  red  hairs  around  the  first  row  of  eyes.  The  abdo- 
men is  dark  above,  nearly  surrounded  by  a  wide  white  band  which 
passes  very  far  down  on  the  sides  and  stops  at  the  spinnerets. 
There  is  a  central  longitudinal  white  band  from  base  to  apex  of 


12  MR.  AND  MRS.  PECKHAM  ON  [^^J  7, 

the  abdomen.  The  femora  of  all  the  legs  are  pale,  darker  at  the 
distal  ends,  and  the  first  and  second  pairs  have  black  bands  on  the 
front  faces,  running  obliquely  from  end  to  end.  This  band  is 
much  less  distinct  on  the  second  pair.  The  other  parts  of  the 
legs  are  darker,  and  all  have  many  white  hairs.  The  palpi  have 
pale  femora  and  patellae,  covered  with  white  hairs,  while  the  other 
joints  are  dark.  The  dark  spot  on  the  clypeus,  just  under  the 
large  middle  eyes,  is  characteristic,  and  serves  to  distinguish  this 
from  all  other  spiders  thus  far  found  in  Jamaica. 
Found  by  Mr.  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell  at  Mandeville. 

Pellenes  banksi,  n.  sp.     (Plate  III.  figs.  7,  7  a.) 

2  .  Length  5  mm.  Legs  3  4  12:  first  and  second  much 
shorter  than  third  and  fourth ;  second  is  shorter  than  third  by 
the  length  of  the  metatarsus  and  tarsus  ;  the  length  of  the  third 
is  due  to  the  elongation  of  the  femur;  the  first  and  second 
stoutest. 

The  quadi'angle  is  one-fourth  wider  than  long,  is  a  little  wider 
behind  than  in  front,  and  occupies  two-fifths  of  the  cephalothorax. 
The  anterior  eyes  are  close  together  and  are  a  little  curved.  The 
middle  are  not  twice  as  large  as  the  lateral.  The  second  row  is 
halfway  between  the  others,  and  the  third  is  as  wide  as  the 
cephalothorax  at  that  place.  The  whole  body  and  the  legs  are 
covered  by  short  hairs,  light  brown  in  colour,  with  a  few  longer 
black  hairs.     Under  alcohol  the  pattern  appears  as  in  the  drawing. 

We  have  a  single  female  fi-om  Kingston. 

Peostheclina  peeplexa,  n.  sp.     (Plate  III.  figs.  8-8  d.) 

A  brilliantly  iridescent  species. 

c^  5  .  Length  5  mm.  Legs  3  4  12,  the  third  and  fourth 
decidedly  longer  than  the  first  and  second. 

The  quadrangle  of  the  eyes  is  wider  in  front  than  behind, 
occupies  two-fifths  of  the  cephalothorax,  and  is  one-fourth  wider 
than  long.  The  anterior  eyes  project  forward  and  form  a  slightly 
curved  row,  all  four  being  close  together,  and  the  middle  being 
plainly  less  than  twice  as  large  as  the  lateral.  The  second  row 
is  about  halfway  between  the  first  and  third,  and  the  third  is 
narrower  than  the  cephalothorax  at  that  place. 

Although  we  have  a  good  many  specimens  of  this  beautiful  little 
spider,  they  are  all  more  or  less  rubbed.  Under  alcohol  it  appears 
as  in  the  drawing,  with  brown  background  and  pale  bands.  When 
dry  it  shows  iridescent  scales  of  bright  green  and  crimson  on  the 
cephalothorax,  and  around  the  front  end  of  and  down  the  middle 
line  of  the  abdomen,  which  is  otherwise  covered  with  fawn- 
coloured  or  golden  hair.  The  clypeus  is  covered  with  long 
iridescent  hairs,  and  the  front  surface  of  the  falces  with  iridescent 
scales.  The  same  scales  appear  on  all  of  the  legs,  and  on  the  tibia 
and  tarsus  of  the  palpus.     The  males  are  darker  than  the  females, 


1901.]  SPIDERS  FROM  JAMAICA,  13 

and  have  at  the  end  of  the  femur,  and  on  the  patella  of  the  palpus, 
a  buuch  of  loug  snow-white  hairs. 

We  have  numerous  examples  from  Maudeville. 

Prostheclina  MORaAjsri,  n.  sp.     (Plate  IV.  figs.  9--9  cZ.) 

Length,  d  4  mm.,  2  4-3  mm.  Legs,  <?  3^  F2  ;  $  3~4  1  2 ; 
the  first  and  second  are  slightly  the  stoutest  and  are  plainly  shorter 
than  the  others. 

The  quadrangle  of  the  eyes  is  one-fourth  wider  than  long,  is  a 
little  wider  in  front  than  behind,  and  occupies  nearly  one-half  of 
the  cephalothorax.  The  anterior  eyes  are  close  together  in  a 
straight  row,  the  lateral  being  nearly  three-fourths  as  large  as  the 
middle.  The  second  row  is  halfway  between  the  first  and  the 
third,  and  the  third  is  nearly  as  wide  as  the  cephalothorax  at  that 
place. 

The  cephalothorax  is  covered  with  a  mixture  of  white  and  irides- 
cent scales.  The  abdomen  is  also  iridescent  with  the  exception  of 
four  large  velvety,  black  spots.  The  legs  are  pale  brown  with 
white  scales.  The  palpus  has  iridescent  scales  mixed  with  white 
hairs  on  the  patella  and  tibia,  and  with  dark  hairs  on  the  tarsus. 
The  white  hairs  are  long  and  conspicuous  in  the  male.  The  clypeus 
and  falces  have  white  scales  in  the  female,  and  iridescent  scales  in 
the  male. 

The  apophysis  on  the  palpus  of  the  male  is  notched  along  the 
inner  edge,  like  a  saw. 

We  have  six  specimens  from  Kingston. 

Prostheclina  venatoria,  n.  sp.     (Plate  IV.  figs.  10-10  d.) 

d  2  •  Length  3-5  mm.  Legs  3  4  12,  the  third  being  longest 
thi'ough  the  elongation  of  the  femur,  and  exceeding  the  second  by 
the  length  of  the  tarsus.     The  first  and  second  are  the  stoutest. 

The  cephalothorax  is  moderately  high.  The  sides  are  parallel  in 
the  female,  but  widen  a  little  toward  the  front  in  the  male  ;  they 
are  nearly  vertical.  The  cephalic  part  is  rounded  and  inclined 
forward.  The  thorax  falls  but  little  in  the  first  half,  and  is 
narrowed  and  rounded  above,  widening  out  a  little  below.  The 
quadrangle  of  the  eyes  is  one-fifth  wider  than  long,  is  plainly  wider 
in  front  than  behind,  and  occupies  a  little  more  than  two-fifths  of 
the  cephalothorax.  The  anterior  eyes  are  close  together  in  a 
straight  row,  the  lateral  being  nearly  two-thirds  as  large  as  the 
middle.  They  are  rather  large  for  the  size  of  the  spider.  The 
second  row  is  plainly  nearer  the  third  than  the  first,  especially  in 
the  male.  The  third  is  about  as  wide  as  the  cephalothorax  at  that 
place. 

Our  specimens  are  rubbed.  The  male  shows  some  metallic  scales 
on  the  eye-region,  and  has,  on  each  side,  a  band  of  yellow  hairs, 
starting  from  the  lateral  eye,  and  widening  as  it  passes  backward 
to  join  the  one  of  the  opposite  side  beyond  the  dorsal  eyes.  The 
cephalothorax  is  otherwise  dai'k  brown.     The  abdomen  is  brown 


14  ME,  AND  MRS.  PECKHAM  ON  [May  7, 

and  has,  down  the  median  line,  a  yellow  band  which  becomes  in- 
distinct behind.  The  anterior  sides  show  some  greenish  metallic 
scales.  The  legs  are  brown  excepting  the  tarsal  and  the  proximal 
ends  of  the  femoral  joints,  which  are  pale.  The  palpus  has  black 
hairs  on  the  femur,  and  yellow  hairs  on  the  patella,  tibia,  and  tarsus, 
most  marked  on  the  patella,  and  on  all  the  joints  there  is  a  scat- 
tering of  metallic  scales.  The  female  shows  no  hairs  nor  scales, 
but  is  brown  with  a  yellow,  median,  longitudinal  band  on  the 
abdomen.     The  legs  are  pale. 

We  have  one  male  and  one  female  from  Port  Antonio. 

Pbostheclina  viabia,  n.  sp,     (Plate  IV.  figs.  11-116.) 

d" .  Length  2-5-3  mm.  Legs  1  4  S  2,  femur  slightly  enlarged 
in  first  and  second  ;  the  first  and  fourth  are  nearly  equal,  and  are 
longer  than  the  third  by  onlj^  a  part  of  the  tarsus ;  the  first  is 
longer  than  the  second  by  the  tarsus  and  a  part  of  the  metatarsus. 

The  cephalothorax  is  moderately  high.  The  sides  are  a  very 
little  wider  in  front  and  are  nearly  vertical.  The  highest  point  is 
at  the  dorsal  eyes,  the  cephalic  plate  being  inclined,  while  the 
thoracic  part  falls  but  little  for  about  one-third  of  its  length,  and 
then  abruptly,  the  upper  surface  not  being  so  much  narrowed  and 
rounded  as  is  usual  in  Prostheclina.  The  clypeus  is  narrow.  The 
anterior  eyes  are  close  together  in  a  straight  row,  the  lateral  being 
two-thirds  as  large  as  the  middle.  The  second  row  is  much  nearer 
the  third  than  the  first,  and  the  third  is  nearly  as  wide  as  the 
cephalothorax  at  that  place.  The  quadrangle  of  the  eyes  is  very 
slightly  wider  in  front  than  behind,  is  one-fourth  wider  than 
loDg,  and  occupies  one-half  of  the  cephalothorax. 

Our  specimens  are  badly  rubbed.  Under  alcohol  the  pattern 
appears  as  in  the  drawing,  but  when  dry  the  whole  body  looks  dark, 
with  a  covering  of  light  brown  hairs.  In  the  first  and  second  legs  the 
femur  has  the  proximal  end  pale,  and  the  distal  end  dark.  Other- 
wise the  legs  are  pale  with  darker  rings.  The  palpus  is  brown, 
with  a  narrow  line  of  white  hairs  running  along  the  outer  side  of 
all  the  joints. 

We  have  two  males  from  Moneague, 

Dekdryphantes  tayloei,  n.  sp.     (Plate  IV,  figs.  12-12  b.) 

(S .  Length  4-5  mm.  Legs  14  2  3,  the  first  a  very  little  the 
stoutest,  all  being  rather  slender;  the  first  and  fourth  do  not 
differ  greatly  in  length,  but  these  two  are  plainly  longer  than  the 
second  and  third.  The  coxa  of  the  first  leg  is  twice  as  long  as  that 
of  the  second. 

The  quadrangle  of  the  eyes  is  one-third  wider  than  long,  is  wdder 
behind  than  in  front,  and  occupies  one-half  of  the  cephalothorax, 
approaching,  in  this  respect,  the  genus  Eris.  The  first  row  is 
straight,  with  the  middle  eyes  subtouching  and  about  twice  as  large 
as  the  lateral,  which  are  a  little  separated  from  them.  The  second 
row  is  a  little  nearer  to  the  first  than  to  the  third.     The  abdomen 


1901.]  SPIDEBS  FKOM  JAMAICA,  15 

is  bronze-brown,  with  a  white  band  around  the  front  end,  which 
runs,  on  the  sides,  nearly  to  the  spinnerets,  with  a  break  at  about 
the  middle  point.  There  are  two  pairs  of  white  spots  or  transverse 
bars  on  the  dorsum,  one  pair  across  the  middle,  and  the  other 
further  back.  The  cephalothorax  is  bronze-brown,  with  a  white 
band  across  the  clypeus  which  runs  back  on  to  the  sides.  The  legs 
are  dark  brown,  with  the  tarsi  and  the  proximal  ends  of  the  meta- 
tarsi lighter.  The  palpi  are  long,  curving  over  tbe  falces,  and  have 
the  femur  and  patella  covered,  above,  with  white  hairs.  The  falces 
are  brown  in  colour,  and  are  long,  oblique,  and  divergent,  with  a 
long  fang. 

We  have  a  single  male. 

Dendkyphantes  prpdens,  n.  sp.     (Plate  IV.  Hgs.  13-136.) 

Length,  S  3-5  mm.,  $  4-5  mm.  Legs,  c?  142  3,  $  41  23, 
the  first  stoutest. 

The  quadrangle  of  the  eyes  occupies  two-fifths  of  the  cephalo- 
thorax, is  one-fourth  wider  than  long,  and  is  a  little  wider  behind 
than  in  front.  The  first  row  is  curved,  with  the  middle  eyes  sub- 
touching  and  less  than  twice  as  large  as  the  lateral,  which  are  a  little 
separated  from  them.  In  the  male,  the  cephalothorax  is  bronze- 
brown  with  white  bands  on  the  sides.  The  abdomen  is  brown  with 
an  encircling  band  of  white,  and  three  or  four  pairs  of  white  spots 
on  the  dorsum.  The  legs  are  barred  with  lighter  and  darker  brown. 
The  female  has  the  cephalothorax  brown  with  tawny  hairs,  the 
abdomen  pale  with  some  brown  chevrons,  and  the  legs  yellow. 
The  falces  are  brown,  short,  and  vertical.  The  male  has  an 
apophysis  on  the  tibia  of  the  palpus. 

We  have  two  males  and  one  female  from  Kingston. 

EXPLANATION  OF  THE  PLATES. 

Plate  II. 

Fig.  1.  NilaJcantha  cockerelli  (p.  8),  dorsal  view  of  female ;  1  a,  dorsal  view 
of  male  ;  1  b,  side  view  of  cephalothorax  of  female  ;  1  c,  face  of  male ; 
1  d,  epigynum  ;    1  e,  dorsal  view  of  palpus  ;    1/,  side  view  of  palpus  ; 

1  g,  ventral  view  of  palpus. 

Fig.    2.  Cybele  grisea  (p.  8),  dorsal  view  of  male ;   2  a,  dorsal  view  of  female ; 

2  b,  epigynum  ;  2  c,  ventral  view  of  palpus ;    2  d,  side  view  of  palpus  ; 
2  e,  face  and  falces  of  male. 

Fig.  3.  Cybele  albopalpis  (p.  9),  dorsal  view  of  male ;  3  a,  ventral  view  of 
palpus ;  3  b,  side  view  of  palpus. 

Plate  III, 

Fig.    4.  Saitis  (?)  imitilis  (p.  10),  dorsal  view  of  male ;  4  a,  ventral  view  of 

palpus ;  4  b,  side  view  of  palpus. 
Fig.    5.  Saitis  defloccatus  {'^.  W),  AovsdiWiQVf  oi  female  ;  5  a,  epigynum. 
Fig,    6.  Pelleiies  translatus  (p.  11),  dorsal  view  of  male ;  6  a,  ventral  view  of 

palpus  ;  6  b,  dorsal  view  of  palpus  ;  6  c,  side  view  of  palpus. 
Fig.    7.  Pellenes  banksi  (p.  12),  dorsal  view  of  female ;  7  «,  epigynum. 
Fig.    8.  ProsthecUna  ferpUxa  (p.  12),  dorsal  view  of  male  ;  8  a,  dorsal  view  of 

female  ;  8  b,  ventral  view  of  palpus  ;    8  c,  side  view  of  palpus  ;  8  d, 

epigynum. 


16  MR.  P.  CAMERON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

Plate  IV. 

Fig.    9,  Prosthcclina  morgani  (p.  13),  dorsal  view  of  male ;   9  a,  dorsal  view 
of  female ;    9  b,  ventral  view  of  palpus ;    9  c,  side  view  of  palpus ; 

9  cl,  epigynum. 

Fig.  10.  Prosthedina  venatoria  (p.  13),  dorsal  view  of  male  ;  10  a,  dorsal  view 
of  female  ;  10  h,  ventral  view  of  palpus  ;    10  c,  side  view  of  palpus  ; 

10  d,  dorsal  view  of  palpus. 

Fig.  11.  Prosthedina  viarla  (p.  14),  dorsal  view  of  male  ;  11  a,  ventral  view  of 

palpus ;  \\h,  side  view  of  palpus. 
Fig.  12.  hcndryphantes  taylori  (p.  14),  dorsal  view  of  male;  12 «,  ventral  view 

of  palpus  ;  12  h,  side  view  of  palpus. 
Fig.  13.  Bendryp^Mutes  prudens  (p.  15),  dorsal  view  of  male ;  13  «,  ventral  view 

of  palpus  ;  13  b,  side  view  of  palpus. 

2.  On  the  Hymenoptera  collected  during  the  '^  Skeat 
Expedition"  to  the  Malay  Peninsula,  1899-1900.  By 
P.  Cameron  \ 

[Eeceived  April  15,  1901.] 

The  Hymenoptera  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  are  far  from  well 
known.  In  addition  to  the  species  of  Aeuleata  from  Tenasserim 
mentioned  in  Bingham's  '  Fauna  of  British  India,  Hymenoptera,' 
our  chief,  almost  our  sole,  authoi-ity  on  the  subject  is  the  late 
F.  Smith,  who  in  1858  described  (Journ.Linn.  Soc.  ii.  pp.  42-130) 
the  species  found  by  Dr.  A.  E.  Wallace  at  Malacca  and  Singapore. 
Including  Ants  (which  are  not  dealt  with  in  this  paper)  Mr.  Smith 
enumerated  1 36  species  from  the  Peninsula.  The  collection  on 
which  this  paper  is  based  was  formed  by  Messrs.  Annandale,  Evans, 
and  Laidlaw,  members  of  the  Skeat  Expedition,  chiefly  on  the  eastern 
side  of  the  Peninsula,  which  entomologically  is  the  least  known  part. 
Though  small,  the  collection  contains  examples  of  several  new  and 
interesting  forms. 

In  Bingham's  '  Hymenoptera  of  British  India,'  out  of  a  total 
of  995  species  of  Aeuleata  (other  than  Ants)  no  less  than  376  are 
recorded  from  Tenasserim,  the  extreme  northern  district  of  the 
Malay  Peninsula  ;  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  if  the  Peninsula 
were  adequately  explored  it  would  prove  to  be  extremely  rich  in 
Hymenoptera. 

I  have  included  a  few  species  that  were  not  found  by  the  members 
of  the  Skeat  Expedition,  and  also  some  allied  forms  from  neigh- 
bouring regions.  As  a  matter  of  convenience  these  are  placed  in 
their  pi-oper  positions  and  are  distinguished  by  square  brackets. 

MUTILLIDvE. 
MUTILLA  MALAYANA,  sp.  U. 

Nigra,  abdomine  ferrugineo,  basi  apiceque  nigris;  capite  thoi'acequ 

dense  albo-pilosis  ;  alls  violaceis.      S  • 
Long.  20  mm. 

^  Communicated  by  Dr.  D.  Sharp,  F.Z.S. 


1901.]  HYMENOPTEEA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  17 

Hah.  Bukit  Besar,  Jalor  (District  of  Pataiii  State),  Malay 
Peninsula. 

Antennae  black  ;  the  Hagellum  opaque,  covered  with  a  pale  dull 
down  ;  the  scape  on  the  upperside  is  covered  with  pale  pubescence  ; 
the  underside  is  bare,  hollowed  in  the  middle,  the  outer  sides  more 
acutely  pointed  and  narrower  than  the  inner.  Front  and  vertex 
strongly  punctured  and  thickly  covered  with  white  hair,  the  front 
being  much  more  thickly  covered  than  the  vertex.  Face  smooth 
and  shining,  stoutly  keeled  down  the  middle.  Over  the  clypeus 
are  6  foveae,  close  to  each  other  in  a  row,  the  outer  is  the  largest ; 
the  sides  are  furrowed.  Mandibles  aciculated,  and  not  very  sharply 
pointed  at  the  apex.  Thorax  thickly  covered  with  silvery  pubes- 
cence ;  there  is  a  broad  band  of  depressed  pubescence  on  the  hinder 
edge  of  the  pronotum.  Mesonotum  shining,  coarsely,  hut  not  very 
closely,  punctured  ;  there  is  a  keel  down  the  centre  and  a  furrow 
on  either  side  of  it ;  the  hair  is  close  and  deep  black.  Scutellum 
pyramidal ;  rugosely  punctured,  except  the  upper  two-thirds  of  the 
base  in  the  centre ;  the  base  has  an  oblique,  straight  slope,  as  has 
also  the  apex  from  below  the  smooth  top,  which  slightly  projects  ; 
the  smooth  part  of  the  basal  slope  projects  and  is  clearly  separated  ; 
the  top  is  almost  transverse  ;  below  the  centre  are  two  small  fovese. 
Median  segment  closely  reticulated  ;  its  base  thickly  covered  with 
depressed  silvery  pubescence,  the  apical  slope  with  long  white  hair  ; 
the  basal  area  reaches  to  the  top  of  the  apical  slope  ;  its  basal  third 
is  dilated ;  the  base  of  the  dilated  part  has  the  sides  straight,  the 
apex  has  them  obhquely  narrowed ;  the  segment  has  the  sides 
broadly  and  roundly  dilated  ;  the  outer  side  on  the  basal  half  is 
bordered  by  a  smooth  keel.  The  base  of  the  propleurse  is  rugosely 
punctured,  the  punctured  portion  being  bordered  by  a  row  of 
elongated  fovese,  which  are  narrowed  obliquely  at  the  apex  on 
either  side  and  are  there  clearly  separated  from  each  other. 
Mesopleurse,  except  behind,  coarsely  punctured  and  densely  covered 
in  the  middle  with  silvery  pubescence.  Mesosternum  densely 
covered  with  silvery  pubescence.     Metapleurse  reticulated. 

MUTILLA  SKEATI,  Sp.  n. 

Nigra,  tliorace  femoribusque  rujis ;  ahdomine  pallide  aureo 
piloso.      2  ■ 

Long.  13-14  mm. 

Bab.  Kuala  Aring,  State  of  Kelautan,  Malay  Peninsula. 

Antennse  entirely  black,  short  and  stout ;  the  scape  thickly 
covered  with  white  hair  ;  the  flagellum  with  white  pubescence ; 
the  3rd  joint  is  as  long  as  the  4th  and  5th  imited.  Head  as  wide 
as  the  thorax,  coarsely  rugosely  punctured,  sparsely  covered  with 
long  black  hair  ;  the  upper  part  of  the  front  bears  shorter  golden 
hair,  the  lower  is  more  thickly  covered  with  longer  white  hair. 
Antennal  tubercles  black,  the  part  between  them  obscure  rufous. 
Eyes  oval.  Mandibles  longish,  becoming  gradually  narrowed 
towards  the  apex  ;  the  upperside  at  the  middle  grooved.  Thorax 
of  nearly  uniform  width,  only  very  slightly  and  broadly  narrowed 

Proc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  II.  2 


18  MR.  P.  CAMEROiir  ON  THE  [May  7, 

in  the  middle  ;  above  coarsely,  uniformly,  and  rugosely  punctured  ; 
the  punctation  on  the  lower  half  of  the  apical  slope  is  much 
weaker  and  the  apex  itself  is  almost  impunctate.  Pleurae  smooth 
and  shining.  Legs  black,  thickly  covered  with  white  hair;  the 
spines  on  the  tibise  are  black,  on  the  tarsi  bright  rufous ;  the 
calcaria  of  a  paler  rufous  colour.  Abdomen  black  ;  its  base  bears 
longish  white  hair  ;  the  basal  segment  is  rather  broad  at  the  base 
and  projects  laterally  iu  a  bluntly  triangular  smooth  and  shining 
tooth  ;  behind  the  middle  of  the  2nd  segment  are  two  oval 
marks  of  pale  golden  pubescence ;  the  3rd  segment  has  the  apical 
two-thirds  covered  with  similar  pubescence  ;  the  4th  has  a  similar 
baud,  but  widely  interrupted  in  the  middle ;  the  last  is  thickly 
fringed  on  the  sides  with  long  pale  fulvous  hair ;  it  is  closely 
rugose.  The  ventral  keel  on  the  basal  segment  becomes  gradually 
raised  to  the  apex,  which  projects  roundly,  the  lower  slope  being 
oblique.  The  ventral  segments  are  all  fringed  with  pale  fulvous 
hair  ;  on  the  sides  of  the  2nd  segment  is  a  longish  longitudinal 
furrow,  covered  with  pale  rufous  pubescence.  The  thorax  is  fully 
twice  longer  than  broad ;  it  is  rounded  in  front,  transverse 
behind. 

ScOLIIDjE. 
SCOLIA  PROOEEA  111. 

One  example  of  this  fine  species  from  Patalung  State. 

ScoLiA  SPECIOSA  Smith. 

Bukit  Besar. 

The  male  has  not  been  described.  Its  head  is  reddish  yellow, 
except  behind  between  the  antennae  and  at  the  ocelli,  where  it  is 
black  ;  above  it  is  smooth  and  shining  ;  the  clypeus  is  strongly,  but 
not  very  closely,  punctured.  Thorax  thickly  covered  with  short 
black  pubescence  ;  the  mesonotum  is  closely  punctured,  except  the 
space  on  either  side  of  the  centre;  the  scutellum  is  similarly 
punctured  except  at  the  apex,  where  it  is  smooth;  the  median 
segment  is  more  closely  punctui'ed,  and  if  anything  more  strongly, 
the  hair,  too,  on  it  is  longer  and  thicker.  It  has  the  base  of  the 
3rd  abdominal  segment  reddish  yellow,  as  in  the  female  ;  this  j^ellow 
line  may  be  interrupted  in  the  centre  and  is  covered  with  rufous 
hair. 

S.  sijeciosa  has  hitherto  only  been  recorded  from  Borneo. 

SCOLIA  RUBIGINOSA  Pab. 

One  example  :  Eastern  Malay  Peninsula,  without  exact  station. 

SCOLIA  LATHONA,  Sp.  U. 

Nigra,    thorace   abdomineque   opdlina  pulcherrime  lavatis ;    alis 

fusco-violaceis.      S . 
Long,  22  mw?. 

Hah.  Kuala  Aring,  Malay  Peninsula. 
Antennae  much  shorter  than  usual,  distinctly  shorter  than  the 


1901.]  HTMENOPTEEA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION'."  19 

thorax ;  black,  stout ;  the  scape  strongly  punctured,  sparselj^ 
haired ;  the  flagellum  opaque.  The  lower  part  of  the  front 
broadly  depressed ;  the  basal  part  clearly  separated,  broadly 
rounded  above ;  the  apex  transverse,  with  the  sides  broadly 
rounded:  the  upper  third  is  smooth,  impunctate ;  the  lower  strongly 
punctured,  except  in  the  middle  and  at  the  apex.  The  front  is 
distinctly  keeled  ;  the  sides  of  the  keel  oblique  and  punctured ; 
the  top  smooth.  The  upper  half  of  the  clypeus  is  deeply  punc- 
tured ;  the  lower  smooth,  opaque,  except  at  the  apex,  which  is 
depressed  and  shining.  Except  very  slightly  on  the  vertex,  the 
head  wants  the  violaceous  tint.  Thorax  very  shining;  it  has  all 
over  very  brilliant  violaceous  and  blue  shining  reflections,  and  is 
covered  with  black  pubescence  ;  the  upper  part  is  closely  and  uni- 
formly punctured  all  over,  as  is  also  the  upper  part  of  the  propleurse 
and  the  greater  part  of  the  mesopleuree  ;  the  metapleurse  punctured 
on  the  upper  edges.  The  apex  of  the  median  segment  is  transverse 
in  the  middle ;  the  sides  are  oblique.  The  legs  have  the  violaceous 
tints  of  the  body ;  they  are  thickly  covered  with  black  hair  ;  the 
front  tibiae  and  the  tarsi  bear  dark  fuscous  pubescence  behind  ; 
the  calcaria  black,  except  the  anterior,  which  are  dark  piceous 
and  curved.  "Wings  dark  fuscous,  with  a  slight  violaceous  tint, 
rather  dull,  without  brilliant  reflections.  Abdomen  black,  with 
brilliant  violet  and  blue  micaceous  reflections  and  thickly  covered 
Avith  black  hair,  which  is  longer  and  denser  on  the  apex  and  ventral 
surface  ;  the  basal  segment  has  a  distinct  neck  at  the  base ;  the  last 
dorsal  segment  is  smooth  and  bare  on  the  apex. 

Comes  near  to  S.  ojDalina  Smith,  from  Borneo.  No  mention  is 
made  of  the  form  of  the  head  in  Smith's  description,  and  presumably 
the  front  is  not  depressed  :  it  is  said  to  have  only  a  few  scattered 
punctures,  not  strongly  punctured  as  in  the  present  species  ;  the 
disc  of  the  mesothorax  has  a  smooth  space,  which  is  not  the  case 
here. 

Elis  (Dielis)  thoracica  King. 

This  species  is  in  the  collection  from  Singora  and  from  Kota 
Bharu  in  Baman  (District  of  Patani).  All  belong  to  the  form  Mith 
the  pubescence  on  the  collar  and  mesonotum  red,  this  being  also  the 
case  with  all  the  specimens  I  have  seen  from  Singapore  and  Java. 
In  India  the  red-haired  form  is  very  rare  compared  with  the  white. 

Elis  (Dielis)  aglaea,  sp.  n. 

Nigra,  Jiavo-maculata ;  femoribus  tibiisqne  anterlorihus  femori- 
busque  jJOSticis  subtus  jlavis  ;  alis  fusco-violaceis.      cJ  . 

Long.  20  mm. 

Hab.  Biserat  in  Jalor,  Malay  Peninsula. 

Head  covered  with  pale  hair;  black,  the  clypeus  yellow,  except  the 
middle  at  the  apex,  where  it  is  black ;  the  lower  part  of  the  front  is 
strongly  and  closely  punctured  ;  the  vertex  below  and  on  either  side 
of  the  ocelli  sparsely  punctured  ;  the  eye-incisions  are  more  closely 
but  not  so  strongly  punctured  ;  the  part  above  the  antennae  has 

2* 


20  MR.  P.  CAMERON  ON  THE  [May  7? 

iin  oblique  slope.  Clypeus  smooth  and  shining;  the  base  of  the 
mandibles  is  broadly  yellow  ;  they  are  fringed  with  long  pale  hair. 
Thorax  black ;  the  edge  of  the  pronotiim  broadly,  two  large  marks 
in  the  centre  of  the  scutellum,  and  a  mark  in  the  centre  of  the  post- 
scutellum — transverse  in  front,  rounded  behind — yelloA\'.  Meso- 
notum  minutely  and  not  very  closely  punctured  all  over ;  this  is 
also  the  case  with  the  scutellum,  except  behind,  where  it  is  smooth 
and  impunctate.  Median  segment  closely,  strongly,  and  uniformly 
punctured  and  thickly  covered  with  long  white  hair  and  with  a 
silvery  down.  Pleurae  thickly  covered  with  long  pale  hair;  the 
hinder  part  of  the  meso-  and  the  metapleurae  are  thickly  covered 
with  silvery  pubescence.  Legs  black ;  the  front  coxfe  below,  the 
four  front  femora  broadly  towards  the  apex,  the  four  front  tibiae 
except  at  the  apex  in  front,  and  the  hinder  femora  below,  yellow ; 
the  legs  are  thickly  covered  with  long  white  hair  ;  the  calcaria 
black ;  the  tarsal  spines  pale.  Wings  fuscous,  darker  in  the 
middle,  where  they  have  a  violaceous  tinge.  Abdomen  black,  thickly 
covered  with  white  hair  ;  the  basal  three  segments  are  banded  with 
yellow  at  the  apex  ;  the  band  on  the  basal  segment  is  broader  than 
the  others. 

PoMPILIDiE. 
[PSEUDAGENIA  MALAYANA,  sp.  n. 

Nigra,  femoribus  posticis  rujis  ;  alls  hyalinis.      $  . 

Long.  7  mm. 

Hah.  Singapore  (Mr.  George  Lewis). 

Kesembles  P.  arethnsa  Cam.\  but  is  a  smaller  species,  has  only 
the  binder  femora  red ;  the  wings  are  clearer ;  the  apex  of  the 
clypeus  rounded,  not  transverse ;  the  2nd  transverse  cubital  nervure 
is  roundly  and  distinctly  curved  ;  the  transverse  anal  nervure  in  the 
hind  wings  is  not  interstitial,  but  received  distinctly  in  front  of 
the  transverse  cubital.  It  also  resembles  P.  tincia  Smith  ;  but  that 
is  a  larger  and  stouter  species,  has  the  head  more  hairy,  the  hair 
being  longer  and  thicker,  and  the  hinder  tarsi  are  shorter  compared 

^  [Pscuclagenia  arethusa  Cam.,  above  alluded  to,  is  an  undescribed  species  from 
Khasia  represented  in  Mr.  Rothney's  collection. 

Nigra,  femorihus  tibiisque  anterioribus  late  nojis  ;  abdominis  apice  supra  albo  ; 
alls  hyalinis.     (^ . 

Long.  8  mm. 

Comes  into  Bingham's  Section  "C  "  (Fauna  of  India,  Hymenopt.  i.  p.  108): 
"Wings  clear  hyaline";  and  b,  b'.  Scape  of  antennse  densely  clothed  with 
short  white  hair  ;  the  flagellum  with  a  close,  black,  microscopic  down.  Vertex 
closely  punctured  and  sparsely  covered  with  longish  fuscous  hair  ;  the  front 
more  strongly  punctured  than  the  vertex  and  obscurely  transversely  striated  ; 
it  projects  immediately  over  the  antennas ;  the  projection  is  keeled  down  the 
middle ;  the  keel  becomes  wider  towards  the  apex.  The  cheeks,  the  part  below 
the  antennse,  and  the  clypeus  thickly  covered  with  silvery  pubescence ;  the 
clypeus  strongly  and  closely  punctured  ;  roundly  dilated,  the  sides  at  the  apex 
oblique  ;  the  ajsex  transverse  ;  the  silvery  hair  is  mixed  with  some  longer  golden 
hair ;  on  either  side  near  the  middle  is  an  obscure  yellowish-white  spot ;  palpi 
pale  testaceous ;  the  mandibles  reddish  before  the  middle,     Pronotuui  rounded 


1901.]  HYMENOPTEEA  OP  THE  "  SKBAT  EXPEDITION."  21 

with  the  length  of  the  tibiae ;  the  tarsi,  too,  in  tincta  are  distinctly 
spined,  which  is  not  the  case  with  P.  malayana. 

Head  opaque ;  the  cheeks  and  clypeus  covered  with  silvery  pubes- 
cence, the  front  and  vertex  sparsely  covered  with  longish  pale  hair ; 
the  apex  of  the  clypeus  rounded,  the  sides  at  the  base  not  sharply 
oblique  ;  the  palpi  testaceous  ;  the  hinder  ocelli  are  separated  from 
the  eyes  by  a  distinctly  greater  distance  than  they  are  from  each  other. 
Thorax  thickly  covered  with  a  silvery  pile;  the  scutellumand  median 
segment  more  sparsely  with  fuscous  hair.  The  median  segment 
has  a  gradually  rounded  slope,  is  closely  obscurely  transversely 
striated  in  the  middle ;  the  oblique  furrow  ou  the  mesopleurae  is 
narrow  but  distinct ;  its  lower  part  at  the  base  is  depressed,  clearly 
separated  from  the  rest,  and  more  strongly  punctured.  Legs 
pruinose,  the  four  anterior  femora  more  or  less  obscure  reddish 
beneath,  the  hinder  femora  bright  ferruginous,  except  at  the 
extreme  apex ;  the  hinder  tarsi  are  much  longer  than  the  tibiae, 
which  are  almost  spineless.  Wings  clear  hyaline ;  the  stigma 
fuscous  ;  the  nervures  darker ;  the  2nd  cubital  cellule  at  the  top 
and  bottom  is  distinctly,  but  not  much,  shorter  than  the  third ; 
the  first  and  second  transverse  cubital  nervures  are  roundly  curved, 
the  first  is  distinetl}^,  the  second  scarcely  oblique;  the  first  reemTent 
nervure  is  received  in  the  middle,  the  second  distinctly  in  front  of 
the  middle  of  the  cellule  ;  in  the  hind  wings  the  transverse  anal 
nervure  is  received  distinctly  in  front  of  the  cubital.  Abdomen 
pruinose,  shining ;  the  segments  are  testaceous  at  the  apex.] 

[POMPILUS  SINaAPOEEKSIS,  sp.  n. 

Niger^  dense  argenteo-jyruinosus  ;  alls  liyalinis,  ajnce  fumato.     $  . 

Long.  10  mm. 

Hah.  Singapore. 

Antennae  densely  pruinose,  like  the  body.  The  eyes  distinctly 
converge  above,  where  they  are  separated  by  nearly  the  length  of 
the  3rd  antennal  joint ;  the  hinder  ocelli  are  separated  from  each 
other  by  the  same  distance  as  they  are  from  the  eyes  ;  the  front 


thickly  coyered  with  silvery  pubescence.  Mesonotum  closely  punctured,  the 
middle  in  front  slightly  raised ;  from  the  base  of  the  tegulis  runs  an  oblique 
narrow  furrow.  The  postscutellar  region  is  closely  and  finely,  at  the  base 
towards  the  apes  more  strongly  transversely  striated.  Median  segment  with  a 
gradually  rounded  slope  ;  opaque,  finely  transversely  granular  ;  the  middle  and 
apex  thickly  covered  with  long  white  hair.  The  middle  of  the  propleura  raised  ; 
the  lower  part  triangularly  depressed  ;  the  mesopleuras  granular,  opaque  ;  the 
apex  on  the  lower  part  and  the  sternum  thickly  covered  with  long  white  hair ; 
the  base  of  the  metapleurce  obscurely  obliquely  striated.  Legs  longish  ;  the 
apex  of  the  fore  femora,  tlie  fore  tibias,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  tarsi,  the 
apical  two-thirds  of  the  middle  femora  except  at  the  extreme  apex,  the  middle 
tibiie  except  behind,  the  hinder  femora  except  at  the  base,  and  to  a  less  extent 
at  the  apex,  red.  Wings  hyaline,  but  with  a  uniform  fuscous  tinge ;  the  2ud 
and  3rd  cubital  cellules  are  subequal  at  the  base  and  apex  above  and  beneath  ; 
the  first  recurrent  nervure  is  received  near  tlie  middle,  the  second  shortly  before 
the  basal  third  of  the  cellule.  Abdomen  pruinose ;  the  apical  segment  above 
white,  fuscous  at  the  apex.] 


22  ME.  p.  CAMERON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

has  a  narrow  furrow  down  the  centre.  Clypeus  transverse  in  the 
middle ;  its  sides  broadly  rounded.  Mandibles  black ;  the  base 
thickly  covered  with  greyish  pile  ;  the  middle  rufous.  Palpi  black, 
covered  with  a  grey  pile.  The  sides  of  the  pronotum  behind  are 
straight  and  oblique.  The  median  segment  is  distinctly  furrowed 
down  the  middle.  The  cloud  in  the  fore  wings  commences  at  the 
end  of  the  radial  cellule ;  the  radial  cellule  is  wide  in  the  middle ; 
the  apical  abscissa  of  the  radius  is  oblique ;  the  apical  half  has  a 
different  angle  from  the  basal.  The  spines  on  the  tibiee  and 
tarsi  are  black  ;  the  calcaria  are  two-thirds  the  length  of  the 
metatarsus.  The  first  and  third  transverse  cubital  nervures  are 
roundly  curved  ;  the  second  straight  and  slightly  oblique ;  at  the 
top  the  second  cubital  cellule  is  not  quite  half  the  length  of 
the  first. 

Comes  near  to  F.  pulverosus  Sm.,  which  may  be  known  from  it 
by  the  cloud  commencing  "  beyond  the  first  submarginal  cell,"  and 
the  calcaria  are  nearly  as  long  as  the  metatarsus.  The  description 
of  P.  pulverosus  is  not  very  complete.  A  revision  of  the  Hymeno- 
ptera  collected  by  Dr.  A.  E-.  Wallace  in  the  Malay  region,  and  now 
in  the  Hope  Museum,  Oxford,  is  a  great  desideratum.  At  present 
the  determination  of  many  of  the  species  from  the  description  is 
mere  guesswork.  A¥ith  the  LarricUe,  for  example,  one  is  never 
certain  whether  the  species  described  belongs  to  Larra,  Notogonia, 
Tacliysphex,  or  Tacliytes.'\ 

[S ALIUS  MISERUS,  Sp.  U. 

Niger,  cajnte,  pronoto,  apice  mesonoti  scutelloque  jlavo-testaceis  ; 
pedihus  rufo-testaceis  ;  coxis  posticis  nigris  ;  alis  fusco-Jlavis, 
apice  fusco-violaceis.     S  • 

Long.  22  mm. 

Hah.  Singapore. 

Antennae  rufous  ;  the  scape  hollowed  on  the  underside  ;  the 
outer  edge  is  much  sharper  than  the  inner ;  the  apical  joints  are 
roundly  curved  above.  The  head  fulvous  ;  the  face  pale  yellow  ; 
the  vertex  (especially  at  the  ocelli)  fuscous  black.  Eyes  large, 
slightly  converging  above  ;  the  lower  part  parallel ;  the  ocelli 
large,  placed  in  a  triangle,  the  hinder  are  separated  from  each 
other  by  a  slightly  greater  distance  than  they  are  from  the  eyes  ; 
there  is  a  narrow  shallow  furrow  in  the  middle  of  the  front.  Pro- 
thorax  rufo-fulvous  ;  the  lower  and  hinder  parts  of  the  pleurae 
darker  coloured.  The  apical  half  of  the  mesonotum,  the  scutellum, 
and  postscutellum  ai'e  rufo-fulvous  ;  the  black  on  the  mesonotum 
is  triangularly  narrowed  at  the  apex.  Median  segment,  except  at 
the  apex,  transversely  striated  ;  it  is  covered  with  a  golden  down 
and  some  longish  pale  fulvous  hairs.  The  scutellum  is  thickly 
covered  with  long  pale  fulvous  hair.  Legs  rufo-fulvous  ;  the 
hinder  coxge  black  ;  the  inner  tooth  of  the  claws  is  half  the  length 
of  the  outer.  Wings  fulvo-hyaline  at  the  base ;  the  apex  with  an 
obscure  violaceous-fuscous  tinge,  which  is  deeper  in  the  radial  and 
cubital  cellules  ;  the  discoidal  cellule  is  hyaline,  with  an  elongated 


1901.]  HYMENOPTERA  or  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITIOK."  23 

fuscous  cloud  in  the  centre  :  this  cloud  is  sharply  narrowed  towards 
the  apex ;  the  apical  abscissa  of  the  radius  is  curved  ;  the  first 
cubital  cellule  is  shortly  but  distinctly  shorter  than  the  second  ;  the 
third  transverse  cubital  nervure  is  roundly  curved.  Abdomen 
black  ;  the  apical  dorsal  segment  rufous. 

Belongs  to  Bingham's  Section  B  a  (Fauna  of  India,  p.  124).] 

[Salius  tapbroba^s'jE,  sp.  n. 

Niger,  antennis,  jtedihus,  apice  pronoti,  mesonoto,  scutello  posl- 
scutelloque  rufis ;  coxis  troclianterihusque  nigris  j  alls  Jtavis, 
apice  famatis.      $  . 

Long.  25  mm. 

Hah.  Trincomali,  Holraputtana,  Ceylon  (Colonel  Yerhury). 

Belongs  to  the  section  with  one  tooth  on  the  claws,  and  comes 
near  to  S.jiavus. 

Antennae  stout,  bare,  ferruginous ;  the  scape  darker.  Head 
ferruginous,  sparsely  covered  with  long  black  hair ;  the  vertex 
thickly  covered  with  depressed  golden  pile.  The  apex  of  the 
clypeus  is  almost  transverse  in  the  middle  ;  the  apex  of  the  labrum 
is  slightly  rounded  and  is  densely  fringed  with  reddish  hair.  Thorax 
black  ;  the  apical  half  of  the  pronotum,  the  mesonotum,  scutellum, 
and  postscutellum  densely  covered  with  silky  depressed  golden 
pubescence.  The  depressed  belt  behind  the  postscutellum  is  dark 
testaceous,  is  furrowed  down  the  middle,  and  is  transversely  but 
not  closely  striated.  The  median  segment  is  coarsely  transversely 
striated,  except  on  the  apical  third  ;  the  striae  have  a  brownish  hue. 
The  upper  part  of  the  metapleurse  is  obliquely  striated ;  the  apex 
of  the  propleur^e  is  brownish  above.  Legs  ferruginous  ;  the  coxae 
and  trochanters  are  black.  Wings  yellowish  ;  the  apical  margin 
distinctly  smoky  all  round.  Abdomen  entirely  black,  shining  ;  the 
pygidium  and  the  epipygium  velvety  and  thickly  covered  with  long 
black  hairs.] 

Salitts  sycophant  a  Grrib. 

An  example  from  Patalung  {Evans)  is  the  usual  form  ;  one  from 
Kuala  Aring  has  the  wings  much  darker,  the  fulvous  tinge  being 
much  darker  at  the  apex  ;  the  apex  itself  is  not  clouded,  and  the 
darker  colour  of  the  basal  region  extends  nearer  to  the  apex ;  the 
hind  wings  want  the  basal  tint  entirely. 

Salius  malayensis,  sp.  n. 

Long.  16  mm. 

Hah.  Kuala  Aring. 

This  species  has  the  coloration  of  the  body  and  wiugs  of  S.  perer- 
grinus  Sm.,  with  which  it  is  closely  related.  S.  peregrinus  may 
readily  be  known  from  it  by  the  3rd  cubital  cellule  on  the  top  being, 
if  anything,  longer  than  the  2ud,  whereas  in  the  present  species  it 
is  not  much  more  than  one-half  its  length  ;  there  is  also  a  marked 
distinction  in  the  shape  of  the  2nd  transverse  cubital  nervure, 
which  in  peregrinus  is  straight,  whereas  in  malayensis  it  is,  on  the 


24  ME.  p.  CAMBROlf  ON  THE  [May  7, 

lower  side,  obliquely  bent  backwards  towards  the  base  of  the  wing, 
while  the  upper  two-thirds  are  roundly  curved  towards  the  apex. 
The  same  character  separates  it  frora  the  closely-allied  Khasia 
species,  S.  suhfervens  Cam. 

Head  fulvous,  yellowish  along  the  eye-orbits  ;  the  ocellar  region 
and  the  middle  of  the  front  are  black ;  this  black  mark  extends 
behind  the  ocelli  to  the  end  of  the  eyes,  where  it  is  roundly 
narrowed ;  it  is  roundly  incised  at  the  sides  of  the  ocelli,  below 
which  it  is  roundly  and  broadly  dilated ;  the  lower  part  is  incised. 
The  eyes  distinctly  converge  above  ;  the  hinder  ocelli  are  separated 
from  each  other  by  about  the  same  distance  they  are  from  the  eyes. 
The  clypeus  is  broadly  rounded  at  the  apex ;  the  labrum  is  broadly 
black  in  the  middle,  its  apex  fringed  with  bright  fulvous  hair. 
Mandibles  broadly  black  at  their  apices.  Thorax  black ;  the 
prothorax  (except  the  lower  half  of  the  pleurse),  the  sides  of  the 
mesonotum,  its  centre  largely  from  near  the  base  to  the  apex, 
the  scutellum,  and  postscutellum,  rufo-fulvous.  The  apical  two- 
thirds  of  the  pronotum  are  farrowed  in  the  centre  ;  this  furrow  is 
widest  at  the  base.  Wings  uniformly  fuscous-violaceous ;  the 
stigma  is  pale  fulvous  in  the  middle ;  the  first  cubital  cellule  is 
about  twice  the  length  of  the  second  ;  the  first  and  third  transverse 
cubital  nervures  are  oblique  and  roundly  curved,  the  second  is 
straight  and  oblique  on  the  lower  third,  the  rest  roundly  curved 
towards  the  upper  apex  of  the  cellule  ;  the  first  recurrent  nervure 
is  received  near  the  base  of  the  apical  foux'th,  the  second  near  the 
base  of  the  apical  third  of  the  cellule.  Legs  coloured  like  the 
thorax  ;  all  the  coxae  and  trochanters,  the  base  of  the  four  anterior 
femora,  and  almost  the  basal  half  of  the  hinder  pair  black ;  the 
apical  joint  of  all  the  tarsi  black.  Abdomen  black,  except  the  upper 
part  of  the  last  segment,  which  is  pale  fulvous. 

POMPILUS  ANALIS  Pab. 

One  example,  without  special  locality,  of  this  widely  distributed 
Eastern  species. 

Sphegid^. 

Sphex  lobatus  Fab. 

Patalung,  Biserat,  Gunong  Inas  (Perak),  and  Bukit  Besar. 
A  common  Indian  species. 

Sphex  umbeosus  Christ. 
Bukit  Besar. 

Sphex  aueulentus  Pab. 

The  form  of  this  species  agrees  with  the  description  of  Sphex 
flavo-vestita  Sm.,  a  species  placed  by  Kohl,  in  his  monograph  of 
the  genus,  among  the  unidentified  species.  According  to  some 
specimens  in  the  Cambridge  Museum  from  North  Borneo,  it  stores 
its  nests  with  young  grasshoppers,  and  spins  a  cocoon,  which  is 


1901.]  HTMEIfOPIERA  OF  THE  "  SKBAT  EXPEDITION."  25 

smooth,  bare,  brown,  and  shining  on  the  inner  side ;  on  the  outer 
side  it  is  thickly  covered  with  pale,  long,  woolly  yellow  hair. 

Ammophila  ateipes  Smith. 

1'he  female  example  is  very  large  and  has  bright  red  legs ;  the 
males  are  not  much  more  than  half  its  size  and  have  the  legs 
almost  entirely  black.     Special  locality  not  stated. 

Scelipheon  javanum  Lep. 

Singora.     Several  examples  of  this  fine  species. 

Sceliphkon  madeaspatanum  Fab. 
Singora.     One  example. 

[Bembbx  lactea,  sp.  n. 

Long.  22  mm. 

Hah.  Khasia  (coll.  Rothney). 

This  species  wauts  the  U-shaped  yellow  mark  on  the  mesonotum, 
and  comes  into  Bingham's  Section  B  near  to  B.  latitarsis  (Fauna  of 
India,  Hymenopt.  p.  285). 

5  .  Antennae  black ;  the  scape  of  the  antennse  yellow,  except  the 
apical  half  above,  the  2nd  joint,  and  the  base  of  the  3rd  beneath, 
which  are  black.  The  yellow  colour  has  a  distinct  pale  olive  tint ; 
on  the  head,  the  clypeus,  the  labrum,  the  front,  except  for  two  large 
oblique  marks  on  the  top  continued  from  the  black  on  the  vertex, 
the  inner  orbits  to  near  the  ocelli,  the  outer  orbits  more  narrowly 
from  near  the  top,  and  the  mandibles  are  yellow.  The  eyes  slightly 
diverge  below  ;  the  front  and  vertex  are  thickly  covered  with  long 
fuscous  hair  ;  the  front  is  broadly  keeled  ;  on  the  top  of  the 
clypeus  are  two  oblique,  large,  iri'egular  black  marks.  Mesonotum 
black ;  the  scutellum  black,  except  for  a  large  transverse  line  in  the 
centre,  which  is  dilated  behind  at  the  sides ;  the  base  of  the  post- 
scutellum  is  broadly  yellow  at  the  base.  Median  segment  yellow, 
except  broadly  in  the  middle  at  the  base  and  two  oblique  lines — 
broad  at  the  base,  becoming  gradually  nai'rowed  towards  the  apex 
— across  the  middle  and  one  across  the  apex,  black.  The  base  of 
the  pronotum,  an  irregular  mark  on  the  propleurse  behind,  the 
upper  two-thirds  of  the  mesopleurae  at  the  base,  the  sutures 
narrowly,  and  an  irregular  large  mark  on  the  apex  of  the  meta- 
pleurte,  black.  Legs  of  the  yellow  colour  of  the  body ;  the  femora 
and  tibiae  broadly  lined  with  black — the  former  in  front  and  behind, 
the  latter  behind  only.  The  ventral  surface  of  the  abdomen 
entirely,  the  basal  segment  except  for  a  large  oblique  line  on  either 
side  extendiug  near  to  the  middle  of  the  segment  and  becoming 
gradually  narrowed  from  the  outer  to  the  inner  side,  black ;  the 
second  and  third  segments  are  broadly  black  at  the  apex,  the  black 
bands  triangularly  dilated  in  the  middle  at  the  apex  ;  near  the 
centre  of  these  segments  are  two  transverse  black  marks  ;  on  the 
base  of  the  fourth  segment  is  a  large  black  mark,  which  projects 
obliquely  broadly  at  the  apex  and  to  a  less  extent  on  the  inner 


26  ME.  p.  CAMERON  OS  THE  [May  7, 

side  ;  the  black  band  between  these  marks  triangularly  projects 
in  the  middle  ;  two  larger  black  marks,  not  projecting  at  the 
sides,  are  on  the  fifth  segment ;  the  sixth  is  entirely  black. 

The  male  is  similarly  coloured  to  the  female,  except  that  the 
black  marks  on  the  clypeus  are  much  smaller,  the  yellow  line  on 
the  scutellum  is  narrower  and  is  interrupted  in  the  middle,  the 
abdominal  segments  have  only  their  apices  narrowly  black,  and 
the  marks  on  the  2nd,  3rd,  and  4th  segments  are  much  narrower  ; 
the  last  segment  is  yellow,  black  round  the  edges,  and  more 
broadly  and  irregularly  at  the  base,  where  the  black  band  projects 
broadly  in  the  middle.  The  8th,  9th,  and  10th  joints  project  and 
are  minutely  spined  below  ;  the  11th  and  12th  joints  are  broadly 
hollowed,  smooth,  bare,  and  brownish  below ;  the  last  has  the  apex 
obliquely  rounded.  The  anterior  tarsi  are  broader  than  usual ; 
the  metatarsus  is  of  almost  uniform  width  and  has  its  lower  edge 
slightly  irregularly  waved ;  the  2nd  joint  is  not  much  narrowed 
at  the  base  ;  the  3rd  and  4th  become  gradually  wider  towards  the 
apex ;  the  middle  femora  are  irregularly,  minutely,  and  closely 
spined  or  serrate  on  the  lower  edge,  the  outer  two  serrations  are 
wider,  more  regularly  rounded  than  the  others.  The  spine  on  the 
2nd  ventral  segment  is  large,  becooies  gradually  wider  from  the 
base  to  the  top  ;  its  apex  has  an  oblique  slope ;  on  the  penultimate 
segment  is  a  distinct  rounded  tubercle. 

A  distinct  species  related  to  B.  pinguis  and  B.  latitarsis.~\ 

BeMBEX  MELANCHOLICA  Sm. 

Except  that  the  yellow  lines  on  the  mesonotum  are  indistinct 
and  very  short,  an  example  from  Singapore  agrees  very  well  with 
the  description  of  this  species.  In  the  male  the  incised  apex  of 
the  last  abdominal  segment  is  a  characteristic  feature. 

[Bembex  boeneana,  sp.  n. 

Long.  22  mm.    S  • 

Hah.  Borneo. 

This  species  has  the  pale  lacteous  colour  of  B.  melancliolica,  and 
is  closely  related  to  it ;  but  it  may  be  at  once  separated  by  the  fact 
that  the  last  abdominal  segment  is  not  incised  in  the  middle. 

Antennae  black ;  the  scape  yellow  below  ;  the  apical  two  joints 
are  hoUoAved  below ;  the  last  has  its  apex  obliquely  truncated  and 
is  broadly,  roundly  incised ;  the  12th  is  more  obliquely  and 
slightly  incised;  the  11th  is  obliquely  narrowed  at  the  base;  the 
10th  is  slightly  spinose  in  the  middle  ;  the  9th  is  sharply  spinose  ; 
the  8th  has  a  less  distinct  spine.  Head  thickly  covered  with  long, 
soft,  white  hair;  black,  the  inner  orbits  to  near  the  top,  the 
clypeus,  labrum,  and  mandibles,  except  at  the  apex,  livid  yellow  ; 
below  the  antennae  are  two  black  marks,  longer  than  broad, 
rounded  above,  obliquely  narrowed  on  the  inner  side.  Mesonotum 
black ;  an  interrupted  U-shaped  yellow  mark  in  its  centre,  and 
there  is  a  wider  line  alongside  the  tegulse.  Scutellum  black, 
yellow  round  the  apex  ;  postscutellum  for  the  greater  part  yellow. 
Median  segment  yellow  ;   a  somewhat  triangular  black  mark  on 


1901.}  HTMENOPTBEA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  27 

either  side  at  the  base :  on  the  inner  side  they  are  produced  nar- 
rowly and  obliquely  to  the  middle  of  the  segment  and  outwardly 
down  the  metapleurae,  where  they  become  much  narrowed  on  the 
lower  end.  On  the  pleurae  there  is  an  elongated  pyriform  black 
mark  near  the  tubercles.  Legs  coloured  like  the  body  ;  the  femora 
and  tibise  lined  with  black  above  ;  the  front  tarsi  are  broadly 
dilated ;  the  2nd  joint  is  roundly  dilated  on  the  outer  side,  the 
dilated  part  is  clearly  separated  ;  the  base  of  the  joint  is  not  con- 
tracted ;  the  middle  femora  are  not  toothed  beneath ;  near  the 
apex  on  the  lower  side  is  a  shallow  incision.  The  apical  slope  of 
the  basal  segment  and  the  apical  third  of  the  others  are  black  ; 
the  black  bands  are  dilated  broadly  and  irregularly  backwards  in 
the  middle ;  behind  the  middle  of  the  segments  are  two  narrow, 
transverse,  short  lines ;  the  apical  segment  is  black,  with  two 
large,  somewhat  triangular  yellow  marks  in  the  middle  ;  its  apex 
is  broadly,  bluntly  rounded.] 

[PiSON  FUSCIPALPIS,  sp.  n. 

Niger,  niticlus,  dense  argenteo-pilosus ;  alis  Jtyalinis,  stigmate 
nervisque  nigris.     $  . 

Long.  6  mm. 

Hah.  Singapore. 

Scape  and  pedicle  of  antennae  densely  covered  with  silvery 
pubescence;  the  flagellum  less  densely  with  a  pale  pile.  The 
lower  part  of  the  front  and  of  the  eye-incision,  the  face,  and  the 
clypeus  are  densely  covered  with  silvery  pubescence  ;  the  upper 
part  of  the  front  and  the  vertex  with  short  silvery  pubescence ; 
the  front  and  vertex  are  shagreened  and  can  hardly  be  called 
punctured ;  the  front  has  a  shallow  but  distinct  furrow  down  its 
centre.  The  mandibles  are  broadly  rufous  in  the  centre;  the 
palpi  are  fuscous.  Thorax  shagreened  and  thickly  covered  with 
silvery  pubescence.  Pronotum  clearly  separated  behind.  The 
basal  part  of  the  median  segment  has  a  distinct  keel  down  the 
middle ;  a  stout  keel  runs  from  the  spiracles  to  the  apex  of  the 
segment ;  the  apex  of  the  segment  has  an  oblique  slope ;  on  the 
upper  half  is  a  deep  furrow ;  on  either  side  of  this  are  five  curved 
striae.  Wings  clear  hyaline ;  the  apex  slightly  inf  uscated ;  the 
nervures  and  stigma  are  black  ;  the  pedicle  is  longer  than  the 
lower  two  transverse  cubital  nervures,  which  are  roundly  curved  ; 
the  second  recurrent  nervure  is  received  almost  in  the  middle  of 
the  cellule ;  the  first  recurrent  about  the  length  of  the  top  of  the 
apical  cubital  cellule  from  the  transverse  cubital  nervure.  Legs 
densely  pruinose ;  the  calcaria  pale.  The  basal  segment  of  the 
abdomen  is  as  long  as  the  second  segment ;  the  two  are  clearly 
separated. 

The  tegulae  are  piceous  on  the  outer  side  ;  the  basal  two  segments 
df  the  abdomen  have  their  margins  depressed  ;  the  anterior  pai*t 
of  the  pronotum  i"s  distinctly  separated  from  the  larger  posterior 
part ;  both  have  oblique  slopes. 

A  distinct  species  from  P.  suspiciosus  Sm.,  vi'hich  is  also  from 
Singapore.] 


28  MR.  p.  CAMERON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

CRABEONIDiE. 

[Ceabeo  impetugsus,  sp.  n. 

Niger,  abclomine  maculis  Jlavis  sex  ;  geniculis  tibiisque  Jlavo- 
lineatis  ;  alishyalinis,  7iervis  stigmateque  nigris.     $. 

Long.  6-7  mm. 

Hah.  Singapore. 

Head  black  ;  the  front  and  vertex  almost  bare,  alutaceous  ;  the 
ocelli  are  in  a  curve,  the  hinder  are  separated  from  each  other  by 
a  slightly  less  distance  than  they  are  from  the  eyes,  which,  on  the 
inner  side  above,  are  obliquely  narrowed.  The  sides  of  the  clypeus 
are  thickly  covered  with  silvery  pubescence ;  the  middle  has  a 
distinct  keel.  The  basal  half  of  the  mandibles  is  yellow.  Thorax 
black,  opaque ;  yellow  are  two  lines  on  the  pronotum,  two  marks 
on  the  scutellum,  and  the  tubercles.  The  postscutellum  is  longi- 
tudinally striated.  The  base  of  the  median  segment  is  depressed 
and  bears  stout  keels  ;  the  basal  area  is  defined  by  a  wide  furrow, 
w^hich  is  traversed  by  the  strife ;  the  apical  half  has  a  deep  furrow 
in  the  centre  ;  the  sides  of  the  segments  are  bounded  by  a  stout 
keel,  at  the  base  of  which,  on  the  inner  side,  are  two  small  areae. 
Propleurse  strongly  aciculated  ;  the  hinder  part  is  striated.  Meso- 
pleuraj  alutaceous  ;  the  furrow  is  crenulated  ;  the  apex  is  obliquely 
narrowed,  with  a  keel  at  the  base,  behind  which  is  a  narrow  crenu- 
lated furrow,  Metapleurae  closely  and  minutely  striated,  except 
at  the  base  above,  where  there  is  a  strongly  striated  part,  bordered 
behind  by  a  furrow.  Wings  clear  hyaline;  the  nervures  black ; 
the  radial  cellule  is  slightly  infuscated.  Legs  black ;  the  four 
anterior  knees,  the  tibiae  (except  broadly  behind),  the  hinder  tibiae 
behind  (except  at  the  apex),  and  the  calcaria  yellow.  The  petiole 
is  nearly  as  long  as  the  following  three  segments  united ;  it  is 
opaque  and  dilated  at  the  apex  ;  there  are  two  yellow  oblique 
lines  in  the  middle  of  the  2nd  segment,  two  longer  ones  on  the 
base  of  the  3rd,  and  a  broad  one  on  the  base  of  the  4th  ;  the  latter 
is  slightly  incised  in  the  middle  at  the  apex.] 

[Trypoxylon  varipilosum,  sp.  n. 

Nigrum,  abclomine  rufo,  petiolo  nigro ;  pedihus  testaceis,  tarsis 
posticis  nigris ;  facie  clypeoque  dense  aureo-pilosis ;  alis  hyalinis, 
nervis  nigris,  stigma  te  fusco.     5  , 

Long.  16  mm. 

Hah.  Singapore. 

Antennae  testaceous,  paler  towards  the  base.  The  front  and 
eye-incisions  are  covered  with  golden  pubescence  ;  on  the  face  and 
clypeus  the  pubescence  is  denser  and  more  silvery  in  hue.  The 
apex  of  the  clypeus  is  rufo-testaceous  ;  its  middle  broadly  but  not 
very  much  projects,  the  projection  is  slightly  waved  in  the  centre. 
Mandibles  testaceous,  paler,  more  yellowish  towards  the  apex. 
The  upper  part  of  the  front  is  broadly  but  not-  deeply  furrowed ; 
the  lower  is  stoutly  keeled.  The  hinder  part  of  the  head  is 
thickly  covered  with  golden-silvery  pubescence.     Thorax  smooth 


1901.]  lITMElSrOPTEK-V  OP  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITIOX."  29 

and  shining,  thickly  covered  with  longish  silvery  hair  ;  on  the 
mesonotum  the  hair  has  a  golden  tinge.  The  basal  half  of  the 
median  segment  has  a  wide  shallow  fnrrow,  which  becomes 
gradually  wider  towards  the  apex ;  the  furrow  on  the  apical  slope 
is  wide  on  the  basal  two-thirds,  much  nari'ower  and  shallower  on 
the  apical.  Legs  testaceous :  the  four  front  femora  are  more 
rufous  in  colour ;  the  posterior  darker  hi  tint  and  are  lined  with 
black  on  the  inner  and  outer  sides  :  the  apex  of  the  hinder  tibise  and 
the  hinder  tarsi  black.  Abdomen  ferruginous  ;  the  petiole,  except 
at  its  apex,  black. 

Comes  nearest,  apparently,  to  T.  coloratum  Smith.  The  legs 
probably  vary  in  tint;  the  hinder  coxse  are  black  at  the  base 
behind.  The  pleurae  have  a  plumbeous  tint.  There  are  curved 
lateral  furrows  on  the  base  of  the  median  segment,  but  they  are 
not  deep  or  very  distinct.] 

V  E  s  P  I  D  jE. 

Vespa  cincta  Fab. 

Biserat.  The  common  Indian  form,  not  the  Malayan  var. 
affinis.  In  most  of  the  workers  the  rufous  colour  of  the  abdomen 
extends  on  to  the  basal  segment. 

PoLiSTES  sagittaeius  Sauss. 

One  specimen  of  this  common  species  from  Biserat. 

ICAEIA  LEPTOGASa?EK,  Sp.  n, 

Plava,    capite   supra,    mesonoto     medioque  pronoti   nigris ;    alls 
hyalinis,  nervis  stigmateque  testaceis.     $  . 

Long.  14-15  mm. 

Hah.  Patalung,  Malay  Peninsula. 

$  .  Antennae  dark  rufous  ;  the  scape  darker  in  colour.  On  the 
head  the  vertex,  the  front  (except  near  the  eyes  and  immediately 
above  the  antennae),  and  the  part  below  the  antennae  and  above 
the  clypeus,  and  bordered  on  the  outer  side  by  the  sutures,  are 
black  ;  there  is  an  obscure  line  down  the  clypeus,  which  does  not 
extend  quite  to  the  apex.  The  mandibular  teeth  are  black.  Meso- 
notum black.  On  the  apex  of  the  scutellum  is  a  triangular  black 
mark  :  its  central  furrow  is  deep,  and  does  not  extend  to  the  base. 
The  furrow  on  the  median  segment  is  narrow  at  the  base ;  the  rest 
of  it  is  much  wider,  with  the  sides  obliquely  sloped ;  the  centre 
has  a  narrow  keel.  Legs  coloured  like  the  body  ;  the  apices  of  the 
four  posterior  tibiae  and  their  tarsi  black.  Abdomen  elongate, 
without  black  ;  the  petiole  is  nearly  as  long  as  the  2nd  and  3rd 
segments  united. 

This  is  a  larger  species  than  S.  sulciscutis  ;  the  femora  want 
entirely  the  black  colour  so  conspicuous  in  the  last-named  species  ; 
the  abdomen  is  distinctly  longer  compared  with  the  thorax,  and 
the  rest  of  the  abdomen  is  clearly  longer  compared  with  the 
petiole ;  the  second  segment  itself  is  longer  compared  with  its 
width  at  the  apex. 


30  ME.  P.  CAMERON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

[ICAEIA  SULCISCUTIS,  Sp.  11. 

Fallide  Jlava,  supra  late  nicjro-maoalata  ;  pedihus  pallide  Jlavis, 
tarsis  nic/ris ;  scutello  sulcato  ;  alis  hyalinis,  stigmate  nervisque 
nigro-fvscis.     ^  . 

Long.  13  mm. 

Bah.  Bukit  Tomah,  Siugapore. 

Aiitennse  deep  black,  stout ;  the  joints  of  the  flagelluin  clearly 
separated.  Head  pale  yellow  ;  brownish  black  are  the  front,  ex- 
cept the  orbits  of  the  ocelli  and  a  mark  above  the  antennae,  the 
outer  orbits  broadly,  and  the  clypeus,  except  for  a  black  line  down 
its  middle  on  the  basal  two-thirds,  the  line  becoming  wider  towards 
the  apex.  The  black  mark  on  the  front  is  dilated  outwardly  on 
the  lo^^■er  edges  ;  there  is  a  narrow  but  distinct  furrow  extending 
from  the  ocelli  to  the  antennae ;  on  the  black  mark  between  the 
antennae  are  two  small  yellow  marks.  The  apex  of  the  clypeus  is 
acutely  pointed  in  the  middle.  Mandibles  pallid  yellow,  except 
that  the  teeth  are  black.  The  prothorax  is  black,  except  the  hinder 
edges  narrowly,  the  upper  edges  and  a  broader,  more  irregular  line 
before  the  middle.  The  scutellum  is  broadly  furrowed  down  the 
middle  ;  it  is  yellow,  except  the  middle,  narrowly  behind,  and  a  large 
triangular  mark  behind.  The  median  segment  is  edged  with  brown 
behind  and  more  narrowly  down  the  centre ;  this  central  line  is 
much  narrowed  on  the  top.  The  basal  line  extends  obliquely  to 
the  spiracles  ;  the  pleural  furrows  are  clearly  defined;  the  furrow  on 
the  centre  of  the  median  segment  is  keeled.  The  middle  femora 
are  brownish  on  the  basal  two-thirds  above ;  the  hinder  are 
entirely  black,  as  are  also  the  four  hiuder  tarsi  and  the  apices  of 
the  four  hinder  tibiae.  The  petiole  is  brown,  its  apex  and  sides 
pallid  yellow  ;  the  other  segments  are  brownish,  with  the  apices 
and  the  ventral  surface  pallid  yellow.] 

EUMENES  CIECINALIS  Fab. 

Hah.  Patalung,  Singora,  Malay  Peninsula. 

The  three  examples  are  very  dark-coloured,  and  all  differ  from 
each  other  in  coloration. 

[Odyneeus  mephitis,  sp.  n. 

Niger,  jlavo-maculatus ;  abdominis  hasi  rufa;  pedibus  Jlavis, 
femoribus  rufis,  tibiis  posticis  nigris ;  alis  hyalinis,  stigmate 
fusco.     2 ' 

Long.  6  mm. 

Hah.  Ceylon. 

Belongs  to  the  section  without  a  suture  on  the  i)etiole,  and 
comes  close  to  0.  miniatus  and  0.  diffinis. 

Scape  of  antennae  bright  yellow  below  ;  the  base  of  the  flngellum 
rufous.  Head  closely  and  uniformly  punctured;  black;  the  oblique 
sides  of  the  clypeus,  a  mark  above  the  antennae,  roundly  dilated  on 
either  side  below  the  middle,  the  lateral,  the  upper,  and  lower 
portions  being  not  clearly  separated,  the  end  of  the  eye-incisions, 


1901.]  HYMEKOPTEEA  or  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  31 

and  the  outer  upper  half  o£  the  eye-orbits,  pale  yello\\-.  The 
central  part  of  the  clypeus  is  flat  and  strongly  punctured  ;  the 
sides  are  oblique  ;  the  apex  transverse.  Pro-  and  mesothorax 
closely  and  strongly  punctured,  as  are  also  the  scutellum  and 
postscntellum  ;  the  postscutellum  has  an  oblique  slope,  and  does 
not  project  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  opaque,  rugose,  and 
thickly  covered  with  silvery  pubescence.  Legs  pallid  yellow  ;  the 
femora  rufous  ;  the  middle  tibiae  are  lined  behind  with  black ;  the 
posterior  are  entirely  black.  On  the  thorax  there  are  two  yellow 
marks  on  the  pronotinn,  which  become  gradually  wider  outwardly  ; 
the  tegulic  are  yellow  at  the  base  and  apex  ;  the  sides  of  the 
scutellum  and  of  the  postscutellum  more  widely  are  also  yellow. 
Wings  clear  hyaline,  the  stigma  fuscous  ;  the  nervures  are  darker 
coloured.  The  basal  half  of  the  petiole  is  rufous  ;  its  apex  and 
the  apex  of  the  second  segment  are  yellow ;  the  apical  three 
segments  are  marked  with  yellow  in  the  middle  ;  on  the  sides  of 
the  second  segment  behind  the  middle  is  a  small  yellow  mark.] 

[Ehtnchium  taproban^,  sp.  n. 

Nigrimi,  ahdomine  flavo-lineato  ;  femorihus  rvfis  ;  alls  violaceo- 
hyalinis,  nervis  stigmateque  nigris.     §  . 

Long.  9  mm. 

Hah.  Ceylon. 

Antennae  black,  brownish  beneath.  Head  black,  a  hue  on  the 
lower  side  of  the  eye-incision,  a  small  triangular  mark  over  the 
antennae,  and  a  large  curved  mark  on  either  side  of  the  top  of  the 
clypeus,  yellow.  Erout  and  vertex  closely  and  strongly  pimctured  ; 
the  lower  part  of  the  front,  of  the  eye-incision,  and  the  face  and 
clypeus  covered  with  silvery  pubescence;  there  is  a  stout  keel 
between  the  antennae.  Clypeus  obliquely  narrowed  towards  the 
apex,  where  it  is  roundly  but  not  deeply  incised  ;  the  sides  are 
triangular.  Pro-  and  mesothorax  closely  and  strongly  punctured ; 
the  median  segment  is  more  deeply,  more  rugosely,  punctured  : 
the  postscutellum  has  a  sharp  edge  behind  and  is  slightly  depressed 
in  the  centre  there ;  the  sides  of  the  median  segment,  seen  from 
above,  are  straight  and  oblique.  The  base  of  the  thorax  is  trans- 
verse ;  in  the  centre  are  tv^  o  small  yellow  marks ;  the  tegulae  are 
black.  Wings  fuscous-violaceous ;  the  violaceous  tint  is  more 
distinct  at  the  apex  and  base ;  the  nervures  and  stigma  are  deep 
black.  Legs  black  ;  the  four  posterior  femora  are  rufous  ;  the 
anterior  and  the  anterior  tibiae  in  front  are  of  a  darker  rufous 
colour.  The  abdomen  is  closely  and  rather  strongly  punctured ; 
the  basal  segment  is  cup-shaped,  and  behind  is  clearly  separated 
from  the  2nd,  which  becomes  distinctly  narrowed  towards  the 
base ;  the  basal  two  segments  are  banded  with  yellow  all  round  ; 
the  3rd  is  banded  with  yellow  above ;  the  ti'ansverse  suture  on 
the  base  of  the  second  ventral  segment  has  a  blistered  appearance 
and  is  not  punctured.  The  sides  of  the  median  segment  are 
broadly  rounded,  not  angular  or  toothed ;  the  postscutellum  is 
more  distinctly  raised  than  usual  and  is  broadly  rounded  behind. 


32  MR.  p.  CAMEBOisr  o"N  THE  [May  7, 

This  species  looks  not  unlike,  at  first  sight,  a  small  example  of 
li.  Jlavomarginatwm,  but  is  abundantly  distinct;  e.  g.  the  sides  of  the 
median  segment  do  not  angularl}^  project.] 

Afiu  jE. 

[XTLOCOPA  MALAY A.NA,  sp.  U. 

Nigra,  thorace  supra  abdominisque  basi  dense  fulvo-jjiloins  ;  tursis 
anteriorilms  longe  alho-pilosis  ;  alis  fusco-violaceis.      c?  ■ 

Long.  25-26  mm. 

Hab.  Singapore. 

Antennae  black :  the  scape  and  the  fourth  and  following  joints 
rufous  beneath ;  the  scape  is  only  rufous  in  the  middle.  Head 
distinctly  narrower  than  the  thorax  ;  black,  closely  punctured  ;  the 
vertex  behind  is  covered  with  yellowish-fulvous  pubescence ;  the 
sides  of  the  face  to  the  middle  of  the  clypeus  with  shorter  white 
pubescence  ;  the  hair  on  the  upper  part  of  the  outer  orbits  is  black, 
on  the  lower  piceous.  In  the  middle  of  the  clypeus  is  a  pale  yellow- 
streak,  which  reaches  near  to  the  apex,  which  is  smooth  and  shining 
and  is  clearly  separated  ;  below  it  is  fringed  with  rufous  hair.  The 
mandibles  are  widely  grooved  above,  narrowly  below  ;  the  tooth  is 
long  and  becomes  gradually  narrowed  towards  the  apex ;  there  is 
no  subapical  or  upper  tooth  ;  the  space  above  the  lower  tooth  is 
roundly  curved.  The  entire  upper  part  of  the  thorax  is  thickly 
covered  with  bright  yellow  pubescence  ;  the  pro-  and  metapleurse 
are  shining  and  only  sparsely  haired  ;  the  mesopleura)  black,  closely 
punctured  and  thickly  covered  with  black,  mixed  with  pale,  hair  ; 
the  hair  on  the  breast  is  much  shorter  ;  the  apex  of  the  metapleurse 
may  be  piceous.  The  four  anterior  tarsi  are  thickly  fringed  with 
very  long  white  hair ;  the  hair  on  the  four  front  tibiae  is  black, 
white  on  the  top  in  front  and  on  the  apex  behind  ;  on  the  posterior 
legs  the  hair  is  entirely  black.  The  hair  on  the  basal  segment  of 
the  abdomen  is  yellow,  passing  gradually  on  the  2nd  and  3rd 
segments  into  olive  colour ;  on  the  other  segments  it  is  black.  The 
basal  ventral  segments  are  more  or  less  rufous  ;  the  sides  of  the 
2nd  segment  bear  yellowish  hair ;  those  of  the  3rd,  4th,  and  5th 
white,  the  others  black  hair  ;  the  hair  on  the  last  segments  is  long 
and  black.  The  wings  are  uniformly  deep  fuscous-violaceous  ;  the 
stigma  and  nervures  are  deep  black. 

The  ocelli  are  in  a  curve  •  .  • ;  the  hinder  are  separated  from 
each  other  by  about  the  same  distance  they  are  from  the  eyes.J 

[Xtlooopa  ceylonica,  sp.  n. 

Dense  ferrugineo-pilosa,  thorace  supra  abdominisque  basi  olivaceo- 
pilosis  ;  alis  fusco-violaceis.      d- 

Long.  27-28  mm. 

Hab.  Ceylon. 

This  species  closely  resembles  X.  riifescens,  but  is  more  slenderly 
built;  the  head  is  narrower  compared  with  the  mesothorax,  it  wants 
entirely  the  yellow  markings  on  the  face  and  clypeus ;  the  hair  on 


1901.]  HYMBIfOPTEKA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  33 

the  top  of  the  thorax  aud  base  of  abdomen  has  a  distinct  ohve 
tuit ;  the  2nd  recurrent  nervure  is  not  broadly  and  roundly  curved, 
but  has  the  upper  and  lower  parts  straight  and  oblique,  and  the 
face  and  clypeus  are  much  more  densely  covered  with  rufous  hair. 

The  underside  of  the  scape  is  pale  yellowish ;  the  lower  part  of 
the  flagellum  rufous  ;  the  third  joint  darker  coloured  than  the 
others.  Head  densely  covered  with  rufous  pubescence,  which  is 
shorter  on  the  face  and  clypeus  than  on  the  front  and  vertex.  The 
clypeus  is  closely  and  distinctly  punctured,  except  in  the  centre, 
where  it  is  smooth,  which  is  also  the  case  with  the  apex,  where 
it  is  very  smooth  and  shining;  the  labrum  is  more  projecting 
than  usual  and  is  keeled  in  the  middle.  The  ocelli  are  in  a  curve; 
the  hinder  are  separated  from  each  other  by  a  distinctly  greater 
distance  than  they  are  from  the  eyes.  Thorax  covered  with  olive- 
yellow  pubescence ;  the  olive  tint  is  more  noticeable  above  than  on 
the  pleurae.  The  pubescence  on  the  base  of  the  abdomen  has  a 
slight  olive  tint :  on  the  rest  it  is  bright  rufous  above  and  below. 
The  pubescence  on  the  legs  is  long,  dense  and  bright  rufous ;  the 
apices  of  the  tarsi  are  piceous.     Wings  fuscous,  with  bronzy  tints. 

The  anterior  femora  are  brownish  in  front ;  the  front  trochanters 
ti'iangularly  project  at  the  apex.] 

Xtlocopa  oollaeis  Linn. 

Xylocopa  pictifrons  Smith. 

6 .  One  example  of  what  agrees  fairly  well  with  Bingham's 
description  of  this  species  in  his  Fauna  of  India,  Hymenop. 
p.  538  ;  but  not  with  Smith's  original  description,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc. 
ii.  (1852)  p.  42,  and  in  his  Monograph  of  the  genus,  Trans.  Ent. 
Soc.  1874,  p.  275. 

Xtlocopa  grajstdioeps,  sp.  n. 

Nigra,  dense  fulvo-pilosa  ;  tarsis  ferrugineo-jnlosis  ;  alls  fulvo- 
hyalinis,  nervis  nigris.      2  • 

Long.  20  mm. 

Hah.  Singapore. 

Head  large,  nearly  as  wjde  as  the  thorax.  Ocelli  larger  than 
usual,  they  are  placed  in  a  triangle ;  the  hinder  are  separated  from 
the  eyes  by  one-half  the  distance  they  are  from  each  other. 
Clypeus  closely  and  strongly  punctured  ;  its  apex  has  a  depressed 
margin  ;  in  the  centre  is  a  stout,  shining,  smooth  tooth.  The  apical 
tooth  of  the  mandibles  is  large,  triangular ;  the  subapical  distinctly 
projects,  is  large  and  rounded  at  the  apex.  The  front  distinctly 
projects  between  the  antennae ;  it  is,  as  is  also  the  vertex,  closely, 
uniformly,  and  distinctly  punctured.  The  thorax  is  thickly  covered 
with  long  rufo-fulvous  hair ;  the  mesonotum  is  smooth  and  shining  ; 
the  scutellum  is  strongly,  but  not  very  closely  punctured,  as  is  also 
the  median  segment,  except  the  basal  area,  which  is  alutaceous  ; 
the  segment  has  a  semiperpendicular  slope  and  is  rounded  at  the 
top.     Wings  fulvo-hyaline ;  rufous  in  tint  along  the  fore  margin  ; 

Peoc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  III.  3 


34  MR.  p.  OAMEHOK  ON  THE  [Mav  7, 

the  1st  recurrent  nerviire  is  not  interstitial,  but  is  received  shortly 
beyond  the  2nd  transverse  cubital.  Tegailse  rufous,  black  round 
the  inner  edges.  The  hair  on  the  legs  is  dense,  long  and  bright 
rufous  ;  the  tooth  on  the  apex  of  the  fore  tibife  is  short,  bhmt,  and 
hollowed  on  the  outer  side.  The  hair  on  the  abdomen  is  similarly 
coloured  to  that  on  the  thorax ;  it  is  sparse  on  the  back  ;  the  ven- 
tral segments  are  fringed  with  long  hair ;  unless  the  segments  are 
distorted,  the  4th  is  distinctly  longer  than  the  3rd. 

A  distinct  species;  the  rufous  colour  of  the  pubescence  makes  it 
resemble  rufesceyis  Smith  ;  but,  apart  from  other  differences,  that 
species  is  a  Koptortliosoma,  whereas  the  present  species  is  a  Xylocopa 
s.  str.  It  is  a  well-marked  species,  through  its  head  being  larger 
and  more  particularly  wider,  compared  with  the  thorax,  than  usual, 
most  of  the  species  having  the  head  very  perceptibly  narrower  than 
the  mesothorax  ;  the  ocelli  too  are  larger  and  are  placed  in  a 
triangle,  while  with  most  of  the  species,  e.  g.  rufescens,  they  are 
placed  in  a  curve ;  they  are  also  placed  nearer  to  the  eyes  than  in 
the  typical  species  of  Xylocopa.'] 

KOPTORTHOSOMA  CjERULETJM  Fab. 

One  example  from  Kuala  Aring. 
KoPTORTHOSOMA  ^STUANS  Linn. 
Common,  as  elsewhere  in  the  Oriental  Region. 

KoPTORTHOSOMA  LATiPES  Drury. 
Common. 

Megaohile  ertthropoda,  sp.  n. 

Nigra,  pedihus  rufis  ;  capite  dorsoque  thoracis  dense  rufo-pilosis  ; 
scapo  antennarum  rufo  ;  alis  fulvo-hyalinis,  apice  fere  fumatis, 
stigmate  nervisque  fulvis.      $  . 

Long.  14-15  mm. 

Hah.  Singapore. 

The  scape  of  the  antennse  rufous ;  the  fliagellum  black,  brownish 
beneath.  Except  on  the  clypeus  the  head  is  thickly  covered  with 
bright  fulvo-rufous  hair ;  the  face  is  strongly  punctured :  the 
clypeus  is  more  closely  rugosely  punctured  and  is  strongly  keeled 
on  the  upper  two-thirds  ;  it  is  covered  (but  not  so  thickly  as  the 
front)  with  longish  dark  rufous  hair ;  on  its  sides  there  is  a  patch 
of  thick  fulvous  hair,  which  is  obliquely  narrowed  towards  the 
apes.  The  apical  tooth  of  the  mandibles  is  bluntly  rounded ;  the 
subapicai  tooth  is  shoi't,  broad,  bluntly  rounded,  and  is  furrowed 
broadly,  but  not  deeply,  in  the  middle.  The  entire  upper  part  of 
the  thorax  is  tliickly  covered  with  bright  rufous  hair,  except  in  the 
centre  of  the  median  segment.  The  pleuree  are  also  thickly  covered 
with  similar  pubescence.  Mesosternum  closely  rugosely  punc- 
tured and  covered  with  pale  fulvous  hair.  Legs  rufous  ;  the  coxse 
and  the  four  anterior  trochanters  black  ;  the  hair  is  thick,  stiff,  and 
dark  rufous ;  the  tarsi  are  darker  in  colour,  especially  towards  the 
apex.     Wings  fulvo-hyaline,  the  apex  slightly  smoky  ;  the  stigma 


1901.]  HYMEiSrOPTBEA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION. "  35 

and  uervures  are  fulvous.  The  base  of  the  basal  segment  of  the 
abdomen  and  its  sides  are  covered  with  fulvous  pubescence  ;  its 
apex  and  the  apex  of  the  second  are  fringed  with  similarly  coloured 
hair :  the  hair  on  the  rest  of  the  segment  and  the  ventral  scopa 
deep  black.     Teguloe  rufous. 

The  apex  of  tbe  clypeus  is  transverse  in  the  middle  and  has  the 
sides  rounded  ;  the  central  part  has  an  irregular  margin,  almost 
toothed  on  the  outer  side  ;  the  hinder  ocelli  are  separated  from  each 
other  by  twice  the  distance  they  are  from  the  eyes. 

Comes  near  to  M.  dimidiata  Sm. 

Megachile  eeedebici,  sp.  n. 

Long.  21  mm.      5  . 

Hob.  Kuala  A-ring,  Malay  Peninsula. 

This  species  closely  resembles  one  from  Borneo  which  is  also 
undescribed.  They  both  agree  in  being  large,  in  having  the  pubes- 
cence black,  except  on  the  apex  of  the  abdomen  (where  it  is  pale) 
and  the  scopa  (which  is  bright  red).  The  differences  between  the 
two  may  be  expressed  thus  : — 

Head  and  thorax  closely  and  strongly  punctured  ;  the  apical 
segment  of  the  abdomen  clothed  with  pale  pubescence ;  the 
mesonotum  not  furrowed  laterally.    Length 21  mm.     frederici. 

Head  and  thorax  sparsely  punctured ;  the  apical  two  seg- 
ments of  the  abdomen  clothed  with  pale  pubescence ;  the 
mesonotum  with  a  wide,  deep  furrow  on  either  side.  Length 
23-24  mm hicanaliculata. 

Head  strongly  and  closely  punctured  ;  the  face  is  not  so  strongly 
or  regularly  punctured  and  in  the  middle  is  shagreened  only ;  it  is 
distinctly  separated  from  the  face.  The  inner  part  of  the  man- 
dibles is  irregularly  punctured ;  the  outer  side  has  the  punctures 
smaller  and  more  widely  separated  ;  the  apical  tooth  is  bkmtly 
triangular ;  the  subapical  is  a  bluntly  rounded  small  tubercle. 
Mesonotum  with  the  scutellum  closely,  uniformly,  and  strongly 
punctured  ;  the  postscutellum  is  closely  and  minutely  punctured : 
the  basal  area  of  the  median  segment  is  smooth  and  shining  ;  the 
rest  of  it  is  closely  and  minutely  punctured  ;  the  base  of  the  seg- 
ment is  fringed  with  long  white  hair.  Pro-  and  mesopleurse  closely 
punctured,  the  metapleura  coarsely  shagreened.  Legs  deep  black, 
with  deep  black  pubescence  ;  the  pubescence  on  the  underside  of 
the  basal  joint  of  the  tarsi  is  bright  rufous  ;  the  calcaria  dull 
red,  almost  brown.  Wings  hyaline,  slightly  suffused  with  fulvous 
tints  ;  the  nervures  are  fuscous  black,  the  stigma  darker  coloured. 
Abdomen  black ;  the  back  almost  bare  to  the  last  segment,  which  is 
thickly  covered  with  greyish-white  pubescence  ;  the  segments  are 
sparsely  punctured  at  the  base  and  apex  ;  the  scopa  is  bright  rufous  ; 
the  basal  ventral  segment  is  for  the  greater  part  reddish  brown. 

[Megachile  bicanalicitlata,  sp.  n. 

Long.  23-24  mm. 

Hah.  Borneo,  Matang,  3000  feet  (Shelf ord). 

3* 


36  ME.  p.  CAMERON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

Vertex  shiniug,  sparsely  punctured ;  the  punctures  shallow, 
irregular.  Belo^A  the  anterior  ocellus  is  a  V-shaped  hollow,  bordered 
with  stout  keels  ;  the  sides  have  an  oblique  slope.  The  part  of  the 
face  below  the  antennse  is  roundly  convex  and  bordered  on  its 
lower  edge  by  a  keel ;  the  clypeus  is  keeled  down  the  middle  and 
is  more  strongly  and  regularly  punctured  than  the  face,  its  apex  is 
alutaceous,  opaque,  and  impunctate,  its  sides  are  roundly,  but  not 
very  much,  dilated.  Mandibles  opaque,  their  basal  half  sparsely 
punctured  ;  their  apical  tooth  is  bluntly  rounded,  the  subapical  is 
indistinct  and  rounded.  Mesonotum  shining,  sparsely  punctured, 
and  having  a  blistered  appearance  ;  its  central  part  is  bordered  by 
two  shallow,  wide  furrows  ;  outside  these  is  a  narrow,  deeper,  and 
more  clearly  defined  one  ;  the  outer  edge  is  distinctly  and  sharply 
raised  and  furrowed  on  the  inner  side.  The  scutellum  is  irregularly 
punctured  like  the  mesonotum.  Median  segment  closely,  distinctly, 
but  not  very  strongly,  punctured  ;  the  basal  area  is  smooth  and 
shining,  except  at  the  edges  (where  it  is  opaque)  and  at  the  base  on 
the  outer  side  (where  it  is  punctured) ;  the  middle  is  furrowed ;  the 
sides  are  thickly  covered  with  long  white  hair.  Pleurae  and  sternum 
rugosely  punctured;  under  the  wings,  below  the  tegulse,  is  a 
thick  patch  of  white  pubescence.  Wings  hyaline,  the  apex  slightly 
smoky ;  the  nervures  and  stigma  black.  Legs  black,  thickly 
covered  with  stiff  black  hair.  Abdomen  black  ;  the  dorsal  segments 
closely  and  minutely  punctured  ;  the  basal  slope  is  covered  with 
longish,  white,  soft  hair  ;  the  apices  of  the  basal  four  segments  are 
fringed  with  white  hair  ;  the  apical  two  are  thickly  covered  with 
short  white  pubescence  and  with  longer  white  hair ;  the  ventral 
scopa  is  bright  rufous.] 

Trigona  collina  Sm. 

Patalung.     Described  by  Smith  from  Mount  Ophir,  Malacca. 

Trigona  testaceitaesis,  sp,  n. 

Nigra,  capite  thoraceque  dense  albo-pilosis ;  scapo  antennarum 
apiceque  tarsorum  testae eis ;  alls  Jiyalinis,  nervis  stigmateque 
piceis.      ^  . 

Long,  fere  4  mm. 

Hah.  Patani,  Malay  Peninsula. 

Scape  of  antennse  and  the  second  joint  testaceous ;  the 
flagellum  dark  testaceous,  black  on  the  upperside.  Head  smooth 
and  shining ;  densely  covered  with  short  white  pubescence  ;  the 
edge  of  the  clypeus  is  testaceous  ;  the  labrum  dark  testaceous. 
Mandibles  obscure  testaceous,  darker  in  the  middle.  Thorax 
densely  covered  with  short  pale  pubescence,  except  on  the  median 
segment ;  on  the  pleurse  and  sternum  it  is  denser  and  longer  than 
it  is  on  the  mesonotum.  Legs  black,  the  tarsi  testaceous,  the 
basal  joint  of  the  hinder  black  ;  the  hair  on  the  legs  is  black,  paler 
on  the  apical  joints  of  the  tarsi.  Wings  hyaline,  highly  iridescent ; 
the  stigma  and  nervures  are  testaceous  or  piceous.  Abdomen 
smooth  and  shining ;  the  basal  segment  may  be  brownish. 

Patani.     Several  workers. 


1901.]  HYAIEN'OPTBBA  OP  THE  "  SKEA.T  EXPEDITION.'*  37 

ICHNEUMONIDJS. 
JoPPESn. 

Atanyjoppa,  gen.  nov. 

Antennae  short,  distinctly  shorter  than  the  abdomen,  thickened 
and  compressed  beyond  the  middle.  Clypeus  not  separated  from 
the  face  by  a  suture ;  a  fovea  on  either  side  of  it  above  ;  its  apex 
slightly  and  roundly  incurved  in  the  middle  ;  the  labrurn  distinctly 
projecting.  Face  flat.  Mandibles  bidentate  at  the  apex  ;  the  lower 
tooth  much  smaller  than  the  upper.  Occiput  margined,  roundly 
incised.  8cutellum  flat,  broader  than  long,  its  sides  keeled. 
Median  segment  depressed  in  the  middle  at  the  base  ;  it  is  distinctly 
areolated.  Gastrocoeli  not  very  distinct,  elongate,  narrowed  towards 
the  apex.  Areolet  5-angled,  narrowed  above,  the  recurrent  nervure 
is  received  in  its  centre ;  the  apical  abscissa  of  the  radius  is  curved 
upwards  at  the  base.  Legs  stout ;  the  base  of  the  front  tibiae 
deeply  incised  ;  the  claws  are  simple.  Abdomen  long,  three  times 
the  length  of  the  thorax,  which  is  not  much  longer  than  the  basal 
two  segments  united.  Petiole  curved  at  the  apex ;  its  spiracles 
are  placed  near  the  base  of  its  apical  fourth ;  the  ventral  fold 
extends  to  the  apex  of  the  4th  segment ;  the  segments  are  prod  uced 
laterally  at  the  apex ;  there  ax'e  7  segments,  the  last  two  are  large 
and  form  a  sharp,  somewhat  triangular  point.  Ovipositor  short. 
The  middle  segments  of  the  abdomen  are  longitudinally  striated. 

In  Ashmead's  classification  of  the  Joppini  (Proc.  U.S.  Nat. 
Museum,  xxiii.  p.  13)  this  genus  comes  nearest  to  the  American 
genus  Lindigia,  Kreichbaumer,  which  is,  however,  very  different 
in  form.  The  characteristics  of  the  genus  are  the  very  short, 
strongly  dilated  antennae,  the  very  long  abdomen,  with  its  middle 
segments  sharply  dilated  at  the  apex,  projecting  labrum,  and  flat, 
stroufflv  keeled  scutellum. 


'tiV 


[Atanyjoppa  flavomaoulata,  sp.  u. 

Nigra,  promesothoraceque  alho-maculatis ;  metathorace  rufo;  abdo- 
tnine  late  albo-lineato  ;  pedihus  anteriorihus  alhis,  posticis  nigris, 
basi  tihiarum  late  alba;  alls  hyalinis,  stigmate  testaceo.      5  . 

Long.  17-18  mm. 

Hab.  Borneo  {Shelford). 

Antennae  short,  scarcely  longer  than  the  thorax.  Thorax  and 
basal  two  segments  of  the  abdomen  black  ;  the  scape  beneath,  the 
basal  joints  of  the  flagellum  at  the  apex,  and  the  7th  to  15th  more  or 
less  white ;  the  scape  smooth,  thickly  covered  with  long  pale  hair. 
Head  large  ;  the  face,  labrum,  clypeus,  mandibles,  palpi,  the  inner 
orbits  (widest  in  the  middle  and  behind  the  ocelli),  and  the  outer 
orbits  (narrow  above  and  becoming  wider  towards  the  bottom) 
yellow ;  the  black  on  the  front  and  vertex  has  a  plumbeous  hue  ; 
the  front  and  vertex  are  very  smooth  and  shining  ;  the  face  is 
obscurely  punctured  in  the  middle,  the  clypeus  at  the  base. 
Labrum  thickly  fringed  with  long  hair.     Thorax  :  the  edge  of  the 


38  MB.  p.  CAMERON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

pronotum  all  round  above  and  slightly  wider  at  the  apex,  a  short 
line  on  either  side  of  the  mesonotum,  the  sides  of  the  scutellum 
broadly,  its  apex  more  narrowly,  the  postscutellum,  the  edge  of 
the  propleurse  broadly,  the  lower  half  of  the  mesopleurse,  the 
tubercles,  the  edge  of  the  apex  of  the  mesopleurae,  and  the  sides  of 
the  metanotum  at  the  apex,  yellow.  The  mesonotum  at  the  base 
and  sides  obscurely  punctured ;  the  middle  with  large  deep 
punctures  :  it  is  thickly  covered  with  short  black  hairs,  especially 
at  the  base.  Scutellum  flat,  large,  slightly  narrowed  towards  the 
apex ;  the  sides  with  a  stout  keel,  which  extends  from  the  base 
to  near  the  apex  ;  except  along  its  edges  it  bears  large  deep 
punctures  ;  the  apex  is  longitudinally  striated ;  the  depression  at 
the  base  is  narrow  and  shallow.  Postscutellum  smooth  and 
shining.  The  base  of  the  median  segment  is  coarsely  shagreened  : 
the  rest  strongly  punctured  ;  the  arese  are  not  distinctly  indicated, 
the  keels  being  faint ;  the  supramedian  is  longer  than  broad,  and 
obliquely  narrowed  at  the  base  ;  there  are  no  teeth  ;  the  apex  in 
the  middle  is  depressed,  shining,  and  finely  transversely  striated ; 
the  keels  on  the  apex  of  the  segment  are  more  distinct  than  they 
are  on  the  base  ;  the  posterior  median  area  is  triangularly  nar- 
rowed at  the  base.  PropleuraB  shining ;  the  upper  part  strongly 
obliquely  striated  :  the  apex  furrowed  ;  the  mesopleurae  punctured, 
more  strongly  below  than  above  ;  the  middle  behind  smooth, 
plumbeous ;  the  apex  is  crenulated.  Metapleurse  strongly  find 
closely  punctured.  Legs  stout,  thickly  covered  with  white  hair ; 
the  four  anterior  tibiae  and  the  femora  are  lined  above  with  black  ; 
the  hinder  coxae  are  black,  except  in  the  middle  behind  ;  the  basal 
joint  of  the  trochanters  and  the  basal  half  of  the  hinder  tibiae 
yellow  ;  the  tarsi  spinose  ;  the  metatarsus  and  the  base  of  the  2nd 
joint  are  testaceous.  Wings  hyaline,  the  nervures  blackish  ;  the 
areolet  narrowed  above,  being  there  somewhat  less  in  length  than 
the  space  bounded  by  the  first  transverse  cubital  and  the  recurrent 
nervures  ;  the  latter  is  received  nearly  in  the  middle ;  the  wings 
are  rather  short,  and  hardly  reach  to  the  apex  of  the  4th  abdominal 
segment.  The  petiole  becomes  gradually  widened  from  the  middle 
to  the  apex ;  yellow,  the  dilated  part  blackish,  and  obscurely 
longitudinally  shagreened ;  the  2nd,  3rd,  and  4th  segments  are 
broadly  yellowish  at  the  base  ;  the  apical  three  are  entirely  white  ; 
the  2nd  and  3rd  segments  punctured  and  longitudinally  striolated 
in  the  middle  ;  the  gastrocoeli  are  shallow,  and  not  very  clearly 
indicated  ;  the  ovipositor  projects,  its  sheath  is  black.] 

[Atakyjoppa  rufomaculata,  sp.  n. 

Long.  22  mm.  $  . 

Hob.  Khasia  {Roilmey). 

Agrees  closely  with  the  preceding  species,  from  which  it  may 
be  known  by  the  median  segment  being  broadly  black  at  the  base 
and  in  the  middle,  while  the  metapleurse  are  also  broadly  black  at 
the  base. 

Antennae  black  :   the  scape  beneath  and  the  7th  joint  to  the 


1901.]  STNEifOPTERA  OJ?  THE  "  SKEAI  EXPEDITIOJ^."  39 

commencement  of  the  dilatation  M'hite  ;  the  dilated  apex  has  a 
brownish  hue.  Head  pale  yellow  ;  the  middle  of  the  front  and  of 
the  vertex  broadly,  the  occiput,  and  the  hinder  part  of  the  outer 
orbits  to  shortly  below  the  middle,  black.  Face  and  clypeus  shining, 
flat,  sparselv  and  indistinctly  punctured  ;  the  face  is  covered  with 
short,  the  clypeus  with  longer  pale,  hair  ;  the  apex  of  the  clypeus 
is  more  distinctly  punctured  than  the  rest ;  the  projecting  labrum 
is  smooth  and  is  fringed  with  long  hair.  Mandibles  yellow,  black 
at  the  apex.  Thorax  black  ;  the  edge  of  the  pronotum,  two  short 
marks,  narrowed  at  the  base  and  apex,  the  sides  of  the  scatellum 
broadly  and  of  its  apes  more  narrowly,  the  postscutellum,  an 
irregular  mark  behind  the  metathoracic  spiracles,  the  apex  of  the 
segment  from  behind  the  middle  and  extending  obliquely  on  to  the 
pleurae,  the  low^er  edge  of  the  propleurae  and  slightly  less  than 
the  lower  half  of  the  mesopleurae,  yellow.  Mesonotum  smooth, 
closely  punctured  in  the  middle,  where  the  yellow  spots  are. 
Scutellum  strongly,  but  not  very  closely,  punctured.  Post- 
scutellum sparsely  punctured.  Propleurae  closely  and  distinctly 
punctured ;  in  the  middle  are  some  curved  keels,  at  the  apex 
short  striae;  the  yellow,  lower  part  of  the  mesopleurae  closely 
punctured.  Median  segment  closely,  rugosely  punctured  all  over ; 
the  posterior  median  area  coarsely,  closely,  transversely  striated. 
The  four  front  legs  are  yellow ;  the  femora  and  tibiae  are  black 
behind  ;  the  hinder  coxae  are  yellow,  black  below  and  at  the  base 
above  ;  the  hinder  femora  entirely,  and  the  apical  part  to  near  the 
middle  and  the  base  narrowly,  black  ;  the  hinder  tarsi  are  blackish 
behind.  Wings  clear  hyaline  ;  the  stigma  testaceous  ;  the  apical 
nervures  fuscous.  Abdomen  black  ;  the  basal  four  segments  to 
near  the  middle  and  the  apical  two  segments  entirely  yellow  ;  the 
postpetiole  is  closely  shagreened  and  closely  striated  ;  the  middle 
segments  are  closely  punctured  ;  the  2nd  and  3rd  segments  are 
longitudinally  striated  at  the  base.] 

Mesostenini. 
Skeatia,  gen.  nov. 

(^ .  Antennae  shorter  than  the  body  ;  the  basal  joints  of  the 
fl.agellum  elongated,  the  middle  ones  roundly  and  broadly  dilated 
on  the  lower  side ;  the  apical  ones  dilated,  about  three  times 
broader  than  long.  Thorax  three  times  longer  than  broad ;  the 
parapsidal  furrows  deep,  reaching  to  shortly  beyond  the  middle. 
Median  segment,  except  at  the  base,  coarsely,  irregularly  reticu- 
lated ;  the  basal  smooth  part  is  bounded  by  a  stout  transverse 
keel ;  in  its  centre  is  a  small  square  area.  Metapleural  keel 
distinct,  long.  Areolet  small,  square  ;  the  apical  nervure  is  faint ; 
the  transverse  median  nervure  is  received  behind  the  transverse 
basal ;  the  hind  wings  as  in  Mesostenus.  Legs  slender,  long ;  the 
fore  tarsi  nearly  twice  the  length  of  the  tibiae  ;  their  claws  are 
small ;  the  hinder  coxse  elongate,  about  three  times  longer  than 


40  MR.  P.  CAMERON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

wide.  Petiole  of  abdomen  long,  slender,  curved,  not  much  dilated 
towards  the  apex. 

The  malar  space  is  moderate  ;  the  eyes  reaching  to  the  end  of 
the  clypeal  fovese,  which  are  deep.  Clypeus  roundly  convex ;  not 
separated  by  a  suture  above.  Mandibles  large,  bidentate  ;  the 
upper  tooth  is  slightly  smaller  than  the  lower.  Mesopleural 
furrow  wide  and  deep.  Scutellum  roundly  convex,  only  keeled  at 
the  base ;  postscutellum  bifurcate  at  the  base.  Median  segment 
armed  with  two  long  teeth  ;  it  is  moderately  long.  Palpi  long  ; 
the  second  joint  of  the  maxillary  is  dilated  towards  the  apex.  The 
propleurse  are  stoutly  keeled  laterally  in  front.  The  head  is 
wider  than  the  thorax  ;  it  is  obliquely  narrowed  behind  the  eyes ; 
the  occiput  is  sharply  keeled.  The  seutellar  depression  is  large, 
deep,  and  bears  two  keels  in  the  middle. 

The  female  has  the  antennae  stouter  than  in  the  male,  and  they 
are  slightly  thickened  beyond  the  middle  ;  the  abdominal  petiole  is 
shorter  and  broader  towards  the  apex ;  the  apex  of  the  abdomen 
is  bluntly  pointed ;  the  last  segment  (the  8th)  is  very  short 
above,  belovv  it  is  much  moi'e  largely  developed  ;  the  ovipositor 
is  not  one-half  the  length  of  the  abdomen. 

The  metathoracic  spiracles  are  small,  oval,  about  twice  longer 
than  they  are  broad  ;  the  median  segment  is  depressed  at  the 
base,  the  seutellar  and  postscutellar  furrows  are  deep  and  crenu- 
lated.  The  last  joint  of  the  hinder  tarsi  is  about  equal  in  length 
to  the  third. 

Skeatia  albispina,  sp.  n. 

JSligra,  facie,  clypeo,  mandibulis  tarsisque  albis;  coxis  trochanter- 
ibusque  anteriorihus  pallide  Jlavis  ;  alis  fere  hyalinis,  nervis 
stigmateque  nigris.     (S . 

Long.  13  mm. 

Hah.  Bukit  Besar,  Malay  Peninsula. 

Antennas  black  ;  the  7th  to  24th  joints  white  beneath ;  the 
scape  pale  yellow  in  the  middle  below  ;  the  scape  is  covered  with 
short  pale  pubescence.  Head  smooth  and  shining  ;  black  ;  the 
face,  clypeus,  mandibles,  and  palpi  pale  yellow.  Ocelli  large. 
Pront  depressed  ;  a  stout  keel  runs  down  its  centre  from  the  ocelli. 
Eyes  large,  parallel.  Mesouotum  and  scutellum  smooth  and 
shining.  Propleuras  stoutly  longitudinally  keeled  behind.  Meso- 
pleursB  opaque  and  closely  longitudinally  striated,  except  on  the 
upper  part  behind.  Metapleurse  above  closely,  below  more 
stoutly,  irregularly,  and  not  so  closely,  reticulated.  The  meso- 
sternal  furrow  is  wide  and  deep,  especially  at  the  base,  and  is 
closely  striated.  The  base  of  the  median  segment  is  smooth  and 
shining  ;  there  are  a  few  narrow  irregular  striae  on  either  side  of 
the  central  area ;  the  basal  keels  in  the  middle  are  curved  and  end 
in  a  squarish  area,  which  is  stoutly  keeled  down  the  middle ;  the 
rest  of  the  segment  is  stoutly  reticulated  ;  the  spines  are  long, 
curved,  and  white.  All  the  coxse  are  pale  yellow  (actually  they 
are  testaceous  yellow,  but  this  may  be  owiug  to  discoloration)  ; 


1901.]  HYMENOPTEBA  OP  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  41 

the  front  legs,  the  middle  femora  at  the  base,  and  the  greater  part 
of  the  middle  tibiae  are  testaceous ;  the  basal  joint  of  the  middle 
tarsi  and  the  basal  third  of  the  posterior  and  the  hinder  tro- 
chanters, the  femora,  tibiae,  and  calcaria  are  black.  Abdomen 
black,  except  the  apical  segment,  which  is  white. 

Skeatia  nigeispina,  sp.  n. 

Nigra,  coxis,  trochanteribus  et  feonofibus  anterioribus,  basi 
femormn  posticorum  late  tarsisque  posticis  flavis  ;  alis  hyalinis, 
nervis  stigmateqwe  nigris.      $  . 

Long.  13,  terebra  3  mm. 

Hab.  Bukit  Besar,  Malay  Peninsula. 

Antennae  as  long  as  the  body,  thickened  towards  the  apex  ; 
the  6th  to  13th  joints  white,  except  above.  Front  and  vertex 
shining;  the  front  below  the  ocelli  stoutly,  irreg'ularly longitudinally 
striated;  the  lower  part  excavated,  smooth  except  for  a  stout 
keel  down  the  middle.  Face  coarsely  aciculated,  slightly  and 
broadly  projecting  in  the  centre,  where  it  is  yellow  ;  clypeus 
broadly,  roundly  convex ;  its  lower  part  projecting  and  slightly 
oblique.  Mandibles  dark  testaceous  ;  their  lower  border  keeled. 
Mesonotum  aciculated ;  the  scutellum  is  more  shining,  the  post- 
scutellum  still  more  so.  The  basal  region  of  the  median  segment 
has  two  keels  in  the  centre,  which  converge  towards  the  apex  ; 
the  parts  nearest  to  them  are  smooth  and  shining ;  the  rest 
opaque,  with  some  thin  oblique  striae  on  the  inner  portion.  The 
middle  part  of  the  propleurae  is  stoutly  striated.  Mesopleurae 
closely  striated,  except  above.  Except  at  the  base  above,  the 
metapleurse  are  closely,  stoutly,  obliquely  striated.  The  meso- 
pleural  keel  is  curved,  deep,  not  very  wide,  and  striated.  Meso- 
sternum  smooth  and  shining.  The  median  segment  behind  the 
transverse  keel  is  closely  reticulated ;  the  apical  slope  is  irregu- 
larly transversely  striated  ;  the  teeth  are  stout,  cuiwed,  black,  dull 
testaceous  towards  the  apex.  Legs  black  ;  the  four  anterior  coxae, 
trochanters,  and  femora,  the  hinder  coxae,  basal  two-thirds  of  the 
femora,  and  the  hinder  tarsi  except  the  extreme  base,  yellow. 
Abdomen  black  :  the  apical  two  segments  lemon-yellow  above ; 
the  2nd  and  3rd  segments  are  shagreened,  the  others  smooth  and 
shining. 

Vagenatha,  gen.  nov. 

Edges  of  pronotum  and  median  segment  stoutly  spined.  Para- 
psidal  furrows  distinct ;  the  first  joint  of  the  flagellum  distinctly 
longer  than  the  second.  Median  segment  with  one  incomplete 
transverse  keel.  Middle  segments  of  the  abdomen  distinctly 
separated  and  narrowed  at  the  base ;  the  edges  of  the  second, 
third,  and  fourth  on  the  lower  edges  at  the  apex  projecting  into 
spines.  Petiole  broadly  dilated  at  the  apex,  the  postpetiole 
clearly  defined ;  the  spiracles  are  nearer  to  each  other  than  to  the 
apex  ;  on  the  loAver  side  at  the  base  are  two  sharp,  oblique  teeth. 


42  MK.  p.  OAMEBON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

Metapleural  keel  complete.  Head  wider  than  the  mesothorax ; 
its  front  and  vertex  reticulated,  without  spines  or  keels.  Scutellar 
depression  large,  shallow,  and  bearing  longitudinal  keels.  Areolet 
large,  about  twice  longer  than  wide ;  the  transverse  cubital  ner- 
vures  are  parallel  and  only  slightly  oblique ;  the  recurrent  nervure 
is  received  near  the  base  of  the  apical  fourth  of  the  cellule ;  the 
transverse  median  nervure  is  received  behind  the  transverse  basal. 
Both  the  transverse  cubital  nervures  are  distinct. 

The  eyes  largely  project ;  the  head  behind  them  is  obliquely 
narrowed  and  is  well-developed  there ;  the  occiput  is  sharply 
margined ;  the  scutellum  is  flat  and  has  the  sides  keeled  ;  on  the 
basal  half  of  the  second  segment  are  two  oblique,  wide,  shallow 
furrows,  which  enclose  a  triangular  space  ;  at  the  apes  of  this  is  a 
narrow  transverse  furrow  ;  there  is  a  similar,  but  nob  quite  so 
distinct,  furrow  on  the  third  segment.  The  legs  are  long;  the 
tarsi  are  spinose,  the  anterior  are  twice  the  length  of  the  tibia? : 
the  median  segment  is  coarsely,  irregularly  reticulated ;  the 
spiracles  are  about  three  times  longer  than  wide  ;  in  the  hind 
wings  the  transverse  median  nervure  is  angularly  broken  by  the 
subdiscoidal  nervure  shortly  below  the  middle. 

In  Ashmead's  system  (Bull.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  xsiii.  p.  44)  this 
genus  comes  near  Mesostenoideus  and  Christolia.  Characteristic 
are  the  clearly  separated  middle  abdominal  segments,  spined  at 
their  apices,  and  the  spines  on  the  basal  ventral  segment. 

[Vagenatha  spiisrosA,  sp.  n. 

Nigra,  Jiavo-maculata,  spinis  Jiavis  ;  pedihus  flavis,  coxis  posticis, 
apice  femorum  fosticnrum  apiceque  tibiarum  posticarum  nigris  ; 
alis  hyalinis,  nervis  stigmateque  nigris.      c?  . 

Long.  16  mm. 

Rah.  Borneo  (Shelford). 

Antennae  as  long  as  the  body ;  black,  the  scape  beneath  and  the 
middle  of  the  flagellura  broadly  white.  Head  black  ;  the  clypeus 
yellow.  Front  and  vertex  smooth  and  shining,  except  the  front, 
which  is  irregularly  reticulated  in  the  middle — more  broadly  above 
than  below.  The  face  is  opaque,  coarsely  shagreened,  and  sparsely 
haired ;  the  outer  orbits  are  thickly  covered  with  longish  white 
pubescence.  The  spines  on  the  pronotum  are  large.  Mesonotum 
Tclosely,  rugosely  punctured,  opaque ;  the  parapsiclal  furrows  are 
irregularly  striated.  The  scutellar  depression  is  large  ;  in  the 
centre  are  two  stout  longitudinal  keels,  with  a  thinner  one  betM^een 
them  ;  on  their  outer  side  is  another  narrow  keel.  Scutellum 
sparsely  punctured  at  the  base.  Median  segment  strongly,  closely, 
rugosely  reticulated.  Propleurse  obliquely,  stoutly  striated  ;  the 
striae  distinct  and  clearly  separated.  Mesopleurae  on  the  base  and 
lower  side  closely,  rugosely  punctured ;  the  middle  obliquely 
striated  5  the  apex  behind  smooth  and  shining  above.  Metapleurae 
strongly,  obliquely  striated  ;  below  thickly  covered  with  white 
pubescence.      Legs  yellow  ;  the  femora  with  a  more  fulvous  hue  ; 


1901.]  HYMBKOPTEKA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  43 

the  hinder  coxae,  except  above,  the  base  of  the  trochanters,  the 
apex  of  the  hinder  femora  and  of  the  hinder  tibiae,  black.  Abdomen 
black ;  the  base  and  apex  of  the  petiole  and  the  apical  third  of  the 
other  segments  yellow ;  they  are  closely  and  distinctly  punctured, 
the  petiole  more  coarsely  than  the  others. 

There  is  a  short  broad  tubercle  on  the  centre  of  the  median 
segment ;  it  is  joined  to  the  teeth  by  an  oblique  broad  yellow 
band ;  all  the  thoracic  spines  are  yellow,  as  are  also  the  tegulae, 
scutellum,  and  tubercle.] 

Beaconid.^. 

Iphiaulax  MALAY  anus,  sp.  n. 

Luteus,  capite,  avtennis  tai'sisque  posticis  nic/ris  ;  facie  clypeoque 
pallide  Jfavis ;  cdis  fusco-violaceis,  ad  basin  late  Jlavis.      5  . 

Long,  12,  terebra  4  mm. 

Hah.  Singora,  Malay  Peninsula. 

Antennae  entirely  black,  as  long  as  the  body ;  the  scape  smooth 
and  thickly  covered  with  long  fuscous  hair ;  it  is  more  shining 
than  the  flagellum.  Head  black,  shining;  the  face  from  shortly 
below  the  antennae,  the  oral  region,  and  the  malar  space  pale 
yellow.  Pace  smooth  ;  in  its  centre,  below  the  antennae,  is  a  deep 
furrow  with  oblique  sides.  The  clypeus  is  surrounded  by  a  keel, 
which  is  more  distinct  on  the  top,  where  it  forms  a  semicircle. 
Thorax  smooth  and  shining ;  above,  and  on  the  sternum,  it  is 
thickly  covered  with  long  pale  hair.  The  meso-  and  metapleural 
furrows  are  smooth,  wide,  and  deep.  Legs  coloured  like  the  body, 
thickly  covered  with  white  hair ;  the  hinder  tarsi  are  deep  black. 
Wings  to  shortly  beyond  the  transverse  median  nervure  yellowish 
hyaline  ;  the  rest  deep  fuscous,  with  a  violaceous  tinge,  except  the 
base  of  the  stigma  broadly  and  a  narrow  oblique  mark  on  the  base 
of  the  first  cubital  cellule.  Petiole  smooth,  except  the  raised 
central  part,  which  bears  large,  deep,  elongated  punctures.  The 
second  segment  is  closely,  rugosely  punctured  ;  the  central  basal 
part  is  smooth  and  is  not  prolonged  into  a  keel ;  the  basal  depres- 
sion is  deep  ;  the  basal  branch  is  striated  in  the  bottom,  the  wider 
apical  one  is  smooth  ;  at  its  apex  are  four  narr(.)vv  keels.  Securi- 
form articulation  deep,  wide,  stoutly,  but  not  very  closely,  longi- 
tudinally striated ;  the  apical  furrow  on  the  segment  is  narrow, 
deep,  and  smooth  ;  the  2nd  and  3rd  furrows  are  deep  and  closely 
striated,  those  on  the  apices  of  the  segments  are  smooth  and 
deep. 

E  VAKIID^. 

[EVANIA  SHELFORDI,  sp.  n. 

Nigra,  hasi  jiagdli  antennarum,  trocTianteribus  anterioribus,  basi 
tibiarum  posticarum  basique  tarsorum  posticorum  late.,  albis  ; 
alls  fusco-violaceis.      $  . 

Long.  12  mm. 


44         ON  THE  HYMEISTOPTERA  OE  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."    [May  7, 

Hah.  Borneo  (Shelford). 

Antennae  black ;  the  3rd  joint,  except  at  the  apex,  white.  The 
front  and  vertex  are  stoutly,  acutely,  longitudinally  striated ;  the 
face  is  similarly,  but  more  obliquely,  striated  ;  the  outer  parts  of 
the  head  are  obliquely,  and  not  quite  so  strongly,  striated.  The 
hinder  ocelli  are  separated  from  each  other  by  about  the  same 
distance  as  they  are  from  the  eyes.  The  lower  tooth  of  the 
mandibles  is  rufous  before  the  apex ;  the  palpi  are  dark  fuscous. 
The  base  of  the  pronotum  is  raised ;  the  raised  part  slightly 
projects  laterally ;  the  sides  are  oblique ;  the  base  is  not  quite 
transverse,  the  edges  being  rounded ;  it  bears  rcjund,  deep,  clearly 
separated  punctures.  The  central  part  of  the  mesonotum  is 
alutaceous  and  impunctate  at  the  base ;  the  rest  of  it  irregularly, 
deeply,  but  not  very  closely  punctured  ;  this  punctured  part  is 
bordered  by  a  deep  furrow ;  outside  this  it  is  opaque  and  aluta- 
ceous, and  bears  two  thin  keels  on  the  outer  side-  Scutellum  in 
the  middle  strongly,  irregularly  punctured  ;  the  centre  has  a 
longitudinal  keel ;  the  sides  are  stoutly,  obliquely  striated  ;  on  the 
postscutellum  are  two  stout  keels.  Propleurss  alutaceous  and 
bearing  some  scattered,  shallow  punctures.  The  upper  two-thirds 
of  the  mesopleurae  are  smooth  and  shining,  except  for  an  oblique, 
clearly  defined,  depressed  area  ;  this  has  the  bordering  keels  more 
distinct  in  front  than  behind  and  bears,  except  at  the  base  and 
apex,  some  stout  keels  ;  the  lower  part  is  closely,  but  not  very 
deeply  punctured.  Sternum  smooth.  Median  segment  closely 
reticulated ;  the  central  portion  more  closely,  rugosely,  and  ir- 
regularly than  the  rest.  The  basal  part  of  the  wings  is  fuscous, 
with  a  distinct  violaceous  tinge ;  the  apical  part  below  the  radial 
and  second  cubital  cellules  is  similarly,  but  more  lightly,  clouded. 
The  metasternal  fork  is  short  and  stout,  and  obliquely  diverges  at 
the  apex :  behind  it  is  a  stout,  smooth  keel.  The  front  tibiae  and 
tarsi  are  fuscous  ;  the  four  anterior  trochanters  are  broadly  white 
at  the  base,  as  is  also  the  base  of  the  hinder  tibiae  narrowly,  the 
basal  joint  of  the  hinder  tarsi,  and  the  second  joint  broadly  in  the 
middle.  Petiole  smooth  at  the  base ;  its  sides  bear  stout,  oblique 
striae  ;  the  apical  half  above  is  irregulai'ly,  coarsely  punctured. 
The  hinder  tibiae  and  tarsi  are  shortly  spined.  The  sides  of  the 
median  segment  are  broadly  rounded ;  the  middle  transverse  ;  the 
abdomen  is  very  smooth,  shining,  and  piceous. 

This  comes  nearest,  of  the  known  species,  to  the  Australian 
E.  princeps  AVest.] 


1901.]  0?r  THE  ARAOHTSriDA  OT  THE  "  SKBAT  EXPEDITIOIS^."  45 

3.  Ou  the  Araclmida  collected  during  the  "  Skeat  Expedi- 
tion "  to  the  Malay  Peninsula,  1899-1900.  By  M. 
Eugene  Simon,  President  of  the  Entomological  Society 

of  France  \ 

[Eeceived  April  15,  1901.] 

[This  collection  of  Aracbnida  contains  examples  of  129  species, 
of  which  48  are  described  as  new,  and  there  are  also  4  new  sub- 
species. Three  new  genera  are  characterized.  A  few  species  of 
Acariua — chiefly  Ixodidae — were  obtained,  but  have  not  been  de- 
termined. Not  one  of  the  members  of  the  8keat  Expedition  was  a 
specialist  in  Arachnida,  so  that  the  large  percentage  of  novelties 
iu  this  collection  indicates  that  a  great  deal  of  work  still  remains 
to  be  done  at  this  class  of  animals  in  the  region  in  question. — 
D.  S.] 

Ordo  AEANE^. 
Eamilia  Avioulakid^. 

1.  Selenocosmia  javaneksis  (Walckenaer). 

Mygale  javanensis  Walck.,  Apt.  i.  1837,  p.  216. 
M.  monstrosa  C.  Koch,  Arachn.  v.  1839,  p.  14,  f.  346. 
Biserat  in  Jalor  (District  of  Patani). 

En  tout  semblable  aux  exemplaires  de  Java  auxquels  je  I'ai 
compare. 

Connu  de  Java,  de  Sumatra,  de  Celebes  et  des  lies  Nicobars. 

2.  Omothymus  thoeelli,  sp.  nov. 

Cepli.th.  long.   19  mm.,   lat.    18.      Peel.  max.   44  mm.     Peel.  i. 

81  mm. ;  ii.  70  m')n.  ;  iii.  63  mm.  ;  iv.  76  mm. 

Cephalothorax  nigricans,  crebre  et  longe  Jlavido-piibescens^  Jmmilis, 
non  multo  longior  quam  latior  sed  antice  valde  attenuatus,  fronte 
sat  angusta,  fovea  tJio^ricica  recte  transversa,  sat  profunda  sed 
tuberculo  ocidorum  fere  dnplo  angustiore,  impressionihus  radi- 
antibus  distinctis.  ■Tuberculum  ocidorxmi  modice  altum,  ovato- 
transversum  et  fere  duplo  latins  quam  longius.  Oculi  quatuor 
antici  in  lineam  leviter  procurvam,  inter  se  fere  cequidistantes 
{spatiis  interocidaribus  diametro  minore  oculi  lateralis  non 
latioribus),  medii  rotundi,  laterales  longe  ovati  atque  obliqui 
mediis  saltem  ^  minores.  Oculi  medii  postici  albi,  parvi,  obtuse 
iriquetri,  ocidi  laterales  jiostici  ovati  et  obliqui,  mediis  posticis 
majores  sed  lateralibus  anticis  midto  minores.  Glypeus  si>b 
oculis  mediis  convexus,  diametro  majore  ocidi  lateralis  paido 
latior.  Chelce  nigricantes,  flavido-pubescentes,  supra  setis 
longissimis  fulvo-rufulis  Mrsutce,  extus  crebre  scopidatce,  subtus 
marginibus    sulci    cum    margine    interiore    coxarum    pedum- 

^  Oommunicated  by  Dr.  D.  Sharp,  F.Z.S. 


46  M.  BU&ENE  SIMON"  ON  THE  [May  7, 

mcuoilJarium  crehre  coccineo-crinitis.  Ahclomeii  breve,  setis 
lonyissimis  et  erectis,  ad  basin  fuscis  ad  a^iice^n  2J<-dlide  ferru- 
(jineis  crebre  vestitum.  Pars  labialis  ste'nmm  pedesque  n-igella, 
Jlavido  vel  cinereo-Jiavido  crebre  pidjescentia.  Pars  labialis 
crebre  et  minute  gramdosa.  Pedes  setis  validis  fuscis  vel  nigris 
hirsuti  et  setis  fulvo-riifidis  multo  longioribus  cmispersi,  tarsis 
oimctis,  metatarsis  V  paris  usque  ad  tertiam  partem  basilarem, 
metatai-sis  2'" parts  usque  in  medio,  metatarsis  posticis  tanium  ad 
apicem  late  et  crebre  nigro-cinereo-scopulatis.  Tibia  V  paris 
apophysi  brevi  crassa  leviter  incurva,  apice  late  et  obtuse  truncata, 
spinulis  nigris  incurvis  creberrime  vestita,  intus  ad  apicem 
instructa.  Pedes-maxillares  longissimi,  bulho  ad  basin  nigro, 
pra^terea.  fusco-rufido,  piriformi,  spina  intus  directa,  attenuata 
sed  obtusa,  subtiliter  striata  et  supra  acute  carinata. 
Ab  Omotliymo  schioedtei  Thorell,  cui  verisimiliter  affinis  est,  differt 

imprimis   tuberculo   ociilorum   duplo   (baud  triplo)  latiore  quam 

longiore  et  oculis  lateralibiis  posticis  anticis  multo  minoribus. 
Perak  :  Ulii  Selama. 
NoTA. — II  est  a  noter  que  le  sternum  est  assez  fortement  attenue 

en  avaut,  caractere  attribue  par  E.  I.  Pocock  au  genre  Phormingo- 

chilus. 

3.  Chilobrachts  annandalei,  sp.  nov. 

5 .   Oeph.th.  long.  16-3  mm.,  lat.  13'5.     Pedes  i.  47"5  mm.  ;  ii. 
40*5  mm.  ;  iii.  39*5  mm.  ;  iv.  48  mm. 

Ceplialothorax fuscus,  cinereo-fulvo-puhescens,  sat  humilis,  evidenter 
longior  quam  latior,  aiitice  modice  atienuatus,  fovea  thoracica 
profunda  sat  7nagna,  tuberculo  oculorum  non  multo  angustiore, 
valde  procurva  semilunari.  Tuberculum  oculorum  ovato- 
transversum,  saltern  duplo  latius  quam  longius.  Oeidi  quatuor 
antici,  superne  visi,  in  lineam  vix  procurvam,  medii  inter  se 
quam  a,  lateralibiis  vix  remotiores  (spatio  inter  oculum.  medium 
et  lateralem  utrinque  diametro  minore  lateralis  minore),  medii 
rotundi,  laterales  longe  ovati  et  obliqui  mediis  paulo  minores, 
oculi  medii  postici  albi,  p)ai'vi,  ovati,  recti  et  leviter  angulosi, 
latei-ales  ovati  et  obliqui  mediis  m,ajores  sed  lateralibiis  anticis 
evidenter  minores.  Clypeus  diametro  majore  oculorum  lateralium 
latior.  Abdomen  oblongum,  fiiscum,  fulvo-ferrugineo-pubescens 
et  hirsutum.  Chelcp,  fiiscce,  supra  fiilvo-ferrugineo-pubescentes  et 
longe  hirsutce,  extiis  fere  glcdirce  et  nitidce  sed  prop)e  margiyiem 
inferiorem  'minute  et  creberrime  spinulosce,  marginibus  sulci 
cum  margine  interiore  coxarum  pediim,-m,axillarium  crasse 
coccineo-ciliatce.  Partes  oris,  coxce  sternumque  obscure  fusca, 
sat  breviter  nigro-setosa.  Pars  labialis  apice  convexa,  minutissime 
et  crebre  granulosa.  Coxce  pediim-inaxiUai'iu'm  intus  aculeis 
pronis  bacilliformibus  biseriatis,  inferioribus  longioribus,  in- 
structce.  Pedes  sat  longi,  robusti,  sed  metatarsis  tarsisque 
posticis  sat  gracilibus,  fusci,  fulvo-rufulo  pubescentes  et  hirsuti, 
aculeis  parvis  apicalibus  metatarsorum  posticorum  exceptis, 
mutici,  tarsis  metatarsisque  quatuor  anticis  usque  ad  basin  crasse 


1901.]  ARAOHNTDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEIJITION."  47 

sc02'>u/atis,  tarsis  posticis  scopulatis  sed  scopuTis  tarsorum  4'2'«''?« 
Uiiea  pared  setosa  snbdivisis.      Ungues  tarsorum  (^saltern  posii- 
coruni)  dentihus  paucis  parvis  et  reniotis,  in  medio  muniti. 
.Talor  :  from  floor  of  cave. 

Familia  PsECHEiDiE. 

4.  PSECHKUS  ABGEKTATUS  (Doleschall). 

Jalor  :  Biserat.     Ligeh  :  Belimbing. 

Troiive  pour  la  premiere  fois  dans  la  presqu'ile  Malaise,  espece 
repandue  dans  TAustro-Malaisie  et  la  Nouvelle-Gruinee. 

5.  (?)  PsEOHRUS  siN&APORENSis  Thorell. 

PsecJirus  singaporensis  Thorell,  Boll.  Soe.  ent.  Ital.  xxvi.  1894, 
p.l. 

Perak :  TJlu  Selama. 

Determination  incertaine,  les  individus  recueillis  dtant  tons 
jeunes. 

Pamilia  IJLOBORiDiE. 

6.  Uloboetjs  gekiculaius  (Olivier). 

Ul.  zozis  Walck.,  Apt.  ii.  1841,  p.  197. 
Ul.  latreillei  Thorell,  Vet.  Ak.  Forh.  xv.  1858,  p.  197. 
OritJiyia  toiUiami  Blackvvall,  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  3rd  ser.  ii. 
1858,  p.  331. 

Ul.  domesticus  Doleschall,  Tweede  Bijdr.  etc.  1859,  p.  46. 

Ul.  horhonims  Vinson,  Aran.  Eeun.  etc.  1863,  p.  258,  pi.  1.  f.  3. 

Jalor  :  Biserat.     Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 

Espece  repandue  dans  toutes  les  regions  tropicales  du  monde. 

7.  Uloborus  pteeopus  (Thorell). 

Philoponus  pteropus  Thorell,  in  Ann.  Mus.  Civ.  Gen.  xxv.  1887, 
p.  128. 
Patalung. 
Decrit  de  Birmanie. 

Familia  SioaeiidjE. 

8.  Soytodes  marmoeata  L.  Koch. 

Scytodes  marmorata  L.  Koch,  Ar.  Austr.  i.  1872,  p.  292,  tab, 
xxiv.  f .  4. 

Jalor:  Biserat. 

Espece  tres  repandue  dans  toute  I'Asie  tropicale,  la  Malaisie  et 
la  Polynesie. 

Eamilia  Zodaeiid^. 

9.  Stoeena  pseliophoea  Thorell. 

St.  pseliopJiora  Thorell,  Bih.  t.  K,  Sv.  Handl.  xx.  1894,  p.  5. 


48  M.  EUGENE  SIMON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

St.  annulipes  Thorell,  Bull.  Soc.  ent.  Ital,  xxiv.  1892,  p,  209 
(non  L,  Koch). 
Perak  :  TJlu  Selama. 
Decrit  de  Singapore. 

10.  STOliENA  OBNFBILA,  sp.  UOV. 

5  .  Long.  6'5  mm. —  Cepnalotliorax  oi'ahis,  valde  convexus.,  fronte 
obtusa,  nigro-nitidus  et  glaher.  Oculi  cuncti  parvi  et  suhceqiiales, 
lineas  binas  validissime  et  fere  cequaliter  j^rocurvas  designantes, 
medii  ctntici  et  -postici  a  sese  subcontigui  sed  a  latercdibus 
latissime  distantes^  aream  parallelam  fere  dupJo  longiorem  quam 

,  latiorem,  occupantes.  Clypeus  latvs.  Abdomen  breviter  ovatwn, 
sv,pra  dur,h(sculum ,  nigro-nitidiim  et  glabrum^  sed  postice.,  supra 
mamillas,  minute  albo-testaceo,  notatum,  subius  confuse  dilutius. 
Mamillce  aJho-testacece.  Chelee  stemumque  fusco-rufula  sub- 
Icevia.  Pedes,  prceserthn  antici,  sat  breves  et  rohisti,  lutei, 
tibiis  ad  basin  late  olivaceis,  pedes  quatuor  antici  femorihus 
supra  parce  acideatis,  tibia  V  paris  subtus  acideis  binis  parvis 
setiformibiis  uniseriatis,  meiatarso  aculeo  basali  aculeisque 
apicalibus  binis  similibus,  tibia  2*  paris  sid)tus  acideis  trinis 
uniseriatis  acideisque  binis  interioribus,  metatarso  acideis  binis 
subbasilaribus  acideisque  apicalibus  binis,  cunctis  parvis  et 
debilibus,  armatis.  Pedes  postiei  acideis  vcdidioribus  numerosis 
muniti.  Metatarsi  antici  usqxie  ad  basin,  postiei  ad  apicem 
crasse  nigro-pilosi.  Pedes-maxillaresfidvo-rufidi,  robusti,  tarso 
acuminata.  Regio  epigasteris  leviter  coriacea,  rufula,  postice 
tenuiter  nigro-marginata  et  plagula  media  rvfula  minutissima 
notata. 

Perak  :  Ulu  Selama. 

Species  fere  inter  Storenam  et  Asceuam. 

11.  Stoeena  soiophana,  sp.  nov. 

5  .  Long.  8  mm. — GepTialotTiorax  ovatus,  modice  conveccus,  fronte 
obtusa,  nigro-piceus,  omnino  subtilissime  coriaceus,  opacus  et 
glaber.  Oculi  quatuor  postiei  in  lineam  validissime  procurvam 
semicircularem,  medii  a  lateralibus  quam  inter  se  saltem  ^  re- 
motiores,  quatuor  antici  in  lineam  minus  procurvam,  inter  se 
anguste  et  fere  ceque  separati,  oculi  medii  antici  cum  lateralibus 
posticis  lineam  leviter  recurvam  designantes,  oculi  quatuor  medii 
aream  subquadratam  occupantes,  antici  reliquis  oculis,  inter  se 
subcequalibus,  midto  majores.  Clypeus  altissimus.  Abdomen 
ovatum,  supra  nigrum,  immaculatum.,  sed  postice,  supra  mamillas, 
minute  testaceo -notatum,  subtus  obscure  fulvo-testaceum  et  vittis 
trinis  parallelis  sat  angustis  nigricantibus  notatum,  regione 
epigasteris  leviter  coriacea  rufida,  mamillis  fulvis.  Chelce 
robustce,  subtiliter  coriacece,  nigro-picece,  apice  leviter  dilutiores. 
Sternum  fusco-rufulum,  subtiliter  coriaceum,  parce  nigro- 
setosum.  Partes  oris  fuscce  apice  dilutiores  et  iestacece.  Pedes 
longi  fulvo-rufuli,  cocvis  trochanteribusque  dilutiorihus,  femoribus 


1901.]  ABACHNIDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  49 

infuscatis  et  olivaceis.     Fovea  (jenitalis  ssmicircularis,  plcujulani 
rufulam  transversam  leviter  procurvam  includens. 
Pei'ak  :  Ulii  Selama. 

Familia  Hehsiliid^. 

12.  Heesilia  savignyi  Lucas. 

Hersilia  saviijnyi  Lucas,  Mag.  Zool.  6'^  Anu,  1836,  cl.  viii.  p.  10, 
tab.  xiii.  f.  1. 

?  H.  calcuttensis  Stoliczka,  J.  A.  S.  Beng.  xxxviii.  ]869,  p.  216, 
pi.  XX.  f.  9. 

Perak  :  Ulu  Selama.     Eaman  :  Kota  Bliaru, 

Espece  tres  repandiie  clans  I'lnde  et  la  Birmanie. 

Eamilia  FkoIiCIDM. 

13.  Pholcus  opiLioNoiBES  (Schrauk). 

Perak :  Gunong  Inas. 

Espece  repandue  eu  Europe,  dans  I'Asie  centrale  et  eu  Chine. 

Trouvee  sur  le  Mt.  Inas  (environ  6000  pieds). 

14.  Pholcus  t-notatus  Thorell. 

Pholcus  v-notatus  Thorell,  St.  Rag.  Mai.  etc.  1878,  p.  163  (300). 
Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 

Decrit  d'Amboine,  indique  depuis  de  Birmanie  (Bhamo)  par 
Thorell. 

15.  Pholcus  vesculus,  sp.  nov. 

5  .  Long.  4'5  mm.- — Ceplialothorax  fere  orhiculatus,  pallide  luteus, 
parte,  tJioracica  macida  fusca  media  magna  postice  ampliuta  et 
subtriquetra,  linea  media  pallida  divisa,  notata,  parte  cephalica 
thoracica  vix  altiore,  clypeo  leviter  infuscato  sed  linea  media 
pallida  notato.  Octdi  ordinarii,  quatuor  antici  apicibus  in 
lineam  rectam,  medii  parvi,  nigri,  a  sese  contigui  a  lateralibw; 
spatio  oculo  laterali  own  majore  distantes.  Oculi  laterales 
utrinque  a  sese  contigui,  anticus  reliquis  paido  m,ajor.  Abdomen 
sat  longe  ovatuon,  supra  conve.vum,  postice  longe  declive,  nee 
truncatum  nee  angidosum,  albidum,  supra  in  dimidio  basali, 
linea  longitudinali  fusca  angusta  et  leviter  lanceolata  notatmn, 
subtus  vittis  binis  obscurioribus  parum  exp>ressis,  postice  valde 
divaricatis  et  leviter  ampliatis  ornatum.  Ohela',  partes  oris, 
sternum  pedesque  lutea,  patellis  fuscis,  tibiis  annido  apicali  fusco 
'parvo  notatis.  Tuberculum  genitale  magnum,  altum  et  sub- 
globosum,  albidum  sed  p)Ostice,  in  decUvitate,  rima  transversa 
fusco-rufula  coriacea  notatum. 
Perak  :  Grunong  Inas. 

16.  Pholcus  diopsis,  sp.  nov. 

(S .  Long.  5-6  mm. —  CepJialothoraa^  fere  orbicidatus,  luteo- 
I'ufesceyis,  pjarte  thoracica  in  medio  confuse  infuscata,  cephalica 
brevi,   late  truncata,  in  medio  setis  erectis  inordinatis  munita, 

Peoc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  IV.  4 


50  M.  EUGEifE  SIMON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

utrinque  tuberculo  lonr/o  {parte  ceplialica  haud  breviore) 
divaricato,  luteo  apice  nic/ro,  gracili,  versus  basin sensim  anyustiore, 
apice  minute  mucronato,  oculos  laterales  gerente^  insigniter 
instructa.  Oculi  medii  antici  minutissimi  fere  obsoleti,  ocidi 
laterales  utrinque  mediocres,  longissime  pediculati.  Abdomen 
longum,  teretiusculum,  apice  leviter  coyivexum,  omnino  albido- 
testaceum.  Chelce  debiles,  rufula;,  intus  prope  apicem  tuberculo 
nigro,  obtuso,  cariniformi  et  granulosa  inunitce.  Partes  oris, 
sierniiin  p^c^esg'Me  longissimi  pallide  lutea,  pafellis  leviter 
infuscatis,  tihiis  ad  apicem  minute  fuscis.  Pedes-maxillares 
ma.vimi ;  trocTiantere  parvo,  siibtus  ad  apicem  apophysi  lutea, 
erecta,  acuta  et  sat  longa  armato ;  tibia  longe  et  late  ovata ; 
tarso  brevi,  supra  apice  acuminato ;  apophysi  fusco-rufula, 
longa,  leviter  sinuosa. 
$  .  Long,  6-7  mm. — Ceplialothorax  pallide  luteus,  paido  latior 
quam  longior,  utrinque  ample  rotundus.  Ocidi  antici  in  lineam 
rectam,  medii  a  sese  contigui,  minutissimi  et  punctiformes,  a 
lateralibus  late  distantes  {spatio  interocidari  oculo  laterali  midto 
latiore).  Oculi  laterales  utrinque  contigui,  interior  reliquis 
p>aido  minor.  Tuberculum  genitale  magnum,  latum  seel  apice 
acuminatum,  p>ostice  verticale,  triquetrum,  planum,  testaceum  sed 
utrinque  rufidvm  et  leviter  coriaceum. 
Griia  GJap  ("Dark  Cave"),  Biserat,  Jalor. 

A  P.  podoplithalmo  E.  Sim.  (ex  ins.  Taprobane),  cui  sat  affinis  est, 
jmprimis  differt,  tuberculis  oculiferis  apice  minute  ampliatis  haud 
truneatis  sed  minute  et  acute  raucronatis,  tarso  pedum-maxillarium 
apice  acuminato,  haud  truncato,  etc. 

17.  Spermophoea  tessbllata,  sp.  nov. 

$  .  Long.  2  mm. — CeplialotJiorax  pallide  luteus,  parte  ceplialica 
clypeoque  infuscatis  fere  nigris,  brevis,  latior  quam  longior, 
utrinque  ample  rotundus,  parte  ceplialica  a  thoracica  sulco 
profundo  semicirculari  discreta,  antice  leviter  elevata.  et  latissime 
truncata,  thoracica  convexa,  sidco  longitudinali  profundo  secta. 
Oculi  in  turmas  duas,  inter  se  late  remotas,  ordinati,  utrinque 
tres,  duo  exteriores  inter  se  contigui,  alter  interior  a  reliquis 
leviter  sejunctus,  paulo  minor  et  ovatus.  Abdomen  valde  con- 
vexum  et  postice  subverticale,  albido-testaceum,  inaculis  nigris 
iniquis,  medianis  major ibus  et  subquadratis,  parum  regulariter 
seriatis,  sipra  ornatum,  subttis  late  nigricanti-plagiatum, 
mamillcB  prominentes.  Cheloi  debiles,  fuscce,  antice  opacce  et 
leviter  incequales.  Sternum  latins  quam  longius,  nigrum, 
sublceve.  Partes  oris  et  p)edes-maxillares  mimitissimi,  fiisci. 
Pedes  tenues  et  longi,  minutissirae  rugosi,  lutei,  femoribus, 
prcesertim  posticis,  pirope  apicem  leviter  infuscatis  et  suhanmdatis. 
Plaga  genitalis  maxima,  medium  ventris  occupans,  rufida  et 
convexa.  sed  in  medio  depressa,  latior  quam  longior,  utrinque 
oblique  truncata,  postice  leviter  prondnula. 

Jalor:  Biserat. 

A  S.  macidata  Thorell,  cui  verisimiliter  affinis  est,  differt  parte 
thoracica  haud  vittata,  tibiis  pedum  haud  annulatis,  etc. 


1901.]  ARACHNIDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAX  EXPEDITION."  51 

Genus  Uthina  E.  Simon. 

Uihina  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  Ar.  2^  ed.  t.  i.  p.  476. 

Belisana  Thorell,  in  Ann.  Mas.  civ.  Gren.  2^  s.  xix.  1898,  p.  278. 

18.  UtHIIS^A  ATillGULAEIS,  sp.  nOV. 

$  .  Long.  3  mm. — Ceplialotliorax  liaud  longlor  quam  latior, 
utrivque  ample  rotu7idus,  parte  cephalica  brevi,  lata  et  convexa, 
sulco  semicirculari  profundo  disareta,  luteo-testaceus  nitidus, 
regione  oculari  chjpeoque  {^raargine  excepto)  nigi'is,  p>arte 
thoracica  area  ovaia  long Itttdinall  fusco-marginata  notata. 
Oculi  utrinque  valde  prominuli  et  pyediculati  a  sese  contigui, 
anticus  reliquis  major,  spatio  inter  tuber cida  sat  angusto,  leviter 
convexo,  a  clgpeo,  leviter  proclivi,  stria  transversa  discreto. 
Abdomen  angustum  et  longissimum,  titrinque  leviter  bisinuosum, 
albido-testaceum,  supra  tenuiter  albido-pubescens  sed  vitta  media 
glabra  et  postice  maculis  wgris  biseriatis,  parvis,  longis  et 
ohliquis  ornatum,  subtus  glabrum,  duriusculum,  et  nitidum. 
Chelce  tt  partes  oris  nigricantes,  Jice  testaceo-marginatce.  Sternum 
pedesque  pallide  lutea,  patellls  cunctis  nigris,  tibiis  ad  ap)icem 
minute  nigris.  Area  genitalis  subrotunda,  magna,  latitudinent 
epigasteris  totam  occupans,  antice  convexa,  nigricans,  Icevis  et 
semicircular  is,  prceterea  rufula,  depressa  et  transversim  rugata. 
Ab  U.  luzonica  E.  Sim.  imprimis  diifert   oculis  utrinque  lougius 

pediculatis,    clypeo    nigro,    femoribus    annulo    fusco    subapicali 

carentibus,  etc. 

19.  MiCEOMEETS  VEEMIEOEMIS  E.  SimOU. 

Calapnita  vermiformis  E.  Simon,  Ann.  Soc-  ent.  Er.  1892,  p.  42 
Determination   incertaine,   le   seul   individu  recueilli  etant  en 
mauvais  etat. 

Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 

Eamilia  Theridiid^. 

20.  Aetamnes  plagellum  (Dol.)  nigeitus,  subsp.  nov. 

2  .  Long.  29  mm. —  CcpjhalotJiorax  nigricans,  prope  marginem 
vix  dilutior.  Abdomen  longissimum  et  vermiforme,  obscure 
fusco- testaceum,  vitta  dorsali  lata  et  integra  nigricanti  et  utrinque 
punctis  nigris  inordinatis  notaiian.  Sternum  fuscum,  utrinque 
fulvo- marginatum.  Pedes  obscure  fusci,  crebre  nigricanti- 
piivctati,  coxis  trochanteribusque  anticis  luteis,  femoribus  anticis 
prope  basin  luteis  et  subvittatis.  Pedes-maxillares  nigricatites. 
Pat  along. 

21.  Aegi'eodes  MiNiACEUs  (Eoleschall). 

Patalung  :  Ban-Kong-Eak.     Eaman  :  Kota-Bharu. 

Vit  en  parasite  sur  la  toile  de  JSepJiila  imperialis  Doleschall. 

22.  Aegieobes  pissieeons  0.  P.  Cambridge. 

A.Jissifrons  O.  P.  Cambr.  in  Journ.  Linn.  Soc,  Zool.  x.  1869, 
p.  380,  tab.  xii.  ff.  31-38. 

4* 


U2  '  ,  M.  EUGESE  SIMOJS  OJS  TUE  [Maj  7, 

^.  inguinalis  et  Jissifrons  Thorell,  St.  Bag.  Mai.  etc.  ii.  1878, 
pp.  145-148. 

A.  procrastincDis  O.  P.  Cambr.  in  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Loud.  1880, 
p.  330,  tab.  xxix.  f.  9. 

Kelaiitaa  :  Kuala  Aring. 

Vit  en  parasite  sur  la  toile  des  Nephila. 

Espece  tres  repaudue  dans  I'lnde  et  la  Malaisie. 

23.  Pkoronoidia  lygeana  (Walckenaer). 

Plectana  lygeana  Walck.  Apt.  ii.  1841,  p.  11. 
Phor.  acrosomoides  \.  Hasselt,  Midd.-iSum.  etc.,  Ar.  1882,  p.  30, 
tab.  i.  f.  7. 

Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring.     Perak  :  Guuong  Inas. 
.  Decrit  de  Sumatra. 

24.  Episinopsis  ehomboidalis  E.  Simon. 

.  Episinopsis  rhomhoidalis  Simon,   in  Ann.   Soc.   ent.  Er.  1895, 
p.  136. 

Jalor :  Bukit  Besar. 
Decrit  de  Singapore. 

25.  Theeidion  BuriPES  Lucas. 

Jalor:  Biserat. 

Espece  repandue  dans  toutes  les  regions  tropicales  du  monde. 

26.  Theeidion  munbulum  L.  Koch. 

Th.  mundulam  Kocb.  Ar.  Austr.  i.  1872,  p.  263,  tab.  xxii.  f.  3, 
Th.  amoeuum  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  etc.  i.  1877,  p.  463. 
Ligeh. 

Decrit  d'Australie,  trouve  depuis  a  Celebes,  en  Birmanie  et  a 
Penang. 

27.  Theeidion  nigeum  (O.  P.  Cambridge). 

Argyrodes  nigra  O.  P.  Cambr.  in  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Lond.  1880, 
p.  341,  tab.  XXX.  f.  20. 

?  'Theridion  oojyurum  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  etc.  iv.  i.  1889, 
p.  265. 

Nawng-Chik. 

Decrit  de  Ceylan,  indique  depuis  de  Java. 

28.  Theeidion  subeadiatum,  sp.  nov. 

cJ .  Long.  4  mm. — Ceplialothorax  niger  postice  sensim  dilutior  et 
rufescens.  Oculi  quatuor  antici  in  linearru  leviter  procurvam,^ 
inter  se  anguste  et  fere  ceque  separati,  medii  lateralibus  paulo 
majores.  Oculi  postici  ininores,  inter  se  cequi,  in  lineam  leviter 
procurvam,  medii  a  lateralibus  quam  inter  se  viw  remotiores. 
Area  quatuor  medioruni  subquadrata.  Clypeus  area  oculorum 
non  multo  latior,  chelis  multo  brevior,  sub  oculis  depressus,  dein 
coiivexus.     Abdomen  breuiter  ovatwn,  convexum,  supra  nigrum, 


1901.]  ABACHKIDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPBDITI0T5T."  53 

linen  media  longitudinali  integra,  sat  angusta,  sed  postice  in 
dedivitate  vnlde  ampliata  et  macidam  magnam  triquetram 
formante,  prope  medium  Tinea  transversa  simili  recta  angvsta 
sed  utrinque  ahrupte  et  valde  dilatata  et  maculam  subrotundam 
formante,  albis,  decoratum,  sidAus  fidvo-testaceum,  sed  vitta 
media  latissima  mamillas  iucludente  et  antice  ad  rimam  vitta 
transversa  angustiore  nigris  notatum.  Mamillce  fulvo-rufulce. 
Chela}  et  partes  oris  fusco-ferruginece,  lamince  longer  et  angusta;. 
Sternum  nigrum,  opacum.  Pedes  longi  et  robusti,  inter  se  valde 
ina;quales,  pallide  lutei,  rufulo  nigi'oque  annulati,  femoribus 
V  paris  annido  medio  rufulo  annidoque  apicali  nigro  ornatis, 
reliquis  femoribus  immaculatis,  pateUis  (B  exceptis)  rufulis, 
tibiis  V  paris  et  4'  paris  apice  nigro-annulatis,  reliqids  tibiis 
apice  rufulo-annulatis,  metatarsis  tenuibus  immacidatis,  setis 
longis,  in  anmilis  nigris  densioribus,  conspersi,  patellis  ad 
apicem  seta  sp)iniformi  erecta  et  longa,  tibiis  setis  similibus 
hinis  supra  instructis.  Tubereidum  genitale  magnum,  ovato 
transversum,  foveola  postice  lobata  marginata  et  septo  triquetro 
divisn,  inipressum, 
Jalor  :  Bukit  Besar. 
A  T.  plumipedi  V.  Hasselt  et  saropodi  Thorell,  cui  versimiliter 

affine  est,  differt  cephalothorace  sternoque  fere  nigins,  metatarsis 

pedum  concoloribus,  baud  annulatis. 

29.  Steatoda  peeakexsis,  sp.  no  v. 

cJ .  Long.  6  mm. — Cephalothorax  ovatus,  postice  sat  abrupte 
angustior  et  breviter  productus,  parte  cephalica  elevata,  sulcis 
profundis  discreta,  niger,  valde  coriaceus,  granulis  parvis 
setiferis  conspersus,  in  j^'t'ocessu  postico  transversim  striatus. 
Oculi  magni,  inter  se  suba^quales,  postici  albi,  in  lineam  sub- 
rectam,  inter  se  fere  cequidisiantes  (spatiis  interocidaribus  octdis 
saltern  duplo  minoribus),  antici  in  lineam  sat  procurvam,  inter 
se  ceque  et  anguste  distanfes,  medii  nigri  latercdibxis  albis  saltern 
hand  majores.  Area  quatuor  mediorum,  subquadi'ata,  antice 
convexa.  CJypeus  area,  oculorum  saltem  Jiaud  angustior,  sub 
oculis  depressus,  ad  marginem  valde  eonvexus.  Chelce  angristce 
et  sat  Icngce,  fusco-picecB,  nitida?.,  prope  basin  minute  et  parce 
rugosce.  Laminae  incUnatce,  picece,  in  medio  late  depressoi. 
Pars  labialis  nigra,  latior  quam  longior,  transversim  plicata. 
Sternum  postice  acuminatum,  nigrum,  antice  par ce  postice  crebre 
arcuaio-rrigosum  et  subvermiculatum.  Abdomen  sitbglobostiin, 
supra  duriuscidum,  opacum  et  parcissime  setosnm,  nigrum., 
lineolis  paucis  transversis  exilihus  testaceis  vix  expressis  serj- 
mentatum,  ad  marginem  anticum,  supra  processum  cephalo- 
tlioracis,  promimdum  et  obtuse  emarginatum,  subtus  regione 
epigusteris  convexa,  sublcevi  el  ferrugineo-tincta.  Pedes  longi, 
parum  robusti,  parce  tenuiter  et  sat  longe  setosi,  femoribus 
anticis  subtus  subtiliter  rugosis,  nigri,  metatarsis  tarsisque 
cunctis  fusco-piceis,  coxis  et  prcesertim  trochanteribus  j)osticis 
dilutioribus.       Pedes-maxillares   fusco-picei    vel    nigricantes  ; 


54  M.  EUGENE  SIMON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

femore  lonc/o,  recto  apicem  versus  sensim  et  levissime  ampliato ; 
2}ateUa  convexa  ;  tibia  j)citeTla  longiore,  ad  basin  angustiore  sed 
amcem  versus  sensim  et  vnlde  ampliata  ;  tarso  magno,  ovato, 
apiee  acuminato,  bidbo  magno. 
Perak :  Ulu  Selama. 

Espece  de  classification  incertaine,  differant  des  Steatoda  typi- 
ques  par  ses  yeux  anterieurs  egaux  ;  des  Teutana  par  ses  yeux 
anterieurs  en  ligne  fortement  procurvee ;  des  Crustidina  par  son 
sternum  acumine  en  arriere. 

Familia  M  i  m  e  t  i  d  jE, 

30.  MiMETTJS  MAEGAEITIFEK,  sp.  IIOV. 

5  .  Long.  4  mm,. —  Cephalothbrax  pallide  fulvus,  Icevis,  nitidus 
et  glaber,  sed  setis  nigris  longissimis  et  erectis  biseriatis  (5-5 
vel  6-6)  supra  munitus,  conveccus,  antice  longe  attenuatus. 
Oculi  medii,  prcesertim  postici,  a  lateralibus  quam  inter  se 
multo  remotiores,  aream  ptaido  longiorein  quam  latiorem 
et  antice  quam  postice  latiorem  occupantes,  antici  prominuli, 
posticis  vix  g  majores.  Oculi  laterales  utrinque  parvi,  cequi, 
contigui  et  prominuli.  Clypeus  oculis  mediis  anticis  vix  latior. 
Abdomen  sat  longum,  ovatum  et  convexum,  fulvo-testaceum, 
utrinque,  prcesertim  antice  late,  et  fere  inordinate  albo-opaco 
plagiatum,  supra  tuberculis  7'ufulis  et  nitidis  subglohosis  sed 
longe  setiferis,  quadriseriatis,  medianis  majoribus,  insigniter 
ornatum,  subtus  parce  et  minute  albido-punctatum.  Chelce 
fiduo-rufulce,  angusta;  et  longissimce,  a  partibus  oris  sat  late 
distantes,  antice  fere  plance,  subtus,  pra^sertim  ad  basin,  convexce. 
Partes  oris,  sternum  pedesque  lutea,  tibiis  metatarsisque  anticis 
rufuJo  tinctis  late  et  confuse  annulatis,  pedes  cuncti  numerose  et 
longissime  aculeati,  tibiis  et  metatarsis  anticis  (valde  curvatis) 
intus  aculeis  erectis  longissimis  aculeisque  parvis  et  uncatis 
numerosissimis  et  uniseriatis  armcitis.  Tuberculum  genitale 
oiigrum,  travsversum. 

Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 

Espece  tres  reraarquable  qui  pourrait  devenir  le  type  d"un  genre 
special. 

Eamilia  Aegiopid^. 

Subfamilia  Lintphihst^. 

31.  Sphecozone  dentimanus  (E.  Simon). 

Nematoqmus  dentimanus  E.  Simon,  in  Act.  Soc,  Linn.  Bord.  xl. 
1886  (p.  21). 

Perak  :  Gunong  Inas. 

Kepandu  dans  I'lndo-Chine  et  a  Ceylan. 

32.  LiNYPHIA  PASSEECULA,  Sp.  nOV. 

J  .  Long.  4  mm. —  Ceplialothorax  subtilissime  coriaceus  et  opacus, 
rufescens,  regione  oculorum  leviter  infuscata  et  ocidis,  prcesertim 


1901.]  ARACHKIDA  OP  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  55 

mediis  2^osticis,  singulariter  nigro-cinctts.  Oculi  quatuor  antici 
in  lineatn  leviter  procurvara,  parvi  et  inter  se  siibcequales,  meclii 
nigri  a  sese  apirropinquati  a  latendihus  plus  trip>lo  remotiores. 
Oculi  postlci  in  lineam  fere  cequaliter  procurvam,  seel  inter  se 
fere  mquidistantes  et  medii  reliquis  oculis  evidenter  inajores. 
Oculi  quatuor  onedii  aream  liaud  longiorem  quam  latiorem  et 
postice  quam  antice  fere  duplo  latiorem  occupantes.  Oculi 
laterales  iitfiaque  parvi  cequi  et  contigui.  Clypeus  area 
ocidorum  latior,  antice  oblique  proclivis.  Abdomen  sat  lonqe 
ohlongum,  antice  rotundum,  postice  leviter  amp)liatum,  obtusum 
et  convexurn,  antice  fusco-olivaceum,  postice  nigro-nitidum,  in 
medio  cingido  dAliitiore  albido  cinctum.  Chela;  longce  et  paral- 
leloi,  fidvo-rufulce,  fere  Iceves,  margine  inferiore  sidci  dentibus  6 
(4  et  5  reliquis  paulo  minoribus),  margine  superiore  dentibus 
minutissimis  7  vel  8,  lineam  sinuosam  designantibus,  armatis. 
Sternum  fusco-rufescens,  subtilissime  coriaceum  et  opacum, 
p)arcissime  setosum.  Pedes  graciles  et  longi,  minute  et  parce 
aculeati,  obscure  olivacei,  coa:is  cunctis,  femoribus  quatuor  anticis 
usque  ad  apicem,  posticis  ad  basin  dilutiorlbus  et  Jlavido- 
aurantiacis.  Pedes-maxdlares  obscure  fusci  vel  nigri,  femore 
tereti  ad  basin  dilutiore,  patella  parva  convexa  et  nodosa,  tibia 
majore,  cequaliter  convexa  onutica  sed  superne  longe  nigro- 
crinita,  tarso  bulboque  maximis  late  ovatis,  reliquis  articulis 
simul  sumptis  haud  vel  vix  breuioribus. 
Jalor  :  Bukit  Besar. 

NoTA. — Le  genre  Linyjyhia  est  represente  dans  I'Asie  tropicale  et 
dans  la  Malaisie  par  des  especes  analogues  aux  nofcres  mais  coufinees 
dans  les  regions  les  plus  elevees  des  montagues,  ou  elles  trouvent 
sans  doute  des  conditions  de  vie  analogues  a  celles  d'Europe. 
Thorell  en  a  decrit  deux  {L.  beccarii  et  L.  pjhyllophora)  du  Mont 
Singalang  a  Sumatra. 

Subfamilia  Teteagnathinje. 

33.  Teteagnatha  mandibulata  Walckenaer, 

Tetragnatha  mandibulata  Walckenaer,  Apt.  ii.  1841,  p.  211. 
T.  minatoria  E.  Simon,  in  Anu.  Soc.  ent.  Er.  1877,  p.  83. 
T.  leptognatha  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  etc.  i.  1877,  p.  441  (101). 
Patalung  :  Ban -Kong- Eak. 

Espece  largement  distribuee  en  Asie,  en  Malaisie  et  en  Poly- 
nesie. 

34.  Teteagnaxha  novia,  sp.  nov. 

c?  .  Long.  7-10  mm. —  Cephalothorax  angustus  et  longus,  obscure 
fulvus,  plus  minus  olivaceo  fuscove  reticulatus,  fovea  thoracica 
profunda,  transversa  sulcisque  cephalicis  impressa,  f'onte  lata, 
parte  thoracica  vix  angustiore.  Ocidi  singulariter  nigro-cincti, 
quatuor  ijostici,  superne  visi,  in  lineam  sat  recurvam,  inter  se 
cequi  et  ccquidistantes,  quatuor  antici,  antice  visi,  in  lineam. 
paulo    angustiorem,    rcdidissime    recurvam,    medii     lateralibus 


56  M.  EUGENE  SIMON  ON  THE  [Maj  7, 

plus  triplo  majores  et  a  lateralihus  quam  inter  se  plus  triplo 
remctiores.  Octdi  qiiatuor  mecUi  aream  saltern  hand  longioreni 
quam  postice  latiorem  et  antice  quam  postice  multo  angustiorem 
occupantes,  antici  posticis  vix  majores.  Oculi  laterales  utrinque 
a  sese  appropinquati  {spatio  interoculari  oculo  postico  von 
majore),  anticus  postico  plus  duplo  minor.  Abdomen  angustum 
et  longissimum,  omnino  fidvum.  Clieloi  eephalothorace  Tiaud  vel 
vice  hreviores,  proclives,  fidvo-rufulce,  Iceves,  supra  in  parte 
apicali  extus  apophysi  longa,  gracili,  areuata  apice  minute 
bifida,  et  supra  dente  minore  nigro  et  conico  armata?,  margins 
superiore  sulci  dente  1"  mediocri  recto  vel  leviter  uncato,  ad 
radicem  unguis  sat  remoto,  dente  2°  minutissimo  et  uncato 
(scepe  obsoleto),  dente  S''  maxima  recto  et  acuto  (reliquis  dentibus 
multo  majore)  et  prope  basin  denfibus  seriatis  6-7,  versus  basin 
sensim  ininonbus,  margine  inferiore  dente  \°,  prope  radicem 
unguis  sito,  parvo,  dente  2"  fere  duplo  majore  antice  oblique 
directo,  dente  3^  valde  remoto  minore  et  prope  basin  dentibus 
parvis  4  vel  5,  versus  basin  sensim  minoribus,  ai^matis,  xwgue 
longo,  simplicl  haud  dentato.  Pay's  labialis  sfernumque  fupco- 
testacea,  lamince  pedesque  fulvi.  Pedes  longissimi,  tibiis  anticis 
utrinque  aculeis  quatuor  aculeisque  dorsalibus  binis,  metatarsis 
aculeis  basilaribus  binis  aculeisque  exterioribus  binis  (rarius 
trinis),  cdtero  subbasilari  altera  submedio,  armatis.  Pedes- 
maxillares  ordinarii. 
§  .  Long.  10  mm. —  A  mari,  cui  subsimilis  est,  differt  cTielis 
brevioribus  et  validioribus,  apophysi  denteque  superioribus 
carentibus,  margine  supeynore  sulci  dentibus  1,  2  et  3,  inter  se 
subsimilibus,  sat  late  et  fere  ceque  distantibus,  1°  antice  oblique 
directo,  clein  dentibus  minoribus  et  inter  se  appropinquatis 
4  vel  5,  margiyie  inferiore  dente  1"  parvo,  dente  2"  reliquis 
dentibus  majore,  dente  ?>°  paulo  minore,  reliquis  dentibus  3  vel  4 
multo  Qninoribus.  Pedes-maxiUares  lutei,  tarso  infuscato, 
patella  seta  apicali  longa  suprcc  munita  sed  tibia  mutica. 
Jalor :  Bukit  Besar. 

35.  EucTA  isiDis  E.  Simon. 

Espeoe  commune  a  I'Egypte  et  a  I'Incle. 

36.  Orsinome  phetgtana,  sp.  nov. 

(S  .  Long.  4  mm. —  Cephalothorax  fusco-olivaceus,  parte  tlioracica 
late  dilutiore  sed  vitta  media  fusca  notata  et  versus  marginem 
sensim  infuscata.  Oculi  antici  in  lineam  leviter  recurvam, 
inter  se  fere  ceque  et  non  late  distantes,  medii  praminuli,  late- 
ralihus circiter  g  majores.  Oculi  postici  in  lineam  fere  cequaliter 
recurvam,  medii  majores  et  a  lateralibus  quam  inter  se  remotiores. 
Oculi  quatuor  medii  magni,  aream  haud  vel  vix  longiorem  qtiam 
latiorem  et  antice  quam,  postice  paulo  latiorem,  occupantes.  Oculi 
laterales  utrinque  valde  promimdi  et  subcontigui,  ayiticus postico 
major.  Clyj^eus  ocidis  mediis  anticis  paido  angustior.  Abdo- 
men breviter  ovatum,  supra  obscure  fulvum,  utrinque  et  postice 


1901.]  AKACHNIDA  OE  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  57 

albido-teslaceum  et  grosse  arr/enteo-pitnctatum,  area  fulva  dorsdli, 
in  dimidio  hasali  vitta  nigra  Jlexuosa  marginata  et  maculis 
medlis  hinis  magnis  et  suhrotimdis  Icete  argenteo-punctatis,  in 
dimidio  apicali  maadis  parvis  nigris  seT  biseriatis  ornatitm, 
suhtus  atrum  sed  utrinque  dilutlus.  Chdce  fidvo-nifulce,  Iceves, 
longce,  apicem  versus  nttenuatce  et  leviter  divaricatre.  Partes 
oris  sternumque  fusco-olivacea,  Icevia.  Pedes  longi,  aculeis 
nigris  ordinariis  longissimls  instructi,  lutei,  femorihus  tihiisque 
annulo  medio  anmdoque  apicali  olivaceis  vel  nigricantihus 
notatis,  patellis  cunctis,  coxa  trocJiantereque  V  paris  fiiscis. 
Pedes-maxillares  pallide  lutei,  tarso  nigra,  hulho  olivaceo ; 
femore  gracili  apicem  versus  sensini  et  leviter  ampliato  atque 
arcuato  ;  patella  convexa  seta  longissima  supra  munita ;  tibia 
jyatella  poido  longiore  ;  tarso  ovato,  intus  ad  basin  apophgsi 
divaricata,  grncili,  recta  snl  ap>ice  uncata  armato ;  bulbo 
maxima,  simpli  et  nitido,  subgloboso,  leviter  renifarmi. 
Jalor:  Bukit  Eesar. 

37.  Aegyroepeiea  elegans  (Thorell). 

Meta  elegants  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  etc.  i.  1877,  p.  416. 
Callinethis  elegans  Thorell,  in.  Ann.  Mus.  Civ.  Gren.  S''  ser.  v. 
1887,  p.  134. 
Jalor:  Biserat. 
Decrit  de  Celebes,  trouve  depuis  en  Birraanie. 

38.  Argteoepeira  fastigata  (E.  Simon). 

Meta  fastigata  E.  Simon,  in  Ann.  See.  ent.  Fr.  1877,  p.  70, 
t.  iii.  fig.  10. 

Ligeh. 

Eepnndu  dans  una  grande  partie  de  la  Malaisie  et  aux  lies 
Philippines. 

39.  Aegyeoepeira  gemmba  (V.  Hasselt). 

Meta  gemmea  V.  Hasselt,  Midd.-Sura.  etc.,  Aran.  1882,  p.  26, 
t.  ii.  f.  4. 

Perak  :  Ulu  Selama.     Jalor  :  Bukit  Besar. 
Conn  a  de  Sumatra,  de  Singapore  et  de  Pinang. 

40.  Aegtegepeiea  tessellata  (Thorell). 

Callinethis  tessellata  Thorell,  in  Ann.  Mus.  Civ.  Gren.  xxv.  1887, 
p.  135. 

Jalor :  Bukit  Besar. 
Decrit  de  Birmanie. 

41.  Aegyeoepetea  vei^tealis  (Thorell). 

Meta  ventralis  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  etc.  i.  1877,  p.  423. 
Nawng-Chik.     Eaman. 


58  M.  EUGEN"E  SIMON  o^T  THE  [May  7, 

Deerit  de  Celebes,  indique  depiiis  de  Birmanie  et  des  iles 
Nicobars.     Se  trouve  aussi  a  Java  et  a  Sumatra. 

NoTA. — Tiepond  a  la  description  du  Dr.  T,  Thorel),  sauf  pour 
la  taille  qui  est  plus  forte  (S  a  9  mill.). 

Subfamilia  Nephilinje. 

42.  Nephila  impeeialis  (Doleschall). 

Nephila  fiagellans  L.  Koch,  Ar.  Austr.  i.  1872,  p.  153,  t.  xii. 
f.  5-6. 

N.  haeri  E.  Simon,  in  Ann.  Soc.  ent.  Fr.  1877,  p.  82. 
N.  Jiolmerce  Thorell,  St.  Rag.  Mai.  etc.  iii.  1881,  p.  141. 
Patalung.     Jalor.     Eaman. 
Trouve  en  grand  nombre. 

43.  Nephila  maculata  (Fabricius). 
Forma  typica. 

Patalung.     Nawng-Chik. 

44.  Nephila  maculata  (Fabr.)  jaloeensis,  subsp.  nov. 

$  (subadulta).  A  typo  differt  pedihus  nigricantihus  coxis  luteis, 
femoribus  subtiis  tibiis  metatarsisque  crehi'ius  et  longhis  nigro- 
pilosis  sed  tibiis  V  pai^is  et  4'  paris  annulo  subbasilari  et  meta- 
tarsis  4'  paris  annulo  angustiore  subbasilari  fulvis,  brevius  et 
parcius  pilosis  ornatis,  abdomine  supra  olivaceo,  in  medio 
lineolis  longitudinalibus  parallelis  subcontiguis  3  vel  4,  in 
lateribus  lineolis  numerosis  sinuosis  et  inordinatis  dilutioribus  et 
breviter  albo-argenteo  pilosis  ornato,  py^ope  marginem  anticum 
vitta  transversa  lata  albida,  dein  zonis  transveris  fuscis  leviter 
procurvis  quatuor  fuscis  notato. 
Jalor :  Bukit  Besar. 

45.  Nephila  malabaeensis  (Walckenaer). 

Perak :  Ulu  Selama.     Eaman.     Ligeh.     Kelantan. 
Espece  repandue  dans  presque  toutes  les  regions  tropicales. 

Subfamilia  AEGiOPiNiE. 

46.  Aeqiope  pulchella  Thorell. 

Argiope  pulchella  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  etc.  iii.  1881,  p.  74. 

Patalung :  Ban-Kong-Rak. 

Repandu  en  Birmanie,  dans  le  Siam,  etc. 

47.  Gea  decoeata  Thorell. 

Gea  decorata  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  etc.  iv.  i.  1890,  p.  105. 
Perak :  Gunong  Inas.     Jalor  :  Bukit  Besar. 
Deerit  de  Sumatra. 


1901.]  ARA.CHNIDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  59, 

48.  Gea  festiva  (Thorell)  nigeierons,  subsp.  nov. 
A  typo  cliff 6rt  ceplialothoracis  regione  frontcdi  nigra. 
Jalor:  Biikit  Besar 

Le  type  est  decTit  de  Birmanie  et  indique  de  Singapore. 

49.  Gea  nocticoloe  Thorell. 

Gea   nocticolor   Thorell,  in   Ann.   Mus.   civ.    Gon.    xxv.    1887, 
p.  170. 
Ligeh. 
Decrit  de  Birmanie. 

50.  Cyetophoea  cicateosa  (Stoliczka). 

Epeira   (Nephila)   cicatrosa    Stoliczka,    in    Journ.    Asiat.    Soc. 
Bengal,  xxxviii.  p.  11,  no.  iv.  1869,  p.  242,  pi.  xx.  £.  5. 
Epeira  salebrosa  Thorell,  St.  Rag.  Mai.  etc.  ii.  1878,  p.  49. 
Jalor :  Biserat. 
Eepandu  dans  I'lnde,  I'lndo- Chine  et  la  Malaisie. 

51.  Ctetophoea  unicoloe  (Doleschall). 

Epeira  unicolor  Dol.,  in  Nat.  Tijdr.  Nederl.  lud.  xiii.  1857, 
p.  419. 

Epeira  stigmatisata  Karsch,  in  Zeitschr.  f.  g.  Natnrvv.  li.  1878, 
p.  326. 

Epeira  serrata  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  iv.  i.  1890,  p.  33. 

Kelantan :  Kuala  Aring. 

52.  Aeachnuea  melanuea  E.  Simon. 

Araclmura  melanura  E.  Simon,  in  Eev.  et  Mag.  de  Zoologie. 
1867  (p.  3). 

Jalor :  Bakit  Besar. 
Connu  de  I'lnde  et  de  Java. 

53.  Akaneus  caput-lupi  (Doleschall). 

Jalor :  Biserat. 

Indique  de  Sumatra,  des  Moluques,  de  N.-Guinee,  etc. 

51.  Aeat^eus  submuceokatus  (E.  Simon). 

Epeira  suhmucronata  E.  Simon,  in  Journ.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal, 
Ivi.  p.  11,  no.  1,  1887,  p.  106. 

NoTA.— Cette  espece  a  ete  reunie  a  tort,  par  le  Dr.  Thorell,  a 
VA.  de  Tiaani  Dol. ;  elle  en  differe  par  les  tubercules  des  yeux 
lateraux  plus  longs  et  plus  acumines,  le  sternum  garni  de  granula- 
tions beaucoup  plus  grosses,  inegales  et  irregulieres.  Son  abdomen 
est  pourvu  a  Tangle  apical  de  trois  tubercules  coutigus  dont  le 
median  est  plus  gros,  ce  qui  s'observe  quelquefois  aussi  chez 
A.  de  haani. 

Perak :  Ulu  Selama. 


60  M.  BUG  ETN'B  siMOJT  ON  THE  [May  7, 

55.  AnAffEUS  LAGLATZET  (E.  Simon). 

Epeira  thomiftoides  Doleschall,  Bijdr.  etc.  1857,  p.  422. 
Epeira  laglaizei  E.  Simon,  in  Ann.  Soc.  ent.  Fr.  1877,  p.  65. 
Epeira  thehira  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  ii.  1878,  p.  84  (273-293). 
Ligeb. 

Tres  re'pandu  en  Malaisie,  en  Oee'anie  et  dans  I'Indo-Chine. 

56.  Aeaneus  isTAUTicus  (L.  Koch). 

Perak  :  Uln  Selarna. 

Eepandu  dans  presque  toates  les  regions  tropicales  duraonde. 

57.  Cyclosa  bieida  (Del.)  macefba  Thorell. 

Epeira  macrura  Thorell,  St,  Eag.  Mai.  ere.  i.  1877,  p.  404. 
Kelantan  :  Kna1a  Aring. 

58.  Cyclosa  i^tsulana  (Costa). 

Jalor:  Biserat.     Ligeh.     Kelantan:   Kuala  Aring. 

59.  C^ROsTEis  PARADOXA  (Doleschall). 
Patalung  :  Ban-Kong-Eak. 

60.  Gasteracantha  eornicata  (Eabr.)  jaloreksts,  subsp.  nov. 

5  .  Ahd.   long.   8*5  mm.,  lat.  18'5  mm. — A   typo  differt   magni- 
tudive  majors.,  aculeis  lateralihus  principalihus  lotigiorihus  sed 
aculeis  posticis  minorihus. 
Jalor :  Bukit  Besar. 

61.  Gasteracai^tha  arcuata  (Fabricius). 
Patalung.     Nawng-Chik.     Kelantan. 

62.  Gasteracantha  hasselti  (C.  Koch). 
Jalor :  Bukit  Besar.     Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 

63.  Gastebacatstha  perakensis,  sp.  nov. 

$ .  Scutum  ahd.  long.  7  mm.,  lat.  9*5  mm.  Acvl.  angid.  long. 
4"7  mm. —  CephaJothorax  niger,  margins  clypei  avgnste  testaceo, 
parte  cephalica  obtuse  sulcata,  albido-pilosa,  apice  minute  et 
parc€  granulosa.  Oculi  medii  inter  se  suhcpqvales  (antici  vi.v 
majores),  aream  paulo  latiorem  quam  longiorem  et  antiee  quam 
postice  angvstiorem,  occupantes.  Oculi  latendes  utrinque  valde 
prominuli.  Abdomen  vi.v  i-  latius  quam  longius,  antiee  trim- 
catum,  postice  valde  ampliatum  et  late  truncatum  (  fere  ut  in 
G.  hasselti  C.  K.),  supra  nitidum,  Jlavum,  utrinque  in  sigillis 
nigro-bimaculatum.,  actdds  sex  nigris  armatum,  ^driv que  aculeis 
binis,  ad  angulum  anticiim  quam.  a  sese  plus  dupdo  rem otiorihv s, 
antico  mediocri,  gracili.  recto,  acuiissiwo  et  antiee  oblique  directo, 
altero,  angtilari  fere  triptlo  lorigiore,  in  parte  basedi  era sso  suhtvs 
convea-o  et  granuloso,  in  parte  apicali  abrupte  angustiore,  Icevi, 
recto  et  acuto,  ad  marginem  poslicum  aculeis  binis,  lateralibus 


1901.]  A11A.C1IXIDA  or  THE  "  SKEAX  EXPEDITIOK."  61 

anticis  fere   duplo   longioribus,   rectis  et    acutis,   sed   ad   basin 

leviter  incrassatis  et  granulosis  ;    sigillis  anticis  quatuor  parvis 

longis  et  rectis,  in  lineam  reciam,  utrinque,  in  declivitate,  sigillis 

trinis  paulo  majoribus,  antico  ovato  alteris  subrotundis,  sigillis 

r)osiicis  sex  in  lineam   rectam,   laterali  ovato  et  obliquo,  alteris 

minutissirnis,  sigillis  medianis  quatuor  sat  parvis,  arearn  trajjezi- 

formeni  haud  longiorem  quam  latioreni  occuj^antibus,  subtus  sat 

crebre    granidosum,    in  inedio   convexum    haud    tubercidatum, 

nigrum,  maculis  flavis  sat  parvis  et  iniquis  conspersum.   Sternum 

valde  et  crebre  granulosum  sed  antice  tuberculo  parvo  humillimo 

Iceviore    et    rufulo    notatwn,    nigrum,   utrinque    ad    marginem 

maculis    parvis    flavis   trinis  ornatum.       Chelce   nigro-nitidce. 

Pedes  fulvo-rufuli,  versus  extremitates  sensim  obscuriores,  meta- 

iarsis  tarsisque  anticis  fere  nigris. 

A  G.  globidata  Walckenaer,  cui  valde  affinis  eb  subsimilis  est, 

differt     imprimis    sigillis    abdominis,    prsesertim    auticis,    multo 

minoribus,  aculeis  angularibus  iu  parte  basali  minus  globosis,  in 

parte  apicali  gracilibus  efc  divaricatis  haud  erectis. 

Perak :  Ulu  Selama.     Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 

64.  Gasteeacaiv'tha  leucomelas  (Doleschall). 

Oastcracantha  annamita  E.  Simon,  iu   Act.  Soc.  Linu.  Bord.  xl. 
1886,  p.  14. 

Jalor.     Ligeh.     Eaman. 

Espece  tres  repandue  dans  Tin  do- Chine  et  la  Malaisie. 

65.  Anepsia  EUSCOLiMBATA,  sp.  nov. 

2  .  Long.  3  mm. —  Ab  A.  depressa  Thorell,  cui  affinis  est,  differt 
maqnitudine  saltetn  duplo  minore,  cephalothorace  Icevi  et  nitido, 
pallide  luteo  sed  regione  frontali  et  clypei  infuscata,  sterna  luteo 
(haud  nigro),  abdomine  breviore,  subrotundo,  supra  plario, 
nitido,  grosse  sed  parce  impresso-punctato,  sigillis  medianis 
obsoletis,  supra  pallide  luteo  sed  utrinque  late  fusco-marginato, 
subtus,  pone  plicam  genitalem,  vitta  media  fusca  sat  angusta  et 
confusa  notato,  mamillis  fusco-marginatis,  pedibus  fere  muticis, 
obscurioribus,  fusco-olivaccis,  femoribiis  quatuor  anticis  fere 
niqris,  coxis  cunctis  femoribusque  posticis,  prceserthn  subtus, 
dilutioribus,  unco  vulvce  fulvo  obtusiore. 

Perak  :  Gunoug  luas  (6000  ft.). 

66.  Anepsia  depkessa  (Thorell). 

Paraplectana  depressa  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  etc.  i.  1877,  p.  14 
(354). 

Jalor :  Biserat. 
Decrit  de  Celebes. 

67.  Pkonous  aeeinis,  sp.  nov. 

5  .  Long.  3  onm. —  Cephalothorax  parce  et  minute  rugosus,  parce 
et  longe  albo-sctosus,  fusco-rifescens,  regione  frontali  sensim 
nigra.     Area   oculorum    mediorum  magna,   leviter  prominula, 


62  M.  EUGENE  SIMON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

liaud  lonc/ior  quam  latior  et  antice  quam  postice  vix  angustior, 

oculi    medii  postici    anticis    saltern    ^    majores.     Chfjyevs   sub- 

verticcdisy  area  ocidorum  mediorwm  circiter  cequilatus.     Abdomen 

convexum,    breviter  oblongum,  antice    leviter   attenuatum  atqve 

obtitsmn,  postice    pendulum    ampliaturn,  obtusum    sed    svpra 

tuberculis    duobus    latis  et  humilli'mis  notaium,  fusco-lividum, 

nitidum,  fere   glabrum,   antice   linea    longitudinali    abbreviata 

alba,  utrinCjue,  prope  medium.,  macula  parva  et  postice  macula 

majore     nigris,    notatum,     std/tus     atro-pjurpureiim.        CJielce 

rufescentes,  glabrae  et  Iceves.    Sternum  fusco-pupureum,  incequale 

et  valde   coriaceo-granulosum.     Pedes  fusco-olivacei,  femoribus 

diluiioribus   et   luteis  sed  fusco-vittatis.     Tuberculmn   genitale 

simplex,  brtve,  ovato-transversum,  nigro-nitidum. 

A    P.   taprobanico  E.    Sim.,    cui    affinis   est,   imprimis    diifert 

tuberculo    genitali    altiore    et     minus     transverse,    subrotundo, 

pictura  corporis  obscuriore  sed  steruo  rufulo  baud  nigro. 

Jalor :  Bukit  Besar. 

68.  Theeidiosoma  nebulosum,  sp.  nov. 

5  .  Long.  2  myn. —  Cephcdothorax  Icevis  et  nitidus,  fulvo-olivaceus, 
•parte  cephalica  confuse  infuscata,  regione  ocidorum  nigra. 
Ocidi  medii  postici  a  sese  subcontigui.  Oculi  quatuor  antici  a 
sese  subcontigui,  medii  nigri,  lateralibus  albis  vix  majores. 
Area  qtiatuor  mediorum  subdirecta,  longior  quam  latior  et 
subparcdlela,  oculi  medii  antici  posticis  minores.  Abdomen 
magnum,  subglobosum,  atro-olivaceum,  zonis  transversis  paulo 
dUutioribus  vix  expressis  atque  antice  maculis  magnis  obliquis 
bims  convergentibus  albo-punctatis supra  notatum,  subtus  atrum. 
Sternum  nigrum,  in  medio  late  dilutius  et  rufescens.  ChelcB 
p)edesque  obscure  oKvacei,  coxis  femoribiisque  (apice  excepto) 
dihdiorilus  et  tcstaceis.  Pedes  breves,  parce  sed  longe  setosi. 
Tubercidum  genitcde  maximum  fere  Tberidiosomatis  gemmosi 
L.  K.,  transversim  ovatum,  antice  Iceve  et  rufulum,  postice  fovea 
magna  iestacea  semicirculari,  marginata  et  apice  minute  excisa, 
notatum. 
Jalor :  Biserat. 

A  T.  picteti  E.  Sim.  (ex  Java)  et  fasciato  Workman  (ex  Singa- 
pore) preesertim  diiSert  abdomine  cingulo  argenteo  carente. 

69.  Andasta  OYCLOSiNA,  sp.  nov. 

$  .  Long.  3'5  mm. —  Ceplialotliorax  Imvis  et  nitidus,  atro-olivaceus, 
parte  thoracica  vitta  media  lata  fulvo-rufida  notcda,  cephalica 
angusta  et  longa,  antice  leviter  attenuata,  piosiice  a  thoracica 
sulco  tenia  semicirculari  discreta,  fronte  angusia,  regione  ocidari 
postice  leviter  depressa.  Oculi  quatuor  postici,  prcesertim  medii, 
maximi,  inter  se  anguste  et  fere  aque  distantes  {sp>atiis  inter- 
ocularibus  ondis  mcdiis  triplo  minoribus).  Ocidi  antici  in 
lineam  rectam,  inter  se  subcontigui,  medii  nigri  latercdibus  cdbis 
majores.  Area  quatuor  mediorum  sulquadrata,  antice  valde 
prominida,   supreme   convexct.      Glyjjeus   ocidis   mediis   anticis 


1901.]       ABACHNIDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDHION."  63 

latior,  sub  oculis  leviter  depressus.  Abdomen  longius  quani 
latius,  supra  deplanahim,  antice  rotundum,  postice  sensim 
attenuatum  et  pone  mamillas  in  tuberculuin  obtusum  jji'o- 
ductum,  supra  p)arce  et  longe  albido-pihsum,  nigrum,  antice 
macula  maxima  testacea,  utrinque  lobata  et  vittam  mediam  albo- 
p)unctatam  includente,  notatum,  subtus  atrum  vel  testaceum  et 
vitta  fusca  lata  notatum,  mamillce  inferiores  rufulce  extus 
fusco-vitfata?,  reh'qiue  testacece.  Sternwm  fusco-rufescens,  nigri~ 
canti-marginatum.  Pedes  breves  et  robusti,  sat  longe  setosi  haud 
acideati,  lutei,  femoribus  tibiisque  anticis  apice  late  nigris, 
reliquis  minute  fusco-notatis,  coxls  scepe  macidatis.  Plaga 
genitalis  parva,  rufula,  unco  inigro  gracili  et  brevi  recto  sed 
apice  minute  uncato  munita.  Chelarum  margo  superior  dentibus 
quatuor  valde  iniquis,  1"  et  2°  parvis,  3°  mulfo  longiore  et 
acuto,  ultimo  mediocri,  margo  inferior  dentibus  binis  validis  et 
subcequis  instructi. 
Perak :  Gunong  Inas. 

Ah  A.  semiargentea  E.  Sim.  (ex  ins.  Taprobane)  imprimis  diifert 
magnitudine  multo  majore,  abdomine  postice  aciiminato  et  pro- 
ducto,  oculis  quatuor  posticis  inter  se  sequidistantibus,  et  plaga 
genitalis  unco  munita. 

ramilia  T  H  o  m  i  s  i  d  .e. 

70.  Amycijea  foeticeps  (O.  P.  Cambridge). 

Amycle  forticeps  0.  P.  Cambr.,  in  Pr.  Zcol.  Soc.  Lond.  1873, 
p.  122. 

Nawng-Cbik. 

Espece  tres  commune  a  Ceylan,  indiquee  aussi  de  Singapore,  de 
Birmanie  et  de  Java. 

Zygometis,  no  v.  gen. 

A  Euncinia  cui  affinis  est  imprimis  dijftrt  ceplialothorace  piano, 
haud  longiore  quain  latiore,  utrinque  ample  rotundo,  oculis 
mecliis  posticis  et  anticis  a  lateralibus  quam  inter  se  midto 
remotioribus,  oculis  quatuor  anticis  in  lineam  rerta7n,  tibiis 
quatuor  anticis  omnino  muticis,  metatarsis  aculeis  4-4  tantum 
armatis,  abdomine  brevi,  antice  posticeque  recte  truncato,  postice 
ampliato  fe7-e  Thomisi. 

71.  Zygometis  cristulata,  sp.  nov. 

$  (pullus).  Long.  5  mm. —  CephalotJiorax  latus,  utrinque  ample 
rotundus,  planus,  fronte  late  truncata  subcarinata,  utrinque 
ante  oculum  lateralem  posticum  minute  tu7-binata,  sitbtilissime 
coriaceus  et  gramdis  nigris  minutissimis,  in  parte  tJioracica 
lineas  radiantes  abbreviatas  design aniibus,  ornatus,  pallide 
Jlavus,  regione  ondorum  alba  sed  antice  linea  eccili  fusca,  oculos 
anticos  includente,  li'mitata,  piarte  cephcdica  lineis  binis  fiexuosis, 
tJioracica  maculis  submarginalibus  iniquis  et  laciniosis  albo- 
opacis   ornatis.     Abdomen  paulo   latius  quam  longius,  postice 


64  '  M.  EUGENE  SIMON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

valde  ampliatum,  antice  ])Osticeque  recte  sectum,  supra  fulvo- 
cinereo-testaceuin  leviter  albido-variegatimi  et  pontice  in  decUvitate 
vitta  transversa  lata  fusca  notatum,  granulis  nigris  j^c-i^ci^ 
conspersum,  suhtus  alhidum.  Chela;.,  partes  oris,  sternum 
pedesque  pallide  Jlavida,  patellis  quatuor  anticis  superne  macula 
obliqua,  tibiis  suhtus  annulo  submedio,  metatarsis  tarsisque 
suhtus  vitta  obliqua  fusco-olivaceis  notatis,  tibiis  muticis,  oneta- 
tarsis  V  paris  aculeis  injeriorihus  4-4  interioribus  (superiorihus) 
minoribus,  metatarsis  2'  paris  acideis  4-4,  exteriorihus  (inferi- 
oribus)  minoribus,  instructis. 
Perak  :  Gunong  Inas. 

Familia  Clubionid^. 

Subfamilia  Selenopin^. 

72.  Selenops  aculeatus,  sp.  nov. 

$  .  Long.  7  mm. — Ce2j7ialothorax  planissimus,  latior  quaralongior, 
pallide  fidvus,  tenuiter  fusco-marginatus,  margitie  frontali  ad 
oculos  nigra,  Jlavido-sericeo  pubescens,  ad  marginem  longe  et 
valde  crinitus.  Ocidi  quatuor  antici  a  sese  contigui,  in  lineam 
subrectam  vice  recurvum,  medii  lateralibus  evidenter  minores. 
Oculi  exleriores  mi7iutissimi  albi  et  ovati  a  lateralibus  anticis 
parum  distantes.  Oculi  postici  utrinque  promimdi  reliquis 
ocidis  majores.  Abdomen  planissimiim,  longius  quam  latius, 
pallide  fulvum,  Jlavido-sericeo  pubescens,  pjostice  anguste  fusco- 
marginatum.  Sternum  'pedesque  lutea,  femoribus  1'  paris  suhtus 
usque  ad  basin,  femoribus  2'  paris  ad  apicem  late  nigricanti- 
plagiatis,  tibiis  metatarsisque  superne  minute,  parce  et  inordinate 
fusco-variatis,  tibiis  quatuor  anticis  aculeis  7-7  {interioribus 
longioribus),  metatarsis  aculeis  5-5  suhtus  armatis.  Plaga 
genitalis  nigra,  fovea  testacea  magna,  postice  ampliata,  truncata 
et  tuhercula  ininuta  ovata  et  obliqua  includente,  impressa. 
Perak :  Gunong  Inas. 

A  S.  montigena  E.  Sim.,  cui  praesertim  afRuis  est,  imprimis 
differt  magnitudine  minore,  tibiis  metatarsisque  anticis  aculeis 
numerosioribus  instructis  (in  >S'.  montigena  metatarsis  anticis 
3-3  aculeatis). 

Subfamilia  Spaeassin^e. 

73.  Heteropoda  hegia  (Pabr,). 

Heteropoda  vencUoria  auct.  (uou  Arcmea  vencttoria  L.). 

Perak.     Kelantan.     Kaman.     Patalung. 

Kepandu  dans  les  regions  tropicales  du  moude  entier. 

74.  Hetekopoda  jlepeosa  E.  Simon. 

Heteropoda  leprosa  E.  Simon,  in  Ann.  Mus.  civ.  Gen.  xx.  1884, 
p.  336. 

Perak  :  XJlu  Selama.  Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring.  Jalor :  Bukit 
Besar. 

Decrit  de  Birmanie. 


1901.]  ARACHNIDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  65 

75.  Heteropoda  sexpunctata  E.  Simon. 

Heteropoda  sexpunctata  E.  Simon,  in  Bull.   Soc.  Zool.   Fr.   x. 
1885  (p.  li). 
Ligeh. 
Decrit  de  I'Inde  Centrale. 

76.  Spariolbnus  tigbis  E.  Simon. 

Spariolenus  tigris  E.  Simon,  Eev.  Sparass.  1880,  p.  61. 
Jalor :  Biserat. 
Decrit  du  Bengale. 

77.  Sparassus  Ais'is'AifDALEi,  sp.  nov. 

2  .  Long.  11  mm. — Cephalotliorax  convexus,  vix  longior  quam 
latw,  fronte  lata,  fulvus,  albido-sericeo  puhescens,  regione 
fi'ontali  leviter  obscuriore  et  rufescenti-tincta.  Oculi  quatuor 
antici  in  lineam  plane  rectam,  inter  se  fere  cequidistantes 
[spatiis  interocularihus  oculis  paulo  minoribiis),  medii  lateralibus 
paulo  majores.  Oculi  quatuor  postici  multo  minor es  et  inter  se 
subcequales,  in  lineam  latiorem  vix  procurvum,  a  sese  late  et  fere 
ceque  separati.  Area  quatuor  mediorum  circiter  aique  longa  ac 
lata  etpostice  quam  antice  angustior,  medii  antici  posticis  saltern 
duplo  majores.  Clypeus  ocidis  mediis  anticis  angustior.  Abdo- 
men oblongum,  fulvum,  crebre  et  longe  sericeo-p%d)escens,  supra 
in  dimidio  apicali  linea  media  fusca  exili  notatum,  subtus 
concolor.  Gheloi  valida;  et  convexce,  nigro-rufescentes,  Iceves  et 
parce  crinitce,  margine  inferiore  sulci  dentibus  validis  quatuor 
contiguis,  idtimo  reliquis  paulo  minore,  armato.  Partes  oris 
castanece.  Pars  labialis  convexa,  evidenter  latior  quam  longior. 
Sternum,  pedes-maxillares  pedesque  lutea,  tarso  pedum-maxil- 
larium  metatarsis  tarsisque  pedum,  prcesertim  anticis,  obscuri- 
oribus  et  rufido-tinctis,  tarsis  cunctis,  metatarsis  anticis  usque 
ad  basin,  metatarsis  4'  paris  ad  apicem,  longe  et  crebre  cinereo- 
scopulatis,  aculeis  ordinariis  longis.  Plaga  genitalis  magna, 
fulva  et  nitida,  parallela,  postice  truncata,  in  parte  secunda 
sidco  longitudinali  divisa. 
Nawng-Chik  :  Ban. 
Trouve  dans  uue  coque  de  tissu  tres  resistant  logee  dans  une 

feuiUe  roulee  et  contenant  un  cocon  ovigere  globuleux  de  tissu 

simple  et  assez  mince  applique  sur  les  oeufs. 

78.  Rhittmka  xanthopijs,  sp.  nov. 

$  .  Long.  21  mm. — Cephalotlwrax  latior  quam  longior,  nigro- 
piceus,  postice  in  declivitate  paulo  dilutior  et  rufescens,  albido- 
luteo-pubescens  et  longe  hirsutus.  Oculi  medii  antici  lateralibus 
paulo  majores  et  a  lateralibus  quam  inter  se  circiter  g  remotiores. 
Abdomen  ovatum,  antice  leviter  emarginatum,  supra  crebre 
flavido-pubescens  et  setis  erectis  longissimis  pallide  Jlavidis 
conspersum,  antice    Uneolis    binis   convergentibus,  dein   inacula 

Proc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  V.  5 


66  M.  EUGEisTE  SIMON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

ovata  vel  suhrotunda,  postiee  arcuhus  transversis  seriatis  tenuihus 
et  utrinque  evaaescentihus,  nigricantihus  supra  ornatum,  subtus 
crebre  fulvo-pubescens,  regione  ventrali  lineis  nigricantibus  binis 
leviter  incurvis  notata.  Ohelce  validissimce  et  convexce,  nigra}, 
nitidce  et  glabrce,  sed  marginibus  sulci  longe  et  crasse  rubro- 
pilosis,  inferiore  dentibus  trinis  subcontiguis,  1"  paulo  minore 
armato.  Partes  oris  nigrce  ad  marginem  crasse  rubro-pilosce. 
Sternum  coxmque  nigra,  nigro-setosa.  Pedes  crassi  et  longi, 
fusco-picei,  supra  fulvo-pilosi  et  longe  hirsuti,  subtus  patellis 
niqris,  femoribus  tibiisque  crebre  et  longe  flavo- pilosis  etJiirsutis, 
sed  femoribas  cunctis  annulo  apicali,  tibiis  P  'paris  annulo  sub- 
apicali,  reliquis  tibiis  annidis  binis  nigris  ornatis,  metatarsis 
ta^'sisque  usque  ad  basin  crasse  nigro-scopulatis.  Pedes-macoil- 
lares  nigri,  nigro-pilosi.  Plaga  genitalis  subrotunda,  rubro- 
nitida,  costis  parvis  trinis,  lateralibus  antice  divergentibus, 
notata. 
Kelantan :  Kuala  Aring. 

A  B.  ingenti  E.  Sim.  (ex  Java),  cui  affinis  est,  imprimis  differt 
oetilis  mediis  anticis  a  sese  minus  distantibus,  femoribus  tibiisque 
subtus  flavo  (baud  albido)  pilosis,  tibiis  1'  paris  annulo  nigro 
singulo  notatis  et  plaga  genitali  rubra  baud  nigra. 

79.  Sebamba  pennata,  sp.  nov. 

(^  .  Long.  9  mm. — Oephalothorax  late  ovatus,  antice  valde  attenu- 
atus,  front e  sat  angusta,  fidvo-rufescens,  Icevis,  parce  albido- 
pilosus,  linea  marginali  vittisque  dorsalibus  binis  latis  et  dentatis, 
tenuiter  fusco-reticulatis  parum  expressis  notatus.  Oculi  antici 
in  Uneam  leviter  procurvam,  inter  se  eeque  et  sat  anguste  distantes 
{spatiis  interocidaribus  ocidis  minoribus),  medii  lateralibus 
majores.  Oculi  postici  multo  minores,  in  Uneam  latiorem  leviter 
procurvam,  inter  se  stibcequales  et  fere  cequidistantes.  Area 
quatuor  mediorum  latior  quam  longior,  medii  antici  posticis  fere 
duplo  majores.  Abdomen  sat  anguste  ovatum,  postiee  attenuatum, 
testaceum,  supra  utrinque  valde  nigricanti-maculatum,  antice 
vitta  longitudinali,  postiee  arcubus  transversis  fuscis  seriatis, 
apicem  versus  sensim  minoribus  et  scepe  confiuentihus,  supra 
ornatum,  subtus  parce  fusco-punctatum.  Mamillce  inferiores 
testaceoi,  superiores  fuscce.  Chelce,  sternum  pedesque  fulvo- 
rufescentia.  Ohelw  sat  debilcs,  margine  inferiore  sulci  dentibus 
ininutissimis  6  armato.  Tibioi  anticce  aculeis  inferioribus  longis 
(^apicalibus  minoribus)  6-Q  et  utrinque  lateralibus  minoribus 
binis,  metatarsis  aculeis  inferioribus  longissimis  2-2,  lateralibus 
exteriorih'us  trinis  interioribus  binis  instructis.  Pedes-maxillares 
lutei,  tibia  rufescenti,  tarso  bulboque  fuscis  nigrisve ;  tibia 
patella  breviore  et  latiore,  supra  et  extus  valde  ampliata  et 
apopJiysibus  nigris  iniquis  armata,  apophysi  superiore  subrecta, 
crassa  apice  leviter  arcuata  et  truncata,  media  paididuni  sinuosa 
et  acutissima,  inferiore  minore  et  dentiformi  ;  tarso  late  ovato, 
extus  ample  rotundo,  intus  subrecto  ;  btdbo  magno. 
Na\A'ns-Chik. 


1901.]  ARACHIflDA  or  THE  "  SKBAT  EXPEDITION."  67 

Subfamilia  CiiUBiONiN^. 

80.  (?)  Chiracanthium  melai^ostoma  (Thorell). 

Entitiha  melanostoma  Thorell,  Descr.  Cat.  Spid.  Burma,  1895, 
p.  44. 

Jalor :  Biserat. 
Decrit  de  Birmanie. 

81.  ChiracajS^thium  oaudatum  (Thorell). 

Entittha  caudata  Thorell,  in  Aun.  Mus.  civ.  Gen.  xxv.  1887, 
p.  58. 

Pataluug :  Ban-Kong-Eak. 
Decrit  de  Birmanie. 

82.  Matidia  aeria  B.  Simon. 

Matidia  aeria  E.  Simon,  in  Ann.  Soc.  ent.  Fr.  1896,  p.  503. 

Patalung :  Ban-Kong-Rak. 

Espece  tres  repandue,  decrite  de  Jolo  (Philippines). 

Subfamilia  Ctenin^. 

83.  Ctenus  valvularis  V.  Hasselt. 

Otenus  valvularis  V.  Hasselt,  in  Midd.-Sum.  etc.,  Ar.  1882, 
p.  45,  tab.  V.  f.  12, 

Ctenus  valvidaris  Thorell,  St.  Rag.  Mai.  etc.  iv.  2,  1891-92, 
p.  135. 

Jalor :  Biserat. 

Decrit  de  Sumatra,  indique  depuis  de  Java. 

84.  Caloctenus  oreus,  sp.  nov. 

5  .  Long.  Ki  mm. — Ceplialotliorax  ovatus,  jparta  cejjhalica  attenuata 
et  antice  leviter  accUvi,  thoracica  convexa,  sulco  profunda  et 
longo  secta,  fusco-olivaceus,  vitta  media  Integra  et  fere  jjarallela.i 
lineaque  submargmali  angustiore  et  jlexuosa  dilutiorihus  alho 
fulvoque  pilosis  ornatus.  Ocidi  medii  aream  Jiaud  longiorem 
quam  latiorem  et  antice  quam  postice  multo  angustiorem 
occupantes,  antici  posticis  fere  du_plo  minores.  OcuU  laterales 
antici  parvi  ovati  et  albi  prope  marginem  inferiorem  oculorum 
mediorwn  posticorum  siti.  Glypeus  verticalis  planiiyS,  area 
oculormn  mediorum  circiter  cequilatus,  fuscus,  utrinque  dilutior. 
Abdomen  oblongum,  supra  atrum,  obscure  cervino-cinereo- 
pubescens,  vitta  media  sat  angusta,  antice  acuminata,  postice 
leviter  ampliata  et  dentata  albido -fulvoque  pilosa  et  utrinque 
punctis  nigris  seriatis  4-5  notatum,  subtus  paido  dilutius  et 
obscure  cinereo-pubescens.  GhelcH  longce,  cylindratce,  fusco- 
rufulce,  Iceves  et  nitidce,  margine  inferiore  sidci  quinquedentato. 
Partes  oris  fidvo-rufulce.,  pars  labialis  infuscata,  eonvexa, 
circiter  ceque  longa  ac  lata,  dimidium  laminarum  liaud  attingens 
et  apice  truncata.     Sternum  pedesque  fulva.     Pedes  lonqissimi 

5* 


68  M.  BUttENE  SIMON  ON  THE  [MaV  7, 

et  gracillimi,  tihiis  aniicis  aculeis  ])ronis  longissimis  (aplcalibus 
minorihus)  8-8  vel  9-9,  metatarsis  aculeis  similibus  4-4  suhtus 
instructis.  Tuherculum  genitale  paulo  latius  quam  longius, 
rufulum,  in  medio  valde  crinitum  utrinque  incisura  vel  fovea 
l^arva  impressu'tn. 
Jalor :  Bukit  Besar. 

Subfamilia  LiocRANiNiE. 

85.  Tetjtamus  politus  Thorell, 

Teutamus  politus  Thorell,  in  Ann.  Mus.  civ.  G-en.  2  ser.  x. 
(1890),  p.  281. 

Perak :  Gunong  Inas,  Ulu  Selama. 
Decrit  de  Pinang. 

Familia  Pisaueid^. 

86.  Hygropoda  longimakus  (Stoliczka). 

Dolomedes  Zow^rmawtts  StoUczka,  in  Journ.  As.  Soc.  Beng.  xxxviii. 
pt.  2,  p.  218,  tab.  XX.  f.  3. 
Eamau  :  Kota  Bharu. 
Decrit  du  Bengale. 

87.  Thalassius  albooinctus  (Doleschall). 

Dolomedes  albocinctus  DoL,  in  Verb.  N.  V.  Ned.  Ind.  v.  1859, 
p.  9. 

Titurius  marginellus  E.  Simon,  Ann.  Mus.  civ.  Gren.  xx.  1884, 
p.  329. 

Eaman :  Kota  Bharu.     Kelantan :  Kuala  Aring. 

Repandu  dans  I'Indo-Cbine,  la  Birmanie  et  uue  partie  de  la 
Malaisie. 

88.  Dolomedes 'PAROCULUS,  sp.  no  v. 

2  (subadulta).  Long.  18  mm. — OephalotJwrax  fusco-olivaceus, 
hreviter  cervino-puhescens,  utrinque,  prope  marginem  et  antice 
in  clypeo,  maculis  parvis,  iniquis  et  inordinatis  alho-pilosis, 
vittam  latam  confusam  designantibus,  in  medio  vitta  longitudinali 
Jlavido-pilosa,  in  parte  ceplialica  lata  et  linea  media  exili  secta, 
in  parte  thoracica  ahrupte  angustiore,  ornatus.  Oculi  quatuor 
antici  inter  se  cequi  et  fere  cequidistantes,  m,edii  leviter  prominuli. 
Oculi  quatuor  postici  maximi  in  luieam  valde  recurvam, 
laterales  prominuli,  medii  a  lateralibus  quccm  inter  se  remotiores 
(spatio  interoculari  ocido  plus  duplo  minore^  et  spatium 
traiisversum  ocidorum  linea  antica  tota  non  invito  angustius 
occupantes.  Area  quatuor  mediorum  circiter  ceque  longa  ac 
lata  et  antice  quam  postice  multo  angustior,  medii  antici 
posticis  plus  triplo  minores.  Clypeus  subverticalis,  area 
oculorum  mediorum  latior.  Abdomen  magnum,  ovatum,  obscure 
fulvum,  ccrvino-pulescens,  antice  linea  media  angusta  dilutiore, 


1901.]  AEACHNIDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEl)ITIO>\"  69 

uirinqtie  et  pro'sertim  j^ostice  maculis parvis  lineolisqne  Jie-xnosis 
alho-pilosis  ornahim,  s^ihtvs  concolor.  Chelcp  longa\  paralleled, 
fi'sco-riffida',  crehre  et  longe  alhido-Jiirsutce,  marginibus  sulci 
longis,  infenore  clentihiis  quatuor,  I''  reliquis  paulo  majore, 
armato,  Sternum,  partes  oris  pedesque  olivacea.  Pedes  versus 
extremitates  senshn  ohsmriores,  cervino-pidjescentes,  maculis 
alhis  parvis  conspersi  et  suhannidati,  aculeis  ordinariis,  validis 
et  longis  wnnati,  tarsis  gracilibus  s'iihtus  setosis  utrinque 
angztste  scopidatis. 

Eaman :  Kota  Bharu. 

Species  fere  inter  Dolomedem  et  Anotero2yem,  oculis  posticis 
insigniter  magnis,  eximie  distincta. 

Familia  Lycosid^. 

89.  Paedosa  irretita  E.  Simon. 

Pardosa  irretita  E.  Simon,  in  Act.  Soc.  Linn.  Bord.  xl.  1886 
(p.  6). 

Ligeh. 

Decrit  du  Cambodge,  retrouve  depuis  a  Saigon,  a  Singapore  et  a 
Borneo. 

90.  Paedosa  laidlawi,  sp.  nov. 

5 .  Long.  6  mm. —  Cephalothorax  nigellus,  vitta  media  lata, 
antice  oculos  haud  attingente,  in  parte  thoracica  leviter  dentata 
atque  attenuata  fidvo-7-ufula,  antice  ftdvo-rufulo  postice  cdhido- 
pUosa,  lineaque  submarginali  fidva  exili  et  dentata  ornatus, 
clypeo  in  medio  nigro  utrinque  dilutiore.  Oculi  antid  in 
lineam  procurvam,  medii  eviclenter  major es  et  a  sese  quam  a 
lateralihus  remotiores  (spatio  interocidari  oculo  haud  angustiore), 
Icdercdes  a  margine  clypei  quam  ah  oculis  magnis  ser.  2'^  plus 
duplo  remotiores.  Area  ocidorum  quatuor  posticorum  postice 
quam  antice  latior.  Abdomen  oblongum,  nigellum,  area  media 
vel  vitta  latissima  dilutiore,  antice  cdbido  postice  fulvo-pAlosa, 
antice  lineolisbinisnigrisjtguram  acute  lanceolatumdesignantibus, 
postice  arcubus  transversis  fuscis  seriatis  albo-pilosis  ornata, 
supra  notatum,  subtus  dilutius,  obscure  testaceum,  alhido-cinereo- 
pubescens.  CJielce  nigrce  vel  fuscce,  parce  albo-pilosce.  Sternum 
nigrum,  albo-pilosum,  soipe  antice  minute  testaceo-maculatum. 
Pedes  longi,  obscure  fulvo  -  rufescentes,  metatarsis  tarsisque 
dilutioribus,  coxis  infuscatis,  femoribus  annulis  nigris  quatuor 
valde  sinuosis,  tihiis  valde,  metatarsis  vix  distincte  fusco-  vel 
olivaceo-annidatis,  tibiis  metatarsisque  anticis  aculeis  tenuibus  et 
longis  2-2  acideisque  apicalibus  binis  midto  minoribus  subtus 
armatis.  Plaga  genitalis  ovato  transversa,  tdrinque  nigra  sed 
pilis  crassis  niveis  convergentibus  munita,  in  medio  depressa, 
late  foveolata  et  carinida  fidva  tenui  et  integra  divisa. 

Perak  :  Ulu  Selama. 

A  P.  birmanica  Thorell  verisimiliter  affinis. 


70  M.  EUGENE  SIMOK  ON  THE  [May  7, 

Pamilia  Oxyopid^. 

91.  OXYOPES  LINEATIPES  (C.  Koch). 

Spliasus  lineatipes,  C.  Koch,  Arachn.  xy.  1848,  p.  55,  fig.  1455. 
Oxyopes  lineatipes  Thorell,  St.  Rag.  Mai.  etc.  iv.  2,  1891-92, 
p.  190. 

Kelantan  :  Kiiala  Aring. 

Espece  tres  repandue  en  Birmanie  et  en  Malaisie. 

92.  OXYOPES  PATALONGENSIS,  Sp.  nOV. 

S  .  Long.  10  mm. — CeplialofJiorax  altus  sat  brevis,  fronte  lata  et 
obtusa,  fusco-ferruc/ineHS,  jnlis  simplicibus  pronis  fuscis,  versus 
marginem,  prcesertim  postice,  nigricantibus,  vestitus,  sed  zona 
marginali  incequali  paulo  dilutiore  et  subglabra  cinctus,  regione 
clypei  leviter  obscure  reticulata  (Jmud  lineata),  regione  oculorum 
nigra  et  jiavido-pilosu.  Oculi  ordinarii.  Abdomen  sat  an- 
gtistum,  antice  rotundum,  postice  valde  atienuatum  et  cylin- 
draceum,  supra  nigrum,  obscure  olivaceo-pubescens  sed  utrinque 
vitfa  niveo-pilosa,  laciniosa,  extremiiates  haud  attingente,  mar- 
ginatum, stddiis  antice  fulviim  et  aurantiaco-p)ubescens,  prceterea 
nigrum  et  lineis  tenuibus  trims,  media  abbreviata,  albo-pilosis, 
ornatum.  Mamillce  nigrce.  Clielce  fusco-ferrugineo',  leviter 
reticulata.  Sternum  fulvum.  Pedum  coxce,  trocTianteres  femo- 
raque  lutea,  aniica,  subtus,  usque  ad.  basin,  infuscata  et 
subvittata,  femora  postica  apice  infuscata,  reliqui  articuli  nigri- 
cantes  supra  parce  albo-pilosi,  sed,  tarsi  (prcesertim  antici) 
dilutiores  et  sublutei,  aculeis  ordinarHs  longissimis  nigris  armati. 
Pedes-maxillares  sat  breves  et  robusti,  nigri,  femore  utrinque 
dilutiore,  tibia  supra  ad  apicem  mi7iute  albo-pilosa ;  tibia 
patella  haud  longiore,  ecctus  ad  apicem  minute  dentata,  subtus 
depressa  et  apopJiysi  nigro-nitida  crassa  obtusissima  et  oblique 
costiformi  munita ;  tarso  magno,  supra  valde  convexo,  adj 
apicem,  breviter  acuminato,  extus  ad  basin  breviter  prominenti  et 
anguloso. 

Patalung. 

Fauiilia  SaltioiDjE. 

1''.  SalticidaB  pluridentati. 

93.  Linus  eimbeiatus  (Doleschal]). 

Salticus  fimbriatus  DoL,  in  Verb.  N.  V.  Ned.  Ind.  v.  1859,  p.  22. 
Sinis  Jimbriatus  Thorell,  St.  Eag.  Mai.  etc.  ii.  1878,  p.  270. 
Jalor:  Biserat. 

Espece  largement  distribuee,  commune  dans  la  Malaisie  et  la 
Papuasie,  a  Gey  Ian  et  a  Madagascar. 

Genus  Padillothorax  E.  Simon. 

A  Bavia  differt  cepJiaJothorace  Jiumiliore  et  multo  longiore  ovato, 
parte    thoracica    quadrangulo     oculorum   fere   duplo     longiore^ 


1001.]  AEACHTvIDA  or  THE  "  SKBAT  EXPEMTION."  71 

impressione  transversa  -parva  sulcoque  retnotis  submedns  munita, 
oculis  anticis  inter  se  contiguis  et  validissime  ioiiquis,  clyjjeo 
ivngustissimo  c/lahro,  octdis  lateralihus  anticis  et  posticis 
minoribus. 

94.  Padillothorax  semiosteinus,  sp.  nov. 

c? .  Long.  7'5  mm. —  Cephalothorax  Jmmilis,  longus  et  ovatus, 
rubro-castaneus  versus  marginem  infuscatus,  valde  coriaceo- 
vermicidatus  sed  p>arte  tJioraciea  in  medio  Iceviore,  ])arte 
cepJialica  antice  et  idi-inque,  sub  oculis,  pilis  albo-an/enteis 
ornata,  tJioracica  vitiis  medianis  binis  latis  subcontiguis,  lineaque 
marginali  exili,  albo-argenteo-jnlosis  decorata.  Pili  oculorum 
pauci  albidi.  Clypeus  angustissimus  nudus.  Abdomen 
angustum  et  longisshmim.,  supra  fvsco-violaceum,  vitta  media 
lata  et  integra  hiteo-testacea,  antice  lineis  postice  macidis 
seriatis  albo-argenteo-pilosis  marginata,  ornatum,  utrinque  in 
lateribus  antice  linea  recta  postice  lineis  obliquis  binis  cdbis, 
notatum,  subtus  fidvum,  mamillce  fuscce,  ChelcB  nigro-nitidee, 
breves  sed  divaricates,  extus  convexce,  intus  subcostatce,  margine 
inferiore  sidci  depresso,  dein  valde  elevato  et  dentibus  seriutis, 
contiguis,  medianis  majorihus,  armato.  Partes  oris  nigrce, 
lamince  apice  truncates,  convexce,  sed  angulo  compresso  et  leviter 
prominulo.  Sternum  hdeum.  Pedes  V  paris  reliquis  multo 
longiores  et  crassiores,  femore  clavato,  tibia  longe  ovata,  fusco- 
castanei,  coxa  femoreque  nigris,  tarso  luteo,  tibia  metatarsoque 
subtus  sat  longe  sed  parum  dense  nigra- ciliatis.  Reliqui  pedes 
■pallide  lutei,  acideis  paucis  et  par  vis,  ut  in  Bavia  ordinatis, 
muniti.  Pedes-maxillares  sat  parvi,  pallide  lutei,  crasse  albo- 
pilosi ;  tibia  pjatella  breviore,  extus  ad  apicem  apophysi  sat 
longa,  antice  directa,  apice  nigra  et  acuta,  instructa. 
Jalor :  Biserat.     Kelantan :  Kuala  Ariug. 

95.  COPEOCEOSSA  *  POLITIYENTRIS,  Sp.  DOV. 

c?  .  Long.  4  mm. —  Cephalothorax  humilis  et  longus,  leviter  ovatus 
atro-purpureus,  prope  ocidos  niger,  supra  planus  et  glaber,  in 
medio  crebre,  antice  posticeque  pareius  impresso-punctatus, 
utrinque  in  declivitate  pjarum  dense  alho-pilosiis.  Oculi  antici 
inter  se  validissime  incequales  et  contigui,  medii  maxirni,  alti- 
tudinem  faciei  totam  occupantes.  Clypeus  nullus.  Chelce 
brevissimo},  nigrce,  reclinatce  et  antice  planm.  Abdomen  angustum 
et  longum,  teretiusculmn,  supra  nigro-nitidum,  micanti-tinctum, 
glabrum,  sed  in  lateribus  zonis  obliquis  abbreviatis  albo-pilosis 
ornatum,  subtus  atrum.  Sternum  et  partes  oris  nigro-nitida , 
lamince  extus  ad  apicem  prominulce  et  divaricatce  sed  obtusce. 
Pedes  V  paris  longissimi,  nigro-nitidi,  coxa  in  lateribus  et  subtus, 
metatarso  (basi  excepta)  tarsoque  jjallide  luteis,  femore  compresso 
longo,  patella  sat  parva,  tibia  longissime  ovata,  subtus,  in 
dim,idio    apicali,    aculeis   brevibus   sed   robustis  et  singulariter 

^   Coproerossa=  Ste7iodina  E.  Simon  (olim),  nomen  prffioccupatura. 


72  M.  eugJ:ne  simon  ois"  the  [jVIay  7, 

elevatis  3-3,  armata,  metatarso  gracili  sat  longo,  prcesertim  ad 
hasin  curvato,  suhtus  aculeis  minutissimis  et  ereetis  2-2  munito. 
Heliqui  pedes  pallide  lutei,  omnino  mutici.  Pedes-maxiUares 
parvi  fusci,  apice  tarso  bidboque  luteis ;  tibia  tereti,  patella 
paido  breviore,  extus  ad  apicem  apophysi  parva  acuta  et  leviter 
curvata  armata ;  tarso  tibia  midto  longiore  sed  vix  latiore  ; 
bulbo  ad  basin  valde  convexo  et  stdjgloboso,  ad  ap>icem  stylo 
valido  nif/ro,  circuliim  magnum  for mante,  munito. 
Perak  :  GunoBg  Inas. 

96,  Mtemabaohne  akkaijdalbi,  sp.  noA^ 

S  .  Long.  6-5  mm. —  Cephalothorax  niger,  opacus,parce  et  tenuiter 
olivaceo  alboqtte  pubescens,  in  contractura  linea  fulva  sat  exili, 
valde  biangulosa  atque  in  medio  interrupta,  notatus,  parte 
cephalica  alta  super ne  plana,  tlioracica  cephalica  cequilonga  vel 
paido  breviore,  in  medio  convexa,  antice  profunde  et  late  depressa 
nostice  declivi.  Ocidi  antici  inter  se  valde  incequales  et  contigui, 
apicibus  in  lineam  rectum,  pilis  albis  longis  cincti.  Glypeus 
angustus,  fere  glaber.  Pediculum  abdominale  sat  breve,  superne 
visum  sid)quadratum.  Abdomen  breviter  ovatum,  supra  scuto 
duriusculo  tiitido  et  glabro  nigro  omnino  obtectum,  subtus  atrum, 
mamillce  testacece.  Clielce  porrecta',  cephalotJiorace  paido  bre- 
viores,  superne  plana}  et  muticce,  extus  dilatato-arcuatce,  fusco- 
rufulce,  valde  rugosoi  et  parce  albo-pilos<x,  margine  superiore 
sulci,  prope  apicem,  dentibus  trinis  subcequis,  1"  paulo  validiore 
et  uncato,  dente  minore  submedio,  dentibusqiie  parvis  binis 
remotis,  margine  inferiore  dentibus  minutissimis  6  vel  7,  ap*"~ 
calibus  inter  se  distantibus,  reliquis  appropinquatis,  instructis, 
ungue  ad  basin  atque  ad  apicem  curvato,  subtus  carinato  sed 
mutico.  Partes  oris  longissiince,  pars  labialis  fusca,  lamina} 
dilutiores.  Sternum  angustum  fusco-olivaceum.  Pedes  tenues, 
obscure  olivacei,  patelUs  tibiisque  anticis,  tarsis  posticis  tro- 
chanteribusque  4'  j^:)aris  dilutioribus ;  pedes  V  paris,  patella 
longa,  tibia  subtus  aculeis  7-7  longis  et  pronis  (^apicalibus 
minoribus),  metatarsis  tibiis  midto  brevioribus,  actdeis  similibus 
2—2  munitis ;  pedes  2'  paris  tibiis  aculeis  debiliorihus  subtus 
armatis  sed  pedes  quaJuor  postici  omnino  mutici.  Pedes- 
maxillares  fusco-cenei  ;  femore  compresso  subtus  carinato  ;  patella 
tibia  tarsoque  superne  deplanatis  ;  tibia  patella  longiore,  versus 
apicem  sensim  et  valde  ampliata  subtriquetra,  extus  ad  apicem 
ap>opTiysi  gracili  sinuoso-arcuata  armata  ;  bulbo  ovato  simplici, 

Kelautan :  Kuala  Aring. 

M.  (Toxeo)  maxilloso  C.  Koch  et  M.  (Saltico)  nemoreo  Peckham 
sat  affinis. 

2°.  Salticidae  unidentati. 

97.  Chrysilla  versicolor  (C.  Koch). 

Plexippus  versicolor  C,  Koch,  Arachn.  xiii.  1846,  p.  103, 
L  1165  (cJ). 


1901.]  AllACHNIBA  OF  THE  "  STCRAT  EXPKBITTON."  73 

Mcn'in    pkta    C.    Koeh,    Araclm.   xiv.    1848,    p.    72,    f.   1328 

(  S  jn.j- 

OJiri/siUa  versicolor  Thorell,  K.  Sv.  Yet.-Ak.  Haudl.  xxiv.  2, 
1891,  p.  117. 

Jaloi* :  Biserat.     Ligeb. 

Decrit  de  Bintang,  indiquc  depuis  de  Siugapore,  de  Pinaug  et  de 
Sumatra. 

98.  Thtania  bhamoensis  Thorell. 

Thiania  hhamoensis  Thorell,  in  Ann.  Mus.  civ.  Genova,  xxv. 
1887,  p.  357. 

Kelantan ;  Kuala  Aring. 
Decrit  de  Birmanie. 

99.  Thiania  subseeena,  sp.  nov. 

$  .  Long.  8  imn. —  Cephaloihorax  Icevis  et  nitidus,  niger,  parte 
thoracica  in  medio  vix  dilutiore,  utrinque  et  postice  sat  breviter 
pallide  hiteo-pilosus,  antice  et  in  medio  squamulis  viridihus 
parvis  conspersus.  Pili  ocidorum  pallide  lutei.  Pili  clypei 
longissimi,  aJhidi.  Abdomen  longe  oblongum,  supra  nigro- 
nitidum,  squamidis parvis  et  longis  viridi-micantibus  conspersum 
{fere  omnino  depile),  subtus  obscure  testaceum.,  vitta  media  fusca 
lata,  postice  attenuata  et  mamillas  hand  attingente  notatum. 
Mamilloi  nigrce.  Chelae  nigrce,  antice  deplanatce,  coriacea?, 
valde  et  inordinate  transversim  rugatce.  1  artes  oris  sternumque 
nigro-nitida.  Pedes  V  paris  reliquis  robustiores,  ftisco-castanei, 
coxa  tarsoque  luteis,  femore  ad  basin,  tibia  patellaque  in  medio 
p)aido  dilutioribus,  reliqui  pedes  lutei  femoribus  ad  apiceni 
infuscatis  et  subannulatis,  tibiis  2'  et  3'  parium  ad  basin 
atque  ad  apicem  minute  fuscis  et  tibiis  2*  paris  subtus  nigro- 
vittatis.  Tihia  V  paris  subtus  acideis  validis  et  longis  3-3  et 
utrinque  lateralibus  minoribus  binis^  metatarszis  acideis  in- 
ferioribus  longis  et  validis  3-3  aculeoque  minore  exteriore 
apicali  instructi.  Tibia  2^  paris  similiter  aculeata,  sed  meta- 
tarsus acideis  inferioribus  2—2  et  utrinque  lateralibus  binis, 
basali  longiore,  armatus.  Plaga  genitalis  magna  rufula,  antice 
fovea  testacea  transversa,  acute  emarginata,  impressa. 

Perak :  Ulu  Selama. 

100.  BlANOB  DIVEESIPES,  Sp.  UOV. 

2  .  Long.  4  mm. — CepJialothorax  niger,  subfilissime  coriaceus, 
supra  parce  et  tenuissime  setosus,  utrinque,  in  declivitate,  parum 
dense  luteo-pubescens,  p>arte  thoracica  in  medio  pilis  crassis 
pronis  niveis  vestita.  Pili  ocidorum  et  faciei  lutei.  Pili  clypei 
longissimi  decumbantes  nivei.  Oculi  quatuor  antici  apicibus  in 
lineam  rectam,  inter  se  contigui  et  valde  incequales,  medAi 
maximi  vii'idi-cenei.  Abdomen  oblongum,  atrum,  luteo-pubescens, 
ad  marginem  anticum  setis  albis  longis  ornatum.  Clielce,  partes 
oris  sternumque  nigra,  chelce  antice  valde  rugosoi  et  parce  albo- 


74  M.  EUGENE  siMOisr  o"N  THE  [May  7, 

crinitci'.  Pedes  V  j[)aris  roln(,stissimi,fhiiore  compresso  et  late 
clavato  nigro  sed  supra  fvseo-rufuJo  et  subvittato,  patella  nigra., 
tibia  ad  basin  fusco-rufula  ad  apicein  nigra.,  metatarso  pallide 
fiisco-mfido,  tarso  luteo,  patella  tibiaque  et  subtus  et  intus 
longissime  et  sat  crebre  albo-setosis,  reliqui  pedes  omnino  lutei, 
aculeis  ordinariis  armati. 
Kelantan :  Kuala  Aring. 

101.  Htlltjs  iakthinus  (C.  Koch). 

Pleocip>pus  ianthinus  C.  Koch,  Arachia.  xiii.  1846,  p.  97,  f.  1160. 
(?)  Plexippus  succinctus   0.  Koch,    Arachn.    xiii.    1846,  p.    98, 
f.  1161. 
Ligeb. 
Eepandu  en  Malaisie  et  eu  Birmanie. 

102.  Pseud AMYCus  albomaculatus  (V.  Hasselt). 

Amyous   albomaculatus  V.   Hasselt,   in    Midclen-tSumatra,    etc., 
Aran.  p.  52,  tab.  iii.  f.  10. 

Perak  :  Gunong  Tnas.     Ligeb . 
Connu  de  Sumatra. 

103.  Plexippus  culicivorus  (Doleschall). 

Perak.     Jalor.     Rahman. 
Tres  repandu  en  Malaisie. 

104.  Plexippus  paykulli  (Audouin). 

Ligeh. 

Repandu  dans  toutes  les  regions  tropicales  et  subtropicales  du 
monde. 

3".  Salticidae  fissidentati. 

Pantsi]S"us,  nov.  gen. 

Ab  iLasa^rio  prcesertim  differt  metatarsis  anticis  aculeis  inferioribus 
et  salteyn  intus  aculeis  lateralibus  binis  instruciis,  a   Chapoda 
Peckh.    differt    oeulis   quatuor    anticis    a  sese   sicbcontiguis    et 
lineam  rectam  sen  subrectam  designantibus. — Typus  P.  niten 
E.  Sim. 

105.  Panysinus  nitens,  sp.  nov. 

5.  Long.  5  inm.  —  Cephalotlwrax  niger,  squamulis  lanceolatis  et 
striatis  viridi-aureis  crebre  vestitus,  parte  thoracica  linea  mar- 
ginali  exili  alba,  linea  submarginali  paido  latiore  lutea  et 
utrinque,  pone  octdos,  macida  parva  alba,  notata.  Pili  oculorum 
densi  et  longi  JIavi.  Glypeus  subglaber,  parce  albo-setosus. 
Abdomen  oblongum,  supra  atrum  et  cupreo-squamidatwn,  zonis 
transversis  recurvis  viridi-aureis  et  posiice  utrinque  macida  alba 
supra  ornatum,  subtus  luteum,  argenteo-micanti-squamulatum. 
Ohela'  convexm,  nitidce  et  glabrce,  sternum  et  partes  oris  fusco- 
olivacea,   chelarum   margine   superiore    dentibus  princip>aMbus 


1901.]  ARAOHNIDA  or  THE  "  SKE AT   EXPEDITION."  75 

hinis  a'quis  dentihusqiie  minoribus  binis,  inferiore  cariimla  sat 
lonr/a  fere  cequaliter  bifida,  armatis.  Pedes  hUei,  parce  nitido- 
squamulati,  femoribus  quatuor  anticis  subtus  late  nigricanti- 
vittatis.  Plaga  genitalis  fidvo-nitida,  utrinque  area  magna 
subrotunda,  in  medio  carinida  triqiietra  notata. 
Jalor :  Bukit  Besar. 

106.    LOLLIANUS  PERAKENSIS,  sp.  nOV. 

c?  .  Long,  5-6  mm. — Cejyhalotlioraa.'  niger,  subtiliter  coriaceus  et 
opacus,  pilis  simplieibus  sed  crassis,  obivsis  et  pronis,  jlavo- 
nitidis  parum  dense  vestitus.  Pili  ocalorum  ffavi.  Clypens  sub 
omlis  glaber,  ad  marginem  pUis  longissimis  uniseriatis  pallide 
Jlavidis  munitus.  Ocidi  antici  magni  et  contigui,  apicibus  in 
linearn  rectam.  Chjpeiis  dimidio  oculorum  mediorum  pjaulo 
angustior.  Abdomen  breviter  ovatum,  supra  fusco-piceum  et 
flavo-pilosum  sed  postice,  supra  mamillas,  nigrum  et  suhglabrma, 
subtus  paido  dilutius,  mamillce  sat  longce  lutece.  CJieloi  validce, 
glabrce,  nigro-virescentes,  valde  coriacece  et  intus,  prope  apicem, 
valde  rugatce.  Partes  oris  fusco-picece.  Sternum  obscure 
fidviim,  Iceve  et  glabrum,  Coa-ce  trochanteresque  lutei,  antici 
paulo  obscuriores.  Pedes  V  paris  reliquis  robustiores  et  paido 
hngiores,  nigricantes,  tarso  vix  dilutiore,  patella  tibiaque  supra, 
metatarso  ad  basin  flavido-pilosis,  subtus  sat  longe  sed  parcissime 
nigro-seiosis,  tibia  acideis  inferioribus  mediocribus  3-3  et 
latercdibus  interioribus  binis,  metatarso  acideis  midto  longioribus 
2-2  subtus  armato  sed  acideis  lateralibus  carente.  Pedes  2' 
paris  fusci,  femore  ad  basin,  metatarso  tarsoque  luteis,  subtus 
similiter  acideatis  sed  tibia  utrinque  acideo  laterali  submedio, 
metatarso  aculeis  lateralibus  interioribus  binis  armatis.  Pedes 
quatuor  postiei  longitudine  fere  cequi  (iv  via?  hngiores),  minute 
et  sat  parce  aculeati,  metatarso  3'  paris  aculeis  subbasilaribus 
binis  aculeisque  apicalibus  verticillatis  munito,  sed  metatarso 
4*  paris,  aculeis  apicalibus  parvis  binis  eaxeptis,  mutico.  Pedes- 
maxillares  fulvo-rufuli,  breves  et  robusti  ;  femore  crasso,curvato, 
subtus  ad  basin  obtuse  prominido  ;  patella  convexa,  Jiaud  longiore 
quam  latiore  ;  tibia  patella  breviore,  ecrtus  ad  apicem  apoptliysi 
gracili  longissima,  articulo  plus  duplo  longiore,  incurva  et 
antice,  secundum  tarsum  directa,  insigniter  armata  ;  tarso  longo, 
cylindraceo  ;  bidbo  maximo,  ad  basin  valde  promimdo  et  globoso, 
ad  apiicem  sensim  atienuato. 

Perak :  Ulu  Selama. 

107.    SiLEE  PULCHEB,  sp.  nOV. 

c?  .  Loyig.  4  mm .— CephalotJiorax  niger,  crebre  olivaceo-puhescens, 
versus  marginem  late  dilutior  et  coccineo-pilosus  sed  tinea 
marginali  exili  nigra  pallide  viridi-scpiamidata  cinctus.  Pili 
oculorum  albidi.  Clypeus  angustus  fere  nudus.  Abdomen 
angustum  longum  et  teretiusculum,  nigrum,  supra  in  dimidio 
basali  Icete  coccineo-pubescens  et  maculis  quatuor  pallide  viridi- 
micantibus,  anticis  longis  obliquis  et  arcuatis  alteris  minoribus  et 


76  M.  BTJG-EXE  siMoi^  OTN  THE  [May  7, 

ovatis  decoratum,  in  parte  altera  violaceo-micanti  squamulatum, 
suhtus  parce  micanti-squamulatum  et  pone  plicam  yenitalem 
alhido-pilosimi.  Chela'  antice  deplanata?,  valde  coriaceo-granu- 
losa',  fusco'  apice  sensim  rufido',  margine  inferior e  sidci  carintda 
Tonga  tenidssime  serrata  et  oblique  secta  cum  angido  postico 
prowinido  armato.  Partes  oris  sternumque  ohscure  fulva, 
alhido-pilosa  et  parce  squamulata.  Pedes  V  pans  rohusti, 
ftdvo-rufuli, patella  et  pjrcesertim  tibia  valde  infuscatis,  metatarso 
tarsoque  pallide  luteis,  patella  Icete  violaceo-micanti-squamulata, 
femore  clavato  subtus  ad  marginem  exteriorem  in  dimidio  apicali 
tibia  et  subtus  et  supra  longissime  nigro-jimbriatis.  Reliqui 
pedes  graciliores,  lutei,  pateTlis  tibiisque  cunctis,  metatarsisque 
4  posticis  utrinque  tenuiter  fusco-lineatis.  Pedes-maxillares 
lutei,  crasse  nigro-'pilosi ;  tihia  patella  breviore  haud  vel  vix 
longiore  quam  latiore,  extus  ad  apicem  apophysi  nigra  brevi, 
compressa  valde  uncata  atque  acuta  instructa,  tarso  longe  ovato, 
Kelantan :  Kuala  Aring. 

108,  Hakmochirus  malaccensis  E.  Simon. 

HarmocTiirns  malaccensis  E.  SimoD,  in  Bull.  Soc.  zool.  Er.  1885, 
p.  441. 

A  typo  differt  magnitudine  duplo  majore. 
Kelantan :  Kuala  Aring. 

Ordo  PEDIPALPI. 
Earailia  Tarantflid^. 

109.  Sttgophrtnus  cbrbeetjs,  sp.  nov. 

Long.  20-28  mm. — Fusco-piceus,  abdomine paulo  dilutiore,pedibus, 
saltern  sex  p>osticis,  fidvo-rufidis,  tegumentis  cepJialotTioracis  et 
pedum-maxillarmm  subtiliter  rugosis  et  gi'anuUs  parvis  nigris 
conspersis,  abdominis  subtilius  rv.gosis, pedum  femoribus  granulis 
minutis  nigris  seriatis  ornatis.  Pedes -maxillare^  ceplialothorace 
fere  triplo  longiores,  trocJiantere  intus  spinis  mediocribus  iniquis 
plurimis  atque  ad  marginem  apicalein  spina  multo  longiore 
arcuata  (non  truncata)  compressa  et  superne  leviter  et  obtuse 
serrata  armato;  femore  subtus  ad  marginem  superior  em  spinis  5, 
I''  minore  et  obliquo  a  2°  fere  contiguo,  S'^  reliquis  longiore,  5^ 
minore,  ad  marginem  inferiorem  spinis  4,  2°  reliquis  longiore  ; 
tibia  (bracMo)  ad  marginem  superiorem,  in  dimidio  apicali, 
leviter  dilatata  spinis  longisslmis  et  inter  se  suba'quis  trinis, 
spinisque  minoribus  trinis,  1°  ante  spinas  principales,  2"  leviter 
uncata,  inter  spinas  princ.  2"  et  3°,  3"  apicali,  margine  inferiore 
spinis  4  et  inter  eas  spinis  parvis  numerosis  seriatis,  spina 
princ.  3°  reliqids  multo  longiore,  4"  apicali  brevi  sed  crassa 
et  dentiformi ;  metatarso  (manu)  utrinque  spinis  parvis  4 
(apicalibus  longioribus)  et  prope  basin  spina  longissima  et 
divaricata,  inferiore  simplici,  superiore  subramosa  subtus  ad 
basin  dente  brevi  sat  valido  et  leviter  retro  directa  armata, 
instructis. 


1901.]  ARACHNIDA  OP  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  77 

A  S.  cavernicola  Thorell  praesertim  differt  tegumentis  corporis 
pedura-maxillarium  femorumque  subtiliter  rugosis  et  parce  granu- 
losis, magnitiidine  multo  majore,  spina  minore  inter  spinas 
principales  marginis  superioris  tibiae  pedum-maxillarium  et  ramulo 
inferiore  spinse  superiore  metatarsi  crassiore  et  divaricate. 

Jalor  :  Caves  (v.-vi.  1899),  Gua  Griap  ("  Dark  Cave  '"),  Biserat 
(26  V.  1899). 

110.  Catag^us  eimosus,  sp.  nov. 

5  .  Long.  7  mm. — Pusco-piceus,  suhtus  dilutior,  cephcdotliorace 
leviter  rufulo-variegato,  jpedihus-m^axillarihus  clielisque  rufescen- 
tibus,  pedibus  versus  apicem  sensim  fulvis.  Cephalothoraoo 
impresses  et  incequalis,  subtiliter  et  crebre  rugosus,  pilis  ritfulis 
brevibus,  obtusis  et  subclaviformibiis  conspersus^  margine  frontali 
angusta,  spinis  rufulis  quatuor,  raedianis  longioribus,  munita. 
Segmenta  abdominalia  subtilissime  rugosa.  Pedes-maxillares 
robusti,  subtiliter  eoriacei,  pili^  spiniformibus  rufidis  conspersi  ; 
trochantere  intus  spinis  parvis  2  vel  3,  ad  marginem  apicalem 
subtus,  spina  vel  apopliysi  majore,  ad  marginem  inferiorem 
tridentato  spinaque  minore  armato  ;  femore  sitbtus,  ad  marginem 
superiorem,  spinis  4  inter  se  fere  cequidistantibus,  basali  paulo 
longiore,  ajncali  minore,  ad  marginem  inferiorem,  spinis  3,  basali 
longiore  ;  tibia  (brachio)  ad  marginem  superior  era  spinis  5  vel  6 
(basali  minutissimo  vel  obsolete),  upicali  (6")  mediocri,  sub- 
apicali  longissima  apice  acutissima  et  leviter  cui'vata,  3°  prce- 
cedenti  paulo  breviore,  reliquis  basin  versus  sensim  minoribus ; 
metatarso  (manu)  ad  marginem  inferiorem  spina  unica  submedia, 
ad  marginem  superiorem  acideis  longis  acutis  et  leviter  curvatis, 
inter  se  subsimilibus,  armato  ;  tarso  (ungue)  ad  marginem  su- 
periorem, prope  basin,  spinis  minutissimis  binis  muiiito. 
A  CatagcBo  pusillo  Thorell  imprimis  differt  manu  pedum- 
maxillarium  ad  marginem  superiorem  aculeis  binis,  inter  se  sequis 
armato  (in  G.  pusillo  aculeo  2°  V  multo  minore  atque  recto,  sec. 
Kraepelin,  Eev.  Tarant.  fig.  34). 
Kelantan :  Kuala  Aring. 

Familia  Thelyphonid^. 

111.  Htpocton[js  kbabpelinj,  sp.  nov. 

5  .  Long,  30-32  mm. — CephalotJiorax  segmentaque  dorsalia  ab- 
dominis nigro-opaca,  segmenta  ventralia  rufula  et  nitida,  pedes- 
maxillares  {coxis  ececeptis)  nigerrimi  et  nitidi,  pedes  V  paris 
obscure  fusci,  reliqui  pedes  ruji.  CephalotTiorax  antice  sat  grosse 
et  crebre,  prcpAerea  tenuiter  granulosus,  antice,  ante  oculos 
laterales,  depressions  media  longitudinali  leviter  lanceolata, 
minus  granulosa  et  utrinque  costa  lata  obliqua  et  obttisissima 
Icevi  munita.  Tuber  oculorum  mediorum  Iceve  et  nitidum,  inter 
oculos  leviter  convexum  et  subcosfatum,  spatio  inter  ocidos  medios 
oculo  non  multo  latiore.  Segmenta  dorsalia  abdominis  opaca, 
minute  et  parce  granulosa,  cuncta  ad  marginem  posticum  granulis 


'78  M.  EUGENE  SIMON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

minutissimis  densioribus  et  uniseriatis  munita,  segmenta  ventralia 
nitida.  Segmentum  anale  nitidum,  macula  albida  ocidifonni 
jjarva  utrvnque  inunitum.  Pedes-maxillares  robusti,  niti- 
dissimi ;  trocJiantere  supra  dente  angidari  sat  valido  et  acuto, 
ad  marginem  anteriorem  dente  simili,  ad  interiorem  dentibus 
trinis  paulo  minoribus,  inter  se  aiquis  et  cequidistantibus  armato  ; 
apophysi  tibiali  valida  sed  acuta,  ad  marginem  interiorem 
dentibus  sat  parvis  6-7  inter  se  cequidistantibus  {basalibus  binis 
minoribus),  ad  'inarginem  exteriorem  dente  apicali  minutissimo 
denteque  subbasilari  paulo  majore  instructa.  Pedes  V  paris 
tarsi  articulo  2"  j^jZms  triplo  longiore  quam  latiore,  3"  saltern 
duplo  longiore  quam  latiore,  4^,  5",  6"  paulo  brevioribus  inter 
se  subcequis.  Pedes  3'^  paris  tibia  mutica.  Pedes  4^  paris  tibia 
aculeo  medio-apicali  subtus  arrnata. 

Ab  II.  saxatili  Gates,  qui  verisirailiter  affinis  est,  differt  imprimis 
tibia  3'  paris  mutica. 

Jalor  :  Biserat.     Nawng-Cbik  :  Bukit  Grab. 

112.  Thelyphonus  lin&anus  C.  Kocb. 

Thehjplionus  linganus  C.  Kocb,  Aracbn.  x.  1843,  p.  31,  f.  774. 
Thelyphomis  ja%orensis  Gates,  in  Joiirn.  Asiat.  Soe.  Beng.  Iviii. 
1889,  p.  11. 

Thelgphonus  linganus  Kraepelin,  Eev.  TJropygi,  1897,  p.  25. 
Perak  :  Uki  Selama.     Kelantan  :  Kuala  Ariug. 

Grdo  SCGEPIONES. 
Familia  Buthidje. 

113.  Aechisometrus  scutatus  (C.  Kocb). 

Lychas  scutatus  (scutillus)  C.  Koch,  Aracbn.  xii.  1845,  p.  3, 
f.  962. 

Isonietrus  weberi  Karscb,  in  Berl.  ent.  Zeitscbr.  xxvi.  1882, 
p.  184. 

Isometrus  messor  E.  Simon,  in  Ann.  Mus.  civ.  Genova,  xx.  1884, 
p.  371. 

Isometrus  phipsoni  Gates,  in  J.  Bombay  Soc.  iii.  1888,  p.  248. 

Archisometrus  scutatus  Kraepelin,  in  Tierr.,  Scorp.  et  Fed.  1899, 
p.  44. 

Jalor :  Bukit  Besar.     Patalung :  Ban-Kong-Eak. 

Familia  SooKPioNiDiE. 

114.  Palamn^eus  longimanus  (Herbst). 
Forma  angustimanus  Tborell. 
Patalung:  Singgora. 

Forma  tJiorelli  Pocock. 

Jalor:  Bukit  Besar,  Biserat,  Patani.    Patalung:  Ban-Kong-Eak. 


1901.]  ARACHNIDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION"."  79 

115.  HofiMURUS  AUSXEALASiiE  (Fabricius). 

Perak :  Gnnong  Inas,  Ulu  Selama.     Kelanfcan :    Kuala  Aring. 
Jalor  :  Biserat,  Bukit  Besar.     Patalung  :  Ban-Kong-Eak. 

116.  HoRMUEUS  CAUDiouLA  (L.  Koch). 
Ligeh. 

Familia  Ch^iieilid^. 

117.  Ch^rilus  truncatus  Karsch. 

Ohcerilus  truncatus  Karsch,  in  Mitt.  Miiuch.  eut,  Ver.  iii.  1879, 
p.  108  ;  Kraepelin,  loc.  cit.  p.  163. 

Jalor  :  Biserat.     Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 

Ordo  CHEENETES. 
Eamilia  Garypid^. 

118.  Gartpus  personatus,  sp.  nov. 

Long.  3-5  mm. — Sat  longus,  postice  sensim  ampliatus,  subtiliter  et 
uniformiter  coriaceus,  pills  carens  (?).  Oeplialothorax  evidenter 
longior  qiiam  latior,  antice,  usque  ad  oeulos,  leviter  attenuatus, 
ante  oculos  ahrupte  angustior,  longe  productus,  ohlique  proclivis 
et  leviter  sidcatus,  prope  medium  vix  distincte  transversim  de- 
pressus.  Oculi  utrinque  bini,  a  sese  juwta  contigui,  anticus 
postico  vix  minor.  Pedes-maxillares  longi,  sat  graciles,  subtiliter 
coriaceo-rugosi,  digitis  setis  tenuissimis  paucis  munitis ;  tro- 
chantere  brevisshne  pedicidato,  dein  lata,  convexo  sed  intus  haud 
producto,  saltem  haud  longiore  quam  latiore;  femore  longo, 
parallelo,  haud  pediculato  ;  tibia  femore  fere  ^  breviore,  circiter 
cequilata,  basin  versus  sensim  et  longe  attenuata  ;  tnanu  tibia 
circiter  ceqidlonga,  haud  duplo  latiore,  longe  ovata,  intus  quam 
extus  paido  convexiore ;  digitis  tenuibus,  leviter  curvatis,  manu 
saltem  haud  brevioribus. — Truncus  falvo-testaceus,  regione 
frontali  fusca,  maculam  postice  laciniosam,  formante,  segmentis 
abdominis  macidis  fuscis  parvis  quadriseriatis  ornatis.  Pedes- 
maxillares  fusco-olivacei,  digitis  pallidioribus  rafulis.  Pedes 
pallide  lutei  subpellucentes. 

Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 

Familia  Cheliteeid^. 

119.  CflELiEER  (Lamprochbrnbs)  JAY  ANUS  Thorell. 

Ghelifer  javanus   Thorell,  in    Ann.    Mus,   civ.   Geneva,   xviii. 
1882,  p.  37,  tab.  v.  f.  20-23. 
Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 
Espece  tres  repandue  en  Malaisie. 

120.  Ohblieee  cocophilus,  sp.  nov. 

Long.  4  mm. — Sat    depressus,  cephalothorax   anophthalmus  (sed 


80  M.  EIJGENE  SIMON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

antice  utrinque  macula  testacea  oculiformimumtus)fusco-olivaceus 
vel  nig er,  minute  et  crehre  rugosus,  sed  postice  {pone  sulcum  2"™) 
albo-testaceus  atqtie  in  medio  fusco-macidatus,  sideis  transversis 
binis  tenuihus  et  rectis,  V  submedio,  cdtero  a  sidco  1°  atque  ad 
m,arginem  posticum  fere  ceque  remoto.  Segmenta  abdominalia 
supra  subtilissime  coriacea,  antica  testacea,  postica  infuscata, 
subtus  Icevia,  nitida  et  pallide  testacea,  pilis  simplicibus  tenu- 
ibiis  et  brevibus  conspersa.  Pedes-maxillares  longi  et  robusti, 
et  supra  et  subtus  Iceves  et  nitidi,  nigri,  dAgitis  rufulis,  pilis 
simplicibus  tenuibus  et  sat  brevibus  conspersi ;  trocJiantere 
breviter  pediculato,  vix  longiore  quam  latiore,  supra  convexo 
et  obtusissimo ;  femore  crasso,  intus  recto,  extus  valde  convexo, 
ad  basin  brevissime  et  abrupte  pedicidato ;  tibia  femore 
circiter  ceque  longa  et  lata  {vel  vix  latiore),  longe  ovata,  ad  basin 
atque  ad  apicem  fere  cequaliter  attenuata,  intus  quam  extus 
convexiore,  ad  basin  breviter  pediculato  ;  manu  tibia  latiore,  ad 
basin  globosa,  apicem  versus  parum  attenuata,  digitis  robusfis, 
curvatis,  manu  circiter  cequilongis.  Pedes  breves,  luteo-olivacei, 
subpellucentes. 
Kelantan  :  Kuala  A  ring. 

Ordo  OPILIONES. 
1".  Opiliones  plagiostethi. 

Synopsis  specierum. 

1.  Truncus  supra  tnuticus  spina  carens 2. 

Truncus  supra  spina  media  vel  spiuis  duabus 

instructus    3. 

2.  Tuber    oculorum    bumile.      Pedum-maxil- 

larium  patella  intus  ad  apicem  ramulo 
longo  munita.     Pedes  nigricantes  tibiis  ad 

apicem  late  albis    Zaleptus  festivtis  Th. 

Tuber  oculorum  angustum  et  altum.  Pedum- 
maxillarium  patella  simplex  ramulo 
carens.     Pedes  nigricantes  concolores    ...      Verpulus  spumatus  s.  \\. 

3.  Tuber  oculorum  supra,  ante  oculos,  dentibus 

sat  longis  binis  munitum.  Scutum  abdo- 
minale  spinis  duabus  armatum.  Patella 
pedum-maxillarium      intus     ad     apicem 

ramulo  longo  munita Gagrella  hicornigera  s.  n. 

Tuber  oculorum  muticum  vel  minute  bi- 
seriatira  dentatum.  Scutum  abdominale 
spina  unica  armatum.  Patella  pedum- 
maxillarium  simplex  ramulo  carens     4. 

4.  Tuber  oculorum  humillimum,  saltem  duplo 

latius  quam  longius,  ad  basin  baud  augus- 
tatum.  Scutum  abdominale  antice  parce 
et  inoi'dinate  granulosum,  postice  subti- 
lissime coriaceum,  spina  crassa  deuticulis 

validis  scabrosa Gagrella  semigranosa  s.  n. 

Tuber  oculorum  sat  altum,  versus  basin 
angustatum.  Scutum  abdominale  uni- 
formiter  grauosum  vel  coriaceum,  spina 
graciliore  armatum 5. 


1901.]  ARACHNIDA  OP  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  81 

5.  Tuber  oculorum  supra,  inter  oculos,  clentibus 

parvis   biseriatis  4-4  muuitum.      Corpus 

omnino  nigrum  Gagrella  patalungensis  s.  n. 

Tuber  oculorum  Iteve  et  muticum  nee  denta- 
tum  nee  spinulosum 6. 

6.  Tarsus  pedum-maxillarium  subtus  in  parte 

basalilineaspinularum  parvarum  armatus.     Gagrella  illusa  s.  n. 
Tarsus  pedum-maxillarium  muticus,  linea 
spinosa  careus    7. 

7.  Truncus   niger,    abdomine    maculi8     albis 

pulveridentis  albis  biseriatis  ornato,  spina 

dorsali  Iseviarmato    Gagrella  biscriaia  s.  n. 

Truncus  Itete  fulvo-rufescens,  tubere  oculo- 
rum apice  nigro-^neo,  scuto  abdominali 
in  medio  late  nigro-opaco,  spina  nigra 
minute  scabrosa  armato    Gagrella  atroruhra  s.  n. 

121.  Zaleptus  pestiyus  Thorell. 

Zalej)tus  festivus  Thorell,  in  Ann.  Mus.  civ.  Gen.  2^  ser.  vii. 
1889,  p.  611. 

Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 
Decrit  du  Tenasserim. 

122.  G-ageella  bicoenigeea,  sp.  nov. 

Long.  3  inm. — Ti'uneus  hrevis^  subrotundns,  conveocus,  rufo-cocci- 
neus,  tubere  oculorum  spinisque  abdominis  nigris,  crebre  et 
minute  rugosus,  spinis  duabus  gracilibits,  acutissimis  et  subtilissime 
rugosis,  antica  altera  paido  minore,  armatus,  margine  antico 
cephalotJioracis  longe  declivi,  tubercidis  rugosis  binis  geminatis 
onunito.  Tuber  ocidorum  modice  altum,  antice  visum  midto  latius 
quam  altius  et  basin  versus  angustius,  supra,  inter  ocidos  pro- 
funde  sulcatum,  minute  granosum  et  ante  ocidos  tuberculis  binis, 
erectis,  leviter  divaricatis  atque  obtusis  armatum.  Truncus  subtus 
cum  coccis  subtiliter  coriaceus  et  opacus.  CJielce  lutea;,  loives  et 
nitidce,  articulo  2°  {manii)  cylindrato.  Pedes-maxillares  lutei, 
graciles  et  longi,  patella  supra  ad  apicem  convexa  sed  intus  haud 
producta  ramido  carente  ;  tibia  saJtem  quadruplo  longiore  quam 
latiore.  Pedes  longissimi,  mutici  et  parce  dentati,  obscure  fusci, 
coxis  troclianteribusque  dilutioribus  sed  femoribus  ad  basin 
sensim  infuscatis  fere  nigris. 
Ligeh. 
A  G.  bidentata  Thorell,  cui  verisimiliter  valde  affinis  et  subsimilis 

est,  divert  (see.  Thorell)  corpore  subtus  coriaceo  (haud  laeye)  et 

femoribus  pedum  ad  basin  fere  nigris. 

123.  Gageella  illusa,  sp.  nov. 

Long.  4'8  mm. — Truncus  niger,  ceplialotliorace  utrinque  macula 
magna  subtriquetra,  scuto  abdominali  vittis  binis  longitudinalibus 
angustis,  sinuosis,  soipe  extus  dentatis  et  antice  abbreviatis  albis 
et  pulverulentis  ornatus,  breviter  ovatus,  convexus,  crebre  et  sat 
minute  granidosus,  spina  media  erecta,  gracili  et  acutissima 
omnino   Icevi   (Jiaud    granulosa)    armatus.       Tuber    oculorum 

Proc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  VI,  6 


82  M,  EUGENE  SIMON  ON  THE  [May  7, 

muticum,  nee  dentatum  nee  Sjoinosum,  altum,  antice  visum,  hand 
latins  quam  cdtius,  versus  basin  angustius,  supra,  inter  oculos, 
profunde  sidcatum,  ante  et  pone  oculos  minute  et  obtuse  pi-omi- 
nulum.  Hegio  ventralis  coxceque  materia  subcerea  albida  omnino 
obtectce.  GTielce  Imves  et  nitidce,  ftdvo-rufala;,  articido  basali 
infuscato,  apicali  cylindrato.  Pedes-maxillares  mediocres, 
femore patellaque  mgricantes,pra}tereafidvo-rufuli,  feinore  subtus 
minute  et  inordinate  dentato,  patella  simplici  ramxdo  carente, 
tibia  patella  paido  longiore  et  graciliore  sed  nan  triplo  longiore 
quam  latiore,  subtus  omnino  Icevi  et  mutica,  tarso  subtus  in 
dimidio  basali,  prope  marginera  interiorem,  linea  spinularum 
parvarum  armato.  Pedes  longissimi,  nigri,  aplcem  versus  vies 
dilutiores,  minutissime  et  parce  spinidosi. 
Jalor  :  Bukit  Besar,  in  silvis. 

124,  G-AGBELLA  BISEEIATA,  Sp.  nOV. 

Long.  4"5  mm. — Truncus  niger,  cepiJialotJiorace  utrinque  tnacidis 
albis  binis,  antica  subtriquetra,  altera  (^prope  tuber  oculorum  sita) 
longa,  obliqua  et  scepe  arcuata,  scuto  abdominali  utrinque  ad 
marginem  pSlus  minus  testaceo  plagiato,  supra  maculis  parvis 
albis  biseriatis  (5-5  vel  6-6)  ornato.  Tuber  oculorum  altum, 
ad  basin  angustius,  supra,  inter  oculos,  prof unde  sulcatum,  haud 
prominulum,  sed  ante  oculos  scepe  minute  dentatum.  Scutum 
crebre  granulosum,  spina  media,  erecta,  gracili  et  acutissima 
loivi,  haud  granidosa,  armatum.  Megio  ventralis  cowceque 
materia  subcerea  albida  obtectm.  Chela".  Iceves  et  nitidw,  fulvo- 
rufulw,  articido  basali  infuscato,  apicali  cylindrato.  Pedes- 
maxillares  mediocres,  femore  patellaque  nigricantes,  proiterea 
fulvo-rufidi,  femore  subtus  sat  minute  inordinate  et  crebre 
dentato,  patella  simplici,  ramtdo  carente,  tibia  patella  paulo 
longiore  et  graciliore  sed  non  cluplo  longiore  quam  latiore,  subtus 
ad  marginem  exteriorem,  prcesertim  ad  basin,  spinulis  parvis 
armata,  tarso  oinnino  mutico,  laivi.  Pedes  longissimi,  nigri, 
apicem  versus  vix  dilutiores,  minutissime  et  parce  spinulosi. 

Perak :  Gruoong  Inas. 

A  prsecedente,  ciii  valde  affinis  est,  imprimis  differt  tibia  pedum- 
maxillarum  subtus  spinulosa  sed  tarso  mutico,  linea  granulosa 
carente. 

125,  GrAGEELLA  PATALTJNGENSIS,  Sp,  nOV. 

Long.  4*5  mm.- — Omnino  niger.  Truncus  breviter  ovatus,  convexus, 
cephalothorace  segmentisque  abdominis  posticis  sat  subtiliter 
coriaceis  et  opacis,  scuto  abdominis  crebre  et  uniforniiter  coriaeeo- 
granuloso,  spina  media  erecta  sat  gracili  et  acutissima,  parce 
granulosa,  armato.  Tuber  oculorum  sat  altu'in,  versus  basin 
angustatum,  Iceve  sed  supra,  inter  oculos,  denticulis  parvis 
biseriatis  4-4,  duobus  ante  ocidos  reliquis  a  sese  subcontiguis  et 
pone  ocidos  sitis,  armatum.  Chelce  Iceves  et  nitidce,  articido  2" 
(manu)  angusie  cylindrato  apicem  versus  paido  dilutiore.  Pedes- 
maxillares  mocliee  longi,  fusci  apice  dilutiores,  femore  subtus 


1901.]  ARACHTSriDA  OF  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITION."  83 

minute  et  sat  crebre  dentieulato,  patella  simplici  ramulo  carente, 
tibia  Jiaud  triplo  longiore  quam  latiore  subtus  minutissime  crebre 
et  inordinate  spinulosa,  tarso  leviter  curvato,  compresso,  apicem 
versus  levissime  ampliato,  tibia  cum  patella  simid  sumptis  onidto 
longiore.  Processus  sfernalis  coxceque  sat  grosse  sed  parce 
granosi,  segmenta  ventralia  abdominis  subtiliter  coriaceis  Jiaud 
granosis.  Pedes  nigricantes,  longissimi,  femoribus  minutissime 
inordinate  et  parce  spimdosis. 
Patalung :  Ban-Kong-E-ak. 

A  G.  histrionica  Thorell,  cui  prsesertim  affinis  est,  differt  trunco 
sat  grosse  baud  subtiliter  coriaceo-granuloso,  maculis  albis  carente, 
pedibus-maxillaribiis  fuscis,  patella  simplici  ramulo  carente. 

126.  GrAGKELLA  SEMIGEA]S"OSA,  sp.  nOV. 

Long.  4'8  mm. — Truncus  breviter  ovatus,  valde  convexus,  inter- 
dum  omnino  niger,  interdutn  fulvo-ferrugineo-variatus  (^cephalo- 
thorace  late  mai^ginato,  scuto  abdominali  antice  lineis  binis 
sinuosis  postice  convergentibus  et  postice  vitta  marginali  latissima 
et  dentata),  subtiliter  coriaceus  et  opacus,  parte  abdominali 
antice  gramdis  transversim  uniseriatis,  scuto  in  dimidio  anteriore 
granulis  similibus  inordinatis  sat  parce  consperso,  spina  media 
erecta,  crassa  sed  acuta,  fere  usque  ad  apicem  granulis  grossis 
et  iniquis  dentiformibus  instrucia.  Tuber  oculorum  muticum, 
nee  spnnosum  nee  dentatum,  insigniter  liumile,  saltern  duplo  latius 
quam  cdtius,  ad  basin  liaud  angustatum  et  vix  sulcatum.  Chelce 
Iceves  et  nitidce,  fusco-rufida;,  articuLo  2°  (manu)  cylindrato. 
Pedes-maxillares  modice  longi,fusci  apicedilutiores,femore  subtus 
nainute  et  sat  parce  dentato,  patella  simplici,  ramido  carente, 
tibia  haud  triplo  longiore  quam  latiore,  subtus  spinulis  minu- 
tissimis  paucissimis  munita,  tarso  leviter  curvato,  cmnpresso, 
apicem  versus  levissime  ampliato,  tibia  cum,  patella  simid 
sumptis  multo  longiore.  Processus  sternalis  coxaque  sat  grosse 
sed  parce  granosi,  segmenta  ventralia  abdominis  subtiliter 
coriacea  et  granulis  pinrvis  transversim  seriatis  munita.  Pedes 
longissimi,  nigri,  metatarsis  tarsisque  dilutioribus  et  obscure 
fidvis,  interdum  pedes  fusco-rufuli  cum  bast  femorum  patellisque 
nigricantibus,  femoribus  minutissime  inordinate  et  parce 
spimdosis. 

Jalor  :  Biserat,  Bukit  Besar.     Kelantau :  Kuala  Aring. 

A  G.  epJiippiata  Thorell  (ex  Sumatra)  verisimiliter  sat  affinis. 

127.  Gagrella  atroetjbra,  sp.  nov. 

Long.  4*5  mm. — Truncus  brevis  subrotundus,  valde  convexus, 
fulvo-rufescens,  scuto  abdominali  cum  spina  nigro,  antice  et 
utrinque  testaceo-marginato,  maculam  magnam  subquadratam 
formante,  segmentis  posticis  dorsalibus  nigris,  ultimis  binis 
macula  m,edia  albida  notatis,  cep>halothorace  fere  Icevi,  in 
declivitate  anteriore  minutissime  vix  distincte  etparcissime  rugoso, 
scuto  segmentisque  posticis  opads,  minutissitne  et  regulariter 
granulosis,  spina  dorsali  erecta,  longa,  sat  gracili  et  acutissima, 

6* 


84  OK  THE  AEACHNIDA  Or  THE  "  SKEAT  EXPEDITIOK."     [May  7, 

suhlcevi,  parce  et  minute  scahra.  Tuher  oculorum  ad  hasin 
luteum  ad  apicem  nigro-ceneum,  longum,  reclinatum^  ad  basin 
valde  angustatimi,  muticum,  nitidAssimuni  et  profunde  sulcatum, 
Clielce  Ititece,  nitidm,  articido  2"  {manu)  cylindrato.  Pedes- 
maxillares  mediocres,  fidvo-riifuli,  tarso  luteo,  femore  suhtus  in 
medio  denticulis  parvis  triseriatim  ordinatis  munito,  patella 
tibiaque  utrinque  minutissime  et  parce  dentatis,  patella  simpUci, 
intus  ad  apicem  leviter  convexa,  sed  ramulo  carente,  tibia  Jiaiid 
triplo  longiore  quam  latiore,  tarso  gracili  compresso,  tibia  cum 
patella  longiore.  Goxcb  minutissime  et  pan'ce  granosce.  Processus 
sternalis  segmentaque  abdominis  sid-)tus  Jiaud  granosa  fere  Icevia. 
Pedes  longissimi,  fusco-i-ufuli,  trocJianteribus  femoribusque 
dilutioribus  sed  femoribus  4^  paris  ad  basin  infuscatis,  spinulis 
minutissimis  et  inordinatis  conspersi. 
Perak  :  Gunong  Inas.     Kelantan  :  Kuala  Aring. 

Veepultjs,  nov.  gen. 

A  Gagrella  differt  scuto  abdominali  dorsali  mutico,  spinis  tubercu- 
lisque  carente  et  tubere  oculorum,  altiore  quam  latiore,  ab  Hypsi- 
buno  Thorell  differt  tubere  oculorum  reclinato,  angusto  sed  apice 
leviter  ampliato  omnino  mutico  et  Iceve,  et  pedibus-maxillaribus 
simplicibus,  patella  convexa  intus  liaud  produeta  ramulo  carente 
et  tibia  patella  haud  longiore. 

128.  VEE.i'irLtrs  spumatus,  sp.  nov. 

Long.  2*5 — 3  mm, — Truncus  brevis,  subrotundus,  minute  et 
crebre  rugosus,  niger,  ceplialothorace  materia  subcerea  favida 
crasse  obtecto,  tuberculo  oculorum  sat  recMnato,  Icevi  et  mutico, 
altiore  quam  latiore,  apice  sensim  incrassato  et  subrotundo,  inter 
oculos  hand  sulcato  sed  convexo,  ad  basin  rufalo  ad  apicem  nigro. 
Ghelce  Iceves,  articido  basali  nigro,  ap>icali  fidvo-rufulo  angusto, 
teretiusculo,  a  basi  haud  prominido,  digitis  apice  nigris.  Pedes- 
maxillares  simplices  fusci,  tarso  fulvo,  patella  convexa,  intus 
haud  promimda,  tibia  patella  circiter  cequHonga,  paulo  angus- 
tiore,  haud  triplo  longiore  quam  latiore.  Pedes  longissimi,  nigri, 
metatarsis  tarsisque  leviter  dilutioribus.  Processus  sternalis, 
coxcB  segmentaque  abdominis  subtus  coricccea  et  opaca. 

Jalox' :  Bukit  Besar. 

2".  Opiliones  mecostethi. 

129.  Oncopus  tbuwcatus  Thorell. 

Oncopus  truncatus  Thorell,  in  Ann.  Mus.  civ.  Grenova,  2^  ser.  x. 
1891,  p.  764. 

Perak :  Grunong  Inas. 

Connu  de  Singapore  et  de  Pinang. 


1901.]  ON  MAMMALS  FROM  UttANBA.  85 

May  21,  1901. 
Dr.  W.  T.  Blanfoed,  E.E.S.,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

Mr.  R.  I.  Pocock,  F.Z.S.,  exhibited  two  nests  of  a  tree  Trap- 
door Spider,  brought  by  Mr.  J.  T.  Maury  from  Eio  Janeiro, 
as  an  instance  of  the  perfection  of  the  instinct  displayed  by 
these  animals  in  the  construction  of  their  domiciles  on  the  trunks 
of  trees.  One  of  these  nests  was  still  tenanted  by  a  living  Spider 
with  her  family.  It  was  suggested  that  the  Spider  probably 
belonged  to  the  species  known  as  PseucUdiops  rastratus,  described 
in  the  '  Proceedings '  for  1889,  p.  250,  specimens  of  which  had  been 
kept  alive  in  the  Insect  House  of  the  Society's  Gardens. 


The  following  papers  were  read : — 

1.  On  the  more  notable  Mammals  obtained  by  Sir  Harry 
Johnston  in  the  Uganda  Protectorate.  By  Oldfield 
Thomas. 

[Eeceived  May  7,  1901.] 
(Plate  V.O 

The  valuable  scientific  exploring  and  collecting  work  which 
Sir  Harry  Johnston  did  in  JSFyasaland,  during  his  residence  there, 
he  has  continued  while  acting  as  Special  Commissioner  in  the 
Uganda  Protectorate.  With  his  usual  generosity  he  has  sent  all 
the  specimens  obtained  by  him  to  the  National  Museum,  and 
I  have  had  the  pleasure  of  working  out  the  Mammals. 

During  the  autumn  of  last  year  Sir  Harry  made  an  expedition 
to  investigate  the  Fauna  and  Flora  of  Mount  Euwenzori,  and 
obtained  a  number  of  interesting  forms,  by  far  the  most  remark- 
able of  which  is  the  wonderful  new  Mammal,  of  which  Mr.  Sclater 
gave  us  an  account  at  the  last  meeting  (see  above,  p.  3).  Other 
specimens  obtained  at  the  same  time  were  exhibited  to  the  Society 
by  Mr.  Sclater  on  March  19th  (see  P.  Z.  S.  1901,  vol.  i.  p.  222), 
but  these  he  has  been  good  enough  to  hand  over  to  me,  and  an 
account  of  them  is  included  in  the  present  paper. 

On  this  occasion  it  has  not  been  thought  worth  while  to  record 
all  the  mammals  sent,  and  my  notes  are  restricted  to  the  rarer 
and  more  remarkable  forms. 

COLOBUS  EUWENZORII,  Sp.  n. 

Two  native  skins  ;  Buamba  Country,  N.W.  flank  of  Euwenzori. 
A  black  and  white  Cohhus  aUied  to  G.  palliatus  and  G.  ango- 
lensis. 

Fur  of  back  enormously  long,  longer  than  that  of  any  known 

^  For  explanation  of  the  Plate,  see  p.  87. 


86  MB.  OLDFIELD  THOMAS  OK  [May  21, 

Species,  and  wavy,  so  that  it  is  very  like  that  of  a  long-haired 
Angora  Groat,  Over  the  shoulders  the  black  hairs  are  9  to  11 
inches  in  length,  isolated  ones  being  found  up  to  13  inches  long. 
White  cheek-tufts  long  and  bushy.  Distribution  of  black  and 
white  very  much  as  in  G.  palliatus,  there  being  apparently  a  white 
superciliary  band,  although  this  is  cut  away  entirely  in  one 
specimen,  and  there  is  only  a  faint  indication  of  it  in  the  other 
(the  type).  In  the  anal  region,  however,  the  white  is  more 
extended,  for  an  area  from  4  to  6  inches  each  way  below  the 
callosities  is  either  white  or  grizzled  with  white,  while  in  G.  palli- 
atus  only  a  small  spot  or  streak  in  the  middle  line  is  white.  The 
tail  differs  markedly  from  that  of  the  allied  species  by  having 
practically  no  white  tuft  at  all,  for  the  terminal  6  inches  are 
merely  grizzled,  more  blackish  than  white,  and  it  is  only  the  hairs 
at  the  extreme  end  (and  these  are  only  some  21  inches  in  length) 
which  are  altogether  white. 

Type.  B.M.  No.  1.8.9.13. 

This  splendid  monkey  is  probably  the  Colobus  referred  to 
by  Scott  Elliot  (P.  Z.  S.  1895,  p.  311)  as  seen  by  him  in  the 
Teria  and  Msonje  valleys,  near  Butanuka,  Euwenzori,  but  he  was 
not  able  to  obtain  a  specimen. 

Colobus  ocoidentalis  Eochebr. 

2  .  Mpanga  Forest,  September  1900.     "  Iris  light  hazel." 
A  beautiful  skin,  with  skull,  of  this  rare  species,  which  is  as  yet 
very  imperfectly  represented  in  our  collections. 

The  tail-tuft  of  this  monkey  is  as  well-developed  as  in 
Rochebrune's  figure,  and  shows  no  approximation  to  the  reduction 
said  to  be  characteristic  of  C  matschiei  Neumann  \ 

Colobus  rupomiteatus  Peters. 

Several  specimens  from  the  Euahara  Eiver,  altitude  4000  ft., 
August  1900. 

"  Eyes  bright  hazel." 

The  occurrence  in  the  Uganda  Protectorate  of  this  remarkable 
monkey,  not  hitherto  represented  in  bhe  Museum  collections,  is  of 
much  interest.  It  was  originally  discovered  by  the  German 
traveller  Dr.  G.  A.  Eischer  on  the  Tana  Eiver,  and  was  described 
and  figured  by  Dr.  Peters  ^.  It  does  not  appear  to  have  since 
been  met  with,  and  the  present  is  therefore  only  its  second  recorded 
occurrence. 

So  far  as  Dr.  Peters's  figure  and  descriptions  enable  me  to 
judge,  there  is  no  difference  at  all  between  the  Tana  and  Euahara 
specimens, 

Ceecopithecus  stuhlmanni  Matsch. 

6  .  Mpanga  Eorest,  altitude  4000  ft.,  Sept.  1900. 
The  local  representative  of  G.  pluto  Gray. 

1  SB.  Ges.  nat.  Fr.  Berl.  1899,  p.  15. 

2  MB.  Ak.  Berl.  1879,  p.  829,  pi.  I  a. 


1901.]  MAMMALS  FROM  UGANDA.  87 

GrENETTA  VICTORIA,  sp.  u.     (Plate  V.) 

A  single  skin  from  Entebbe. 

Size  nearly  twice  as  great  as  in  any  known  species  of  the  genus, 
and  almost  rivalling  that  of  a  Civet,  to  which  at  first  sight  there  is 
a  general  resemblance.  Fur  comparatively  short,  very  close  and 
thick ;  hairs  of  back  about  23-26  mm.  in  length.  Median  dorsal 
crest  not  or  scarcely  developed,  though  there  is  a  black  line  in  its 
usual  position.  Marldugs  throughout  very  strong  and  prominent. 
Light  ground-colour  above  yellowish  white,  the  hairs  smoky  grey 
basally,  with,  a  subterminal  ring  of  yellowish  white  and  a  black  tip. 
Top  of  muzzle  and  centre  of  face  between  eyes  whitish,  with  a 
black  median  line  commencing  level  with  the  anterior  canthus. 
Sides  of  muzzle  and  a  narrow  orbital  ring  black ;  a  prominent 
white  suborbital  spot.  Crown  and  nape  with  a  very  handsome 
intensification  of  the  usual  Grenet  markings ;  the  two  dark 
divergent  bands  which  ran  backwards  from  behind  the  ears  very 
prominent  and  sharply  defined,  deep  glossy  black,  contrasting  with 
the  clear  yellowish-white  bands  outside  them  ;  outside  these  again, 
on  the  sides  of  the  neck,  the  usual  dark  blotches  are  deep  glossy 
black.  Spots  on  body  generally  very  numerous,  well-defined, 
black.  Centre  of  posterior  back  with  a  black  line,  but  its  hairs 
not  lengthened  into  a  crest.  Under  surface  spotted  black  and 
whitish,  not  defined  from  the  dorsal  colour.  Shoulders  spotted 
like  body  ;  forearms  and  hands  fuscous  brown  throughout,  ob- 
scurely spotted  proximally.  Hind  limbs  similar  to  fore.  Tail 
long,  bushy,  cylindrical,  its  hairs  about  25-30  mm.  in  length  ; 
prominently  and  completely  ringed  with  black  and  white,  the 
black  bands  about  twice  the  breadth  of  the  white  ones,  which 
latter  are  six  in  number ;  the  tip  black. 

Dimensions  (approximate,  taken  on  a  badly  made  skin)  : — 
Head  and  body  540  mm. ;  tail  400  mm. ;  breadth  of  naked 
rhinarium  below  nostrils  14  mm.  (as  compared  with  less  than 
10  mm.  in  a  well-grown  ordinary  Genet). 

Hab.  Entebbe,  Uganda. — Date  and  other  particulars  not 
recorded. 

Type.  B.M.  No.  1.8.9.29. 

This  fine  animal,  which  appears  to  be  nearly  double  the  bulk  of  an 
ordinary  Genet,  is  quite  distinct  from  any  species  hitherto  known. 
With  its  large  size,  conspicuous  banding,  and  ringed  tail,  it  has  a 
general  resemblance  to  a  Civet,  but  the  character  of  its  foot-pads 
and  other  details  of  structure  show  that  it  is  really  a  Genet. 
Unfortunately  no  skull  was  obtained. 

Htstrix  gale  at  a  Thos, 

A  fine  adult  skull  of  this  Porcupine,  hitherto  only  represented 
in  the  Museum  by  the  immature  type  from  Lamu,  measures : — 

Basilar  length  149  mm. ;  greatest  breadth  91 ;  nasals  101  x  60  ; 
frontal  suture  27 ;  parietal  suture  (measured  to  occiput)  39  ; 
palate  from  henselion  84. 


88  ME.  OLDFIELD  THOMAS  ON  [May  21, 

Peooavia  ceawshayi  Thos. 

Three  specimens  from  the  Euwenzori  region. 

This  Dassie  does  not  appear  to  be  distinguishable  from  the 
species  which  I  described  from  Kenya  and  Eoromo,  from  specimens 
obtained  respectively  by  Messrs.  Mackinder  and  Crawshay. 

It  is  evidently  a  variable  species,  as  Sir  H.  Johnston's  three 
specimens  differ  considerably  among  themselves. 

Peocatia  (Dendeohteax)  maemota,  sp.  n. 

Nearly  allied  and  very  similar  externally  to  the  West-African 
P.  dorsalis,  but  smaller  and  with  some  cranial  differences. 

Fur  long  and  shaggy,  hairs  of  back  40-50  mm.  in  length,  a  few 
much  longer  hairs  being  intermixed.  Greneral  colour  dark  fuscous 
brown,  very  like  that  of  specimens  of  P.  dorsalis  in  faded  fur. 
Dorsal  area  rather  darker,  sides  rather  paler,  the  hairs  being  here 
subterminally  ringed  with  dull  isabelline.  Bases  of  hairs  deep 
brown  on  back,  whitish  brown  on  sides.  Under  surface  dull  brown, 
but  little  paler  than  sides,  the  hairs  tipped  with  dull  buffy  ;  in  the 
inguinal  region  they  are  buffy  throughout.  Hands  and  feet 
uniformly  brown. 

Naked  part  of  dorsal  gland  about  35  mm.  long  by  12  mm.  wide. 
Hairs  surrounding  the  gland  black  for  their  basal  and  dull  white 
for  their  terminal  halves  ;  the  resulting  white  line  on  the  back 
about  3  inches  in  length. 

Skull,  as  compared  with  that  of  P.  dorsalis,  more  slender  in  the 
muzzle,  the  nasals  narrower,  and  the  zygomata  more  expanded 
anteriorly,  so  that  their  broadest  point  is  opposite  the  back  of  the 
orbit.  Postorbital  bar  complete.  Malar  bones  feebler,  their  least 
height  (opposite  the  temporal  fossa)  about  5  instead  of  at  least 
7  mm.  Temporal  crests  less  developed  than  in  P.  dorsalis,  and  the 
fossae  not  running  so  far  back  on  the  skull,  terminating  14  mm. 
from  the  lambdoid  edge. 

Molar  teeth  smaller  and  lighter,  the  breadth  of  in^  6"0  as  against 
6-6-6-8  in  P.  dorsalis. 

Dimensions  of  the  type,  immature,  measured  in  skin : — Head 
and  body  430  mm. ;  hind  foot  70.  Skull :  basal  length  85 ;  greatest 
breadth  50'5  ;  nasals  24*3  x  17*7  ;  interorbital  breadth  19-5  ; 
distance  between  temporal  fosssB  across  parietals  22 ;  diastema  16  ; 
length  of  palate  46  ;  length  of  tooth-row  (Qiip^  to  m^)  31'5. 

Hab.  Mengo,  N.  of  Entebbe,  Uganda. 

Tyj^e.  Immature  female.  B.M.  No.  1.8.9.42.  Collected 
December  8,  1900. 

"  Iris  dark  hazel." 

This  Dassie  is  no  doubt  most  closely  allied  to  the  West-African 
P.  dorsalis,  which  it  appears  to  represent  in  Uganda. 

The  type  is  in  Stage  V.  of  my  table  of  age-stages  \  but  the  skull 
is  neither  so  large,  so  stoutly  built,  nor  so  heavily  ridged  as  that  of 
a  P.  dorsalis  in  Stage  III. 

'  P.  Z.  S.  1892,  p.  53. 


1901.]  MAMMALS  FROM  U&ANDA.  89 

Oephaiophfs  joknstoki,  sp.  n. 

Most  closely  allied  to  C.  lueynsi  Thos/,  but  fur  thicker  and 
woollier,  and  general  colour  very  much  darker. 

Size,  so  far  as  can  be  judged  from  a  young  specimen,  about  as 
in  C.  iveynm.  Hairs  of  middle  line  of  nape  reversed  forwards 
as  in  that  species. 

Forehead  grizzled  blackish  brown ;  coronal  tufts  uniform  chest- 
nut rufous  (rather  darker  than  Eidgway's  "  hazel").  Cheeks  paler 
brown.  Anteorbital  region  dull  buffy ;  an  inconspicuous  buffy- 
orange  supraorbital  streak  present.  Outer  side  of  ears  blackish 
brown.  Neck  and  fore-quarters  shining  brown,  gradually  redden- 
ing posteriorly  until  the  whole  rump  and  hind-quarters  are  a  deep 
reddish  russet ;  middle  line  of  back  not  markedly  darker  than 
sides.  Belly  dull  brownish.  Fore  limbs  brown,  darkening  termi- 
nally to  black  on  the  fetlocks  ;  hind  limbs  reddish  to  the  hocks, 
then  brown  darkening  to  black.  Tail  black  along  its  upper  surface 
and  white  below. 

Owing  to  the  youth  of  the  type,  the  only  dimensions  worth 
giving  are  : — Hind  foot,  including  hoof,  205  ;  ear  (contracted)  65. 
Combined  length  of  three  milk-premolars  29. 

This  species  is  related  on  the  one  side  to  C.  lueynsi  Thos.,  of  the 
Congo,  and  on  the  other  to  C.  sjxidix  True,  of  Mt.  Kilima-njaro. 
From  the  former,  of  which  one  of  the  co-types  is  of  just  similar 
age  to  the  present  specimen,  it  differs  by  its  much  thicker  fur 
and  darker  colour,  being  dark  brown  and  dark  rufous  as  compared 
with  pale  brown  and  pale  rufous  ;  it  shares,  however,  with  0.  iveynsi 
the  characteristic  reversal  of  the  nuchal  hairs.  From  C.  spadix, 
on  the  other  hand,  it  differs  by  this  reversal  of  the  hairs,  that 
species  having  the  neck-hairs  all  directed  backwards,  and  also  by 
the  more  rufous  colour  of  the  posterior  back,  for  Mr.  Miller  tells 
me  that  the  general  colour  of  C.  spadix  is  "  Fronts  brown, 
darkening  to  nearly  black  along  spine  and  on  rump,  buttocks,  and 
tail."  The  coronal  tufts  of  C.  spadix  are  partly  black,  and  the 
tail  is  only  whitish  at  the  tip,  not  throughout  its  length  below. 

Hah.  Toro,  east  of  Euwenzori. 

Type.  Young  female.     B.M.  No.  1.8.9.64.     July  1900. 

Cephalophus  kubidus,  sp.  n. 

Fur  thick,  close  and  slightly  woolly.  General  colour  of 
neck  and  body  uniform  rich  chestnut-rufous,  something  between 
"  hazel "  and  "  cinnamon-rufous  "  of  Eidgway,  but  brighter  and 
richer  than  either  ;  bases  of  the  hairs  rather  greyer,  and  along 
the  middle  Hne  of  the  back,  especially  posteriorly,  these  greyer 
bases  are  more  decidedly  grey-brown,  and,  showing  through,  give  a 
darker  hue  to  the  dorsal  line.  Hairs  of  neck  directed  backwards 
as  usual.  Middle  line  of  nape  rather  browner,  probably  in 
continuation  of  a  darker  area  on  the  head.  Sides  of  neck  particu- 
larly bright   rufous.      Under   surface  paler  rufous,  not  sharply 

^  Described  for  the  Belgian  Congo  Museum,  and  now  in  the  press.  Oo-types 
in  that  collection  and  in  the  British  Museum. 


90  MR.  E.  C.  PUNNETT  Olf  [^^J  21, 

defined ;  axillae  and  groins  whitish.  Shoulders  darker  rufous,  this 
colour  darkening  downwards  on  the  fore  limb  until  at  the  knee 
(and  probably  thence  to  the  hoof)  it  is  blackish  brown.  Hind 
limbs  similarly  deep  chestnut  rufous  on  the  thighs,  changing  at  the 
hocks  to  black  or  blackish  brown.  Tail  short,  only  about  two 
inches  in  length  ^ ;  above  black,  more  or  less  grizzled  with  rufous 
and  white,  below  and  at  the  extreme  tip  grizzled  white. 

In  all  probability  this  handsome  Duiker  is  most  nearly  related  to 
the  West- African  C  nigrifrons  Gray,  but  differs  in  its  thicker  and 
more  woolly  hair,  deeper  and  more  uniform  general  colour,  and  by 
the  greater  extent  of  the  black  on  the  hind  feet. 

Hah.  Suwenzoi-i  district. 

Type  a  flat  skin,  without  head,  purchased  from  the  natives. 
B.M.  No.  1.8.9.65. 

KOBUS  THOMASI  Scl.  (?). 

A  single  native  skin  from  the  Semliki  Valley  is  marked  in  an 
unusual  and  striking  manner  with  grey,  so  symmetrically  arranged 
that  it  has  been  supposed  to  represent  a  new  species. 

But  without  further  material  I  am  not  prepared  to  give  in  my 
adhesion  to  this  view,  and  would  rather  suggest  that  the  grey  mai-king 
is  due  to  senility,  just  as  domestic  dogs  and  other  animals  occasion- 
ally turn  grey  in  patches.  I  would  fi'eely  admit  that  I  know  of  no 
such  striking  case  as  the  present ;  but  as  the  skin  agrees  in  all 
other  respects  with  one  from  approximately  the  same  region 
brought  home  by  Mr.  Scott  Elliot,  and  of  the  usual  fulvous  colour, 
I  do  not  at  present  feel  justified  in  describing  Sir  H.  Johnston's 
specimen  as  a  distinct  species. 


2.  On  some  Arctic  Nemerteans.     By  E.  C.  Punnett,  B.A.^ 

[Received  April  20,  1901.] 
(Plates  VI.  &  VII.=') 

(Text-figures  1-6.) 

The  Nemerteans  described  below  formed  part  of  the  collection 
in  the  Museum  of  University  College,  Dundee,  and  were  kindly 
handed  to  me  for  examination  by  Prof.  D'Arcy  "W.  Thompson, 
after  whom  I  have  much  pleasure  in  naming  one  of  the  new  forms. 
I  have  been  able  to  refer  two  to  species  already  known,  whilst  five 
other  forms  are  new,  viz, : — AmpMporus  thompsoni,  A.  arcticus, 
A.  paulinus,  Drepanophorus  horealis,  and  Oerehratulus  greenlandicus. 
It  is  worthy  of  note  that  whilst  the  Metanemerteans,  and  especially 
the  genus  Amphipoms,  are  well  represented,  only  two  specimens 
of  Heterouemerteans,  belonging  to  the  same  species,  were  found. 

'^  Although  not  obviously  imperfect,  it  is  possible  that  the  tail  has  been 
broken  and  healed  in  life. 

^  Communicated  by  Dr.  S.  F.  Haumer,  F.Z.S. 

*  For  explanation  of  the  Plates,  see  p.  106. 


Fig.l.     ;'  ' 


P.Z.S.1901,vol.II.Pl.VI. 


ps. 


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Bale  fc  Darnels s on., L*° 


ARCTIC   T^EMERTEANS 


p.  Z.S.1901.VO1.1I.P1.VII. 


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ARCTIC    l^EMEHTEAl^S 


1901.]  SOME  AECTIO  NEMERTEANS.  91 

In  the  following  paper  I  have  first  given  an  account  of  the  new 
species,  and  have  added  at  the  end  some  notes  on  such  points  of 
more  general  interest  as  have  arisen  in  connection  with  them. 

^Mbtanemertini. 

Amphipoeus  thompsoni,  n.  sp.  (Plate  YI.  fig.  6  &  Plate  VII. 
fig.  8.) 

Numerous  examples  from  thx'ee  localities,  i.  e.  N.  Greenland 
(collected  by  Herr  Lohmaun),  Upernavik,  and  Davis  Strait, 

Average  length  about  50  mm.,  with  a  breadth  of  3  mm.  when 
not  greatly  contracted.  Body  rounded  and  tapering  at  either  end. 
One  very  large  specimen  measured  120  mm.  in  length  and  6  mm. 
in  breadth.  Colour  dorsally  reddish  brown,  ventrally  pale 
yello\Wsh  buff,  probably  white  in  life.  A  darker  streak  occurs  on 
the  snout  dorsally  (Plate  VI.  fig.  6),  and  behind  this  there  are  two 
transverse  white  lines  marking  the  position  of  the  head-furrows. 

The  epithelium,  which  is  devoid  of  unicellular  glands,  rests  on 
a  basement-membrane  of  about  one-half  its  thickness.  In  the 
head-region  the  basement-membrane  is  pierced  by  numerous  small 
nerves.  The  muscular  system  is  of  the  usual  type.  The  circular 
muscle-layer  is  of  about  one-third  the  thickness  of  the  basement- 
membrane  {i.  e.  about  20  ^x).  The  longitudinal  layer  is  about  5 
times  as  thick  as  the  circular.  Dorso-ventral  muscle-strands 
occur  in  the  oesophageal  and  intestinal  regions.  The  vascular 
system  shows  a  well-marked  cephalic  loop.  The  limbs  of  this  loop 
converge  to  pass  through  the  nervous  ring,  and  as  they  lie  upon 
the  ventral  commissure  the  median  dorsal  vessel  is  given  off  from 
either  the  right  or  the  left,  and  not  from  both  as  is  usually  the  case 
where  a  median  dorsal  vessel  exists.  A  similar  arrangement  was 
observed  by  Dr.  Willey  in  a  small  Amphiporid  from  New  Britain. 

Text-fig.  1. 

median  dorsal 
vessel 
....  1  lateral 

cephalic  locp  .  vessel 


Diagram  of  anterior  part  of  vascular  system  of  Amphiporus  thompsoni. 
(For  explanation,  see  text.) 

In  the  oesophageal  region  of  A.  tJiompsoni,  where  the  excretory 
tubules  are  present,  the  lateral  vessels  give  off  dorsal  branches 
which  are  united  by  a  longitudinal  vessel  running  for  a  short 
distance  along  the  side  of  the  proboscis-sheath  (vide  text-fig.  1). 
The  dorsal  blood-vessel  leaves  the  proboscis-sheath  very  soon  after 
the  brain  ends,  and  before  the  level  of  the  excretory  pore 
(Plate  VII.  fig.  8*). 

^  The  classification  given  in  Biirger's  Monograph  (1895)  has  been  followed. 


92  MR.  E.  c.  PUNNETT  ON  [May  21, 

The  alimentary  canal  presents  no  peculiar  features.  The  most 
anterior  pair  of  the  blind-gut  diverticula  do  not  reach  to  the 
brain.  The  oesophagus  opens  into  the  rhynchodseum  about  half- 
way between  the  tip  of  the  snout  and  the  commencement  of  the 
brain.  The  proboscis-sheath  extends  back  to  the  posterior 
extremity  of  the  body. 

The  proboscis  is  well  developed.  Its  armature  consists  of  a 
central  stylet  210  fj.  in  length  attached  to  a  rather  shorter  base, 
185  yLi  long.  There  are  two  pockets  of  reserve  stylets  each  con- 
taining 4.  A  somewhat  remarkable  variation  ^  occurs  in  the  number 
of  the  proboscis-nerves.  Whilst  the  females  shoAV  12  nerves  in  the 
probosci'3,  the  males  may  have  either  12,  17,  or  18.  The  excretory 
system  resembles  that  usually  found  in  the  genus.  The  branched 
tubules  commence  just  behind  the  cerebral  organ  and  extend 
backwards  for  several  mm.  (Plate  VII.  fig.  8).  There  is  a  single 
excretory  pore  on  either  side  shortly  behind  the  brain  ;  it  opens 
laterally  and  somewhat  ventrally. 

The  gonidial  sacs  are  numerous  and  irregularly  arranged.  Both 
ova  and  spermatozoa  are  almost  or  quite  ripe. 

The  nervous  system  shows  no  marked  peculiarities.  Shortly 
after  its  commencement  the  dorsal  ganglion  gives  off  laterally  a 
nerve  to  the  cerebral  organ.  A  small  median  dorsal  nerve  is 
present.     There  is  a  supra-anal  nerve  commissure  posteriorly. 

The  cerebral  organs  are  well  developed  and  lie  for  the  most  part  in 
front  of  the  brain.  Seen  in  transverse  section,  their  height  some- 
what exceeds  their  breadth  (av.  height  350  /j.,  av.  breadth  250  jj.). 
Their  opening  is  in  front  of  the  brain  about  5  of  the  distance 
between  the  anterior  extremity  of  the  brain  and  the  tip  of  the 
snout  (Plate  VII.  fig.  8). 

Numerous  eyes  are  present,  amounting  to  about  40  on  each  side. 
They  are  arranged  as  a  row  from  the  tip  of  the  head  to  the  anterior 
brain-region,  where  they  form  a  cluster. 

Scanty  head-glands  are  present  opening  ventrally. 

Amphipoeus  PAULiisrFS,  n.  sp.     (Plate  VIIc  fig.  11.) 

Several  specimens  collected  by  Prof.  D'Arcy  Thompson  in  the 
Pribyloff  Is.,  Behring  Straits.  In  external  form  a  long  slender 
species  tapering  at  either  end.  The  specimens  varied  in  length 
from  about  50-90  mm.  In  a  specimen  90  mm.  long  the  greatest 
breadth  Avas  4  mm. — which  proportions  in  the  preserved  state 
point  to  this  species  being  longer  and  more  slender  than  most  other 
members  of  the  genus.  Colour  after  preservation  a  pale  yellowish 
brown  dorsally  and  almost  white  ventrally.  There  are  no  distinctive 
markings. 

The  epithelium  is  high,  and  rests  upon  a  comparatively  thin 
basement-membrane  (about  18  fi  thick). 

The  circular  layer  of  the  muscidar  system  is  rather  thicker  than 
the  basement-membrane.     Ventrally  there  is  a  thin  diagonal  layer 

^  See  note  on  p.  104. 


1901.]  SOME  ARCTIC  NEMEETEANS.  93 

between  the  circular  and  longitudinal  layers.  The  last  layer  is  not 
very  strongly  developed. 

On  either  side  of  the  animal,  and  lying  partly  in  the  longitudinal 
muscle-layer,  partly  in  the  gelatinous  connective  tissue  within  the 
body  oi"  the  animal,  is  a  well-marked  layer  of  giand-cells  (Plate  VII. 
fig.  11,  gll.).  This  layer  stretches  back  to  the  intestinal  region. 
Their  secretion  does  not  stain  with  borax-carmine,  picric  acid,  or 
nigrosin,  but  takes  an  intense  pui'ple  hue  with  thionin.  The  glands 
pierce  the  circular  muscle-layers  and  the  basement-membrane  to 
open  to  the  exterior.  They  are  really  the  backward  extensions  of 
the  enormously  developed  head-glands,  which  in  the  snout-region 
comprise  the  bulk  of  the  tissue  lying  within  the  basement- 
membrane.  A  similar  arrangement  is  found  in  the  genera 
Prosadenoporus^  2in.^  Eunemei^tes'  (some  species),  and  also  in  one 
other  species  of  Ampliiponis,  viz.  A.  carinelloides  ^.  In  the  last- 
named  species  the  backward  extent  of  these  glands  is  not  so  great 
as  in  A.  paulinus. 

The  vascular  system  is  of  the  normal  Amphiporid  type.  The 
median  dorsal  vessel  is  formed  by  both  branches  of  the  head  loop. 
The  vessels  are  small  throughout. 

The  blind  gut  does  not  reach  nearly  to  the  brain.  Its  anterior 
limit  is  halfway  between  its  point  of  origin  and  the  tip  of  the 
snout. 

The  proboscis-sheath  does  not  extend  to  the  end  of  the  body, 
being  wanting  in  the  posterior  ^th. 

The  proboscis  is  about  |  of  the  total  body  length.  It  is  found 
coiled  in  the  anterior  5  of  the  rhynchoccelom.  Behind  this  the 
proboscis-sheath  becomes  much  smaller.  The  proboscis  contains 
1.5  nerves.  Its  epithelium  is  raised  into  numerous  large  papillae. 
The  armature  consists  of  a  central  stylet  and  two  pockets  each 
containing  4  reserve  stylets.  The  stylet  and  base  are  of  the 
same  length,  viz.  130  /x. 

The  excretory  system  commences  shortly  after  the  brain.  The 
tubules  lie  round  the  lateral  nerve-cords,  and  are  numerous  and 
fairly  large  (Plate  VII.  fig.  11,  ext.).  There  is  a  single  duct  on 
either  side  situated  at  the  junction  of  the  anterior  5  with  the 
rest  of  the  system.  The  backward  extent  of  the  tubules  is  greater 
than  in  A.  thompsoni  (Plate  VII.  fig.  8),  and  considerably  greater 
than  in  A.  arcticus  (Plate  VII.  fig.  9). 

The  brain  is  fairly  well  developed.  The  ventral  commissure  is 
very  short  and  straight ;  the  dorsal  fine  and  curved.  The  median 
dorsal  nerve  is  very  small.  The  side  stems  form  a  strong  supra- 
anal  commissure. 

The  cerebral  organs  lie  just  in  front  of  the  brain.  They  are 
small,  and  the  greater  part  of  their  bulk  consists  of  gland-cells. 

The  head-furrows  are  small,  not  encircling  more  than  half  the 

^  Biirger,  O.  :  "  Untersuchungen  iiber  die  Anatomie  und  Histologie  der 
Nemertinen,  u.s.w.,"  Zeit.  f.  wiss.  Zool.  1890  (p.  30). 

^  Burger,  O. :  Naples  Monograph,  The  Nemertines,  1895  (p.  126). 
^  Burger,  O. :  ibid.  (p.  559). 


94  MR.  R.  c.  PFNNETT  OUT  [May  21, 

circumference  of  the  head.     The  openings  of  the  cerebral  organ 
are  ventro-lateral  and  rather  in  front  of  the  organ. 
Numerous  eyes  are  present. 

Amphipoetjs  aectious,  n.  sp.     (Plate  VII.  fig.  9.) 

A  single  specimen  from  Davis  Strait.  Length  28  mm.  and 
greatest  breadth  3-5  mm.  The  anterior  end  is  slightly  blunted  ; 
the  posterior  end  tapers  to  a  point.  Colour  a  uniform  pale  buff 
in  preserved  specimen.  There  is  a  weU-marked  groove  round  the 
head. 

The  epithelium  is  about  70-80  mm.  high,  and  contains  a  number 
of  small  oval  glandular  concretions  M'hich  take  a  brilliant  yellow 
stain  with  picric  acid.  The  basement-membrane  is  about  half  the 
thickness  of  the  epithelium  in  the  oesophageal  region.  The  circular 
muscle-layer  is  well  developed,  its  thickness  being  about  the  same 
as  that  of  the  basement-membrane.  The  longitudinal  muscle- 
layer  is  also  well  developed. 

The  vascular  system  is  of  the  normal  Amphiporid  type.  The 
limbs  of  the  cephalic  loop  lie  closely  apposed  to  the  cerebral  organ 
in  the  region  where  this  is  present. 

The  alimentary  canal  is  more  complicated  than  the  usual 
arrangement  in  the  genus.  It  closely  resembles  that  figured  by 
Joubin  for  A.  marmomtus  \  The  ventral  unpaired  diverticulum, 
however,  is  longer  than  in  this  last  species,  extending  past  the 
median  portion  of  the  true  blind  gut.  The  blind-gut  pockets  do 
not  reach  forward  as  far  as  the  brain. 

The  rhynchocoelom  extends  throughout  the  whole  length  of  the 
animal,  being  spacious  even  in  its  hinder  portion.  It  reaches 
backwards  over  the  hind  nerve  commissure,  a  condition  which  is 
apparently  of  rare  occurrence  according  to  Montgomery  -. 

The  proboscis  is  large  and  contains  only  10  nerves.  The  arma- 
ture has  unfortunately  been  dissolved  out. 

The  excretory  system  extends  forward  past  the  brain  to  the 
anterior  level  of  the  cerebral  organ  (Plate  VII.  fig.  9).  The 
backward  extent  of  the  tubules  is,  however,  short.  The  excretory 
duct  is  found  on  either  side  at  the  junction  of  the  hindermost  ^ 
of  the  system  with  the  rest. 

The  genital  sacs,  which  contain  ova,  are  large  and  alternate 
fairly  regularly  with  the  intestinal  diverticula,  a  somewhat  unusual 
condition  in  the  genus.  They  open  just  dorsally  to  the  nervous 
side-stems. 

The  brain  is  well  developed. 

The  cei'ebral  organ  is  small  and  is  situated  just  in  front  of  the 
brain  (Plate  VII.  fig.  9,  corg.).  Its  greatest  size  in  transverse 
section  is  150  fx  in  breadth  and  200  fi  in  depth. 

Numerous  eyes  are  present. 

The  head-glands  are  well  marked  and  extend  backwards,  though 

1  Joubin,  L. :  Archiv.  Zool.  Exp.  et  Gen.  1890,  p.  564. 

^  Montgomery,  T.  H. :  Zoolog.  Jabrb.,  Abt.  Syst.  1897,  p.  4. 


1901.]  SOilE  AECTIC  NEMERTEANS,  95 

they  are  sometimes  scantier  here,  to  the  side  of  the  cerebral  organs, 
where  many  of  them  open. 

AMPHrPORTJS  LBUCIODUS. 

Eef.  Goe,  W.  E.    Proc.  Wash.  Acad.  Sc.  1901. 

To  this  species  1  have  referred  several  small  white  Nemerteans 
labelled  from  "  Copper  Island  '97."  The  largest  specimen  measured 
not  more  than  18  x  1"5  mm.  They  agree  as  regards  their  anatomy 
fairly  closely  with  Coe's  description.  Owing,  however,  to  the 
circumstance  of  their  having  been  preserved  in  formalin  the  pro- 
boscis armatm^e  is  not  present.  For  this  reason  it  is  impossible 
to  be  absolutely  certain  that  these  specimens  belong  to  the  species 
to  which  I  have  referred  them.  The  excretory  ducts  are  numerous, 
being  about  10-12  in  number  on  either  side.  The  posterior  ones, 
however,  have  not  the  dorsal  position  described  by  Coe  (Joe.  cit. 
p.  53)  for  his  specimens.  There  are  12  nerves  present  in  the 
proboscis.  In  his  account  of  A.  leuciodus  this  feature  is  omitted 
by  Coe.  All  the  specimens  collected  by  Prof.  D'Arcy  Thompson 
were  immature. 

Deepakophoeus  boeealis,  n.  sp.  (Plate  VI.  figs.  4,  5,  7; 
Plate  VII.  figs.  13-17  ;  and  test-figs.  2,  p.  97,  and  3,  p.  98.) 

Several  specimens  obtained  from  Davis  Strait.  Even  making 
allowance  for  the  contracted  state  of  the  specimens,  this  is  an 
extremely  broad  form  compared  with  its  length.  The  following 
are  the  dimensions  in  millimetres  found  in  two  entire  specimens  : 

Length.  Ereadth.  Depth. 

(1)   58  16  4 

(2)   35  10  3-5 

Prom  this  it  -s^dll  be  seen  that  after  preservation  the  breadth  is 
more  than  a  quarter  of  the  depth,  making  this  the  relatively 
broadest  Nemertean,  with  the  possible  exceptions  of  Pelagonemertes, 
Nectonemertes,  and  Malacobdella. 

Both  anterior  and  posterior  ends  are  somewhat  blunted.  The 
colour  and  markings  are  characteristic.  The  dorsal  surface  is  dark 
reddish  brown.  Towards  the  tip  of  the  head  the  colour  is  deep- 
ened and  there  is  a  white  band  on  either  side,  extending  nearlj^  to 
the  mid-dorsal  line  (Plate  VI.  fig.  7)  and  marking  the  position  of 
the  head-furrows.  The  lateral  margins  of  the  dorsal  surface,  and 
the  whole  of  the  ventral  surface,  are  nearly  white.  It  is  some- 
what remarkable  that  the  coloration  and  markings  should  so 
closely  resemble  those  of  A.  thompsoni,  a  representative  of  another 
genus  from  a  neighbouring  region. 

The  epithelium  is  high  and  almost  devoid  of  gland-cells.  It 
rests  upon  a  strong  basement-membrane  which  is  considerably 
thicker  than  the  circular  muscle-layer  (Plate  VI.  fig.  5).  The 
relative  thickness  of  the  vaiious  body-layers  is  best  seen  in  the 


96  MR.  K.  c.  PUNNETT  ON  [May  21, 

following  table,  whicli  refers  to  the  ventral  surface  in  the  middle 
of  the  body : — j^ 

Epithelium 110  fi 

Basement-membrane 75  yu 

Circular  muscle 2>5  jx 

Longitudinal  muscle ]  85  // 

The  epithelium  is  relatively  somewhat  higher  dorsally.  The 
basement-membrane  is  considerably  thinner  below  the  epithelium 
of  the  head-furrow.  Powerful  dorso-ventral  muscles  occur 
throughout  the  body  behind  the  brain. 

The  vascular  system  shows  the  ordinary  arrangement,  such  as 
has  been  figured  by  Oudemans^  for  B.  sjjectabilis  {=ruhrostriatus). 
The  alimentary  canal  offers  no  points  of  special  interest.  There 
is  a  short  well-marked  proctodseum  lined  by  comparatively  low 
epithelium.  The  first  pair  of  blind-gut  pouches  reach  forwards 
and  lie  against  the  hinder  portion  of  the  cerebral  organ. 

The  proboscis- sheath  exhibits  the  peculiar  basket-work  arrange- 
ment of  the  circular  and  longitudinal  muscle-fibres  characteristic 
of  the  genus.  It  possesses  also  the  peculiar  diverticula.  In  this 
species  they  are  slender  with  a  fine  layer  of  muscle-fibres,  and  the 
whole  surrounded  by  a  layer  of  parenchyma-cells  (Plate  VI.  fig. 
4,  rcl).  The  1st  two  diverticula  unite  with  one  another  anteriorly 
(cf.  D.  lankesteri  Hubrecht,  Challenger  Eeports,  vol.  ix.  p.  106). 
They  form  an  irregular  network  which  extends  anteriorly  over  the 
brain  and  here  gives  off  a  number  of  large  expansions  (Plate  VI. 
fig.  4,  rde)  whose  wall  consists  only  of  the  rhynchocoelomic  epi- 
thelium— the  muscular  and  parenchymatous  layers  disappearing. 
Consequently  in  the  cerebral  region  we  meet  with  4  distinct  sets 
of  cavities  lying  in  the  gelatinous  connective  tissue,  viz. : 

(1)  Blood-vessels. 

(2)  Excretory  tubules. 

(3)  Ehynchocoelomic  diverticula  and  their  expansions. 

(4)  Irregular  spaces  in  the  connective  tissue  (Plate  VI. 

fig.  4,  cts.). 

The  proboscis  is  well  developed  and  of  about  the  same  length 
as  the  body.  Its  epithelium  is  raised  up  into  large  papillae,  and 
through  the  extremely  thick  basement-membrane,  upon  which  they 
rest,  may  be  traced  strong  nerves  entering  their  bases.  The  pro- 
boscis contains  14  nerves  and  is  attached  near  the  end  of  the  body 
to  the  ventral  wall  of  the  proboscis-sheath. 

The  excretory  system  reaches  forward  to  the  cerebral  organ, 
and  backward  some  way  along  the  posterior  division  of  the 
oesophagus  ("  Magendarm  ")■  The  duct  is  situated  at  the  level  of 
the  hind  end  of  the  cerebral  organ.  The  tubules  lie  closely  round 
the  lateral  nerve-cords. 

The  gonads  are  large  and  arranged  in  three  rows  either  side,  which 
all  open  on  the  dorsal  surface.  They  take  the  form  of  elongated 
^  Loc.  cit.  pi.  i.  fig.  7. 


1901.] 


SOME  ARCTIC  NEMERTEANS. 


9; 


tapering  sacs,  the  widest  portion  of  which  is  near  the  ducts  (Plate 
VI.  fig.  5).  A  most  interesting  feature  is  that  they  show  ova  at 
all  the  various  stages  of  development.  These  are  referred  to  in 
more  detail  on  p.  104.     The  brain  is  well  developed.     In  shape 


Text-flo-.  2. 


Brepanophoncs  borecdis.     Section  through  the  commissural  region  of  the  brain, 
showing  the  opening  of  the  cerebral  organ,     x  30. 

hm..,  basement-membrane ;  cc,  ciliated  canal  of  cerebi-al  organ  ;  cl.,  cephalic 
vascular  loop ;  dc,  dorsal  nervous  commissure ;  dg.,  dorsal  ganglion  ; 
ep.,  epithelium  ;  get.,  gelatinous  connective  tissue ;  mc,  circular  muscle- 
layer  ;  ml.,  longitudinal  muscle-layer  ;  oes.,  oesophagus  ;  fs.,  proboscis- 
sheath  ;  rd.,  rhynchocephalic  diverticulum  ;  rcle.,  expansions  of  rhyncho- 
coelomic  diverticula  ;  vc,  ventral  brain- commissure  ;  vg.,  ventral  ganglia. 

it  is  considerabty  flattened,  so  that  the  dorsal  ganglion  comes  to  lie 
on  the  outer  side  of  the  ventral,  and  not  above  it  as  is  usually  the 
case.  The  ventral  commissure  is  short,  straight,  and  strong  ;  the 
dorsal  thinner  and  more  curved.  A  single  large  neurochord-cell 
occurs  on  either  side.  It  is  oval  in  shape,  measuring  about  83  /i  x 
40  fjL.  Its  nucleus  measures  25  ^  x  18  /i  and  contains  a  well-marked 
circular  nucleolus  8  ^  in  diameter. 

The  lateral  nerve-cords  lie  ventrally,  and  each  is  situated  at  the 
same  distance  from  its  fellow  as  it  is  from  the  lateral  margin  of 
the  body.     They  are  united  by  ventral  commissures  at  intervals, 

Peoc'.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  VII.  7 


98 


ME.  E.  C.  PUNJSTETT  ON 


[May  21, 


There  are  no  dorsal  commissures.  There  is  a  well-marked  supra- 
anal  commissure  behind  the  termination  of  the  proboscis-sheath 
and  the  dorsal  vascular  commissure. 

The  cerebral  organ  is  large.  It  begins  shortly  after  the  com- 
mencement of  the  brain,  to  the  outer  side  of  which  it  lies.  It 
extends  backwards  behind  the  brain,  where  it  lies  dorsally  and 
slightly  externally  to  the  ventral  nerve-cord.  It  is  very  large,  i.  e. 
about  half  as  large  again  as  the  dorsal  ganghon,  and  is  richly  clothed 
with  gland-cells,  especially  on  the  dorsal  surface.  The  opening  of 
the  ciliated  canal  is  ventro-lateral,  and  is  situated  at  the  anterior 
end  of  the  organ.  The  organ  is  innervated  by  a  single  large  nerve 
which  is  given  off  from  the  hind  end  of  the  dorsal  ganglion. 

Text-fig.  3. 


dbv. 


oes...//j 


Drepajw^phorus  borealis.  Section  slightly  behind  the  preceding  one,  showino- 
the  expansions  of  the  rhynchocoelomic  diverticula  over  the  cerebral  oro-an. 
(The  details  of  the  cerebral  oi'gan  are  omitted.)     x  30. 

corff.,  cerebral  organ  ;  cts.,  spaces  in  gelatinous  connective-tissue  ;  dbv.,  median 
dorsal  blood-vessel ;  ext.,  excretory  tubules. 

Other  letters  as  in  text-figure  2. 

Portion  marked  by  *  enlarged  on  PL  VI.  fig.  4. 

There  is  a  well-marked  transverse  head-furrow  on  either  side, 
and  the  two  furrows  between  them  surround  more  than  half  the 
circumference  of  the  head. 


1901.]  SOME  ARCTIC  NBMERTBANS,  99 

About  4  large  eyes  are  present  on  each  side  just  in  front  of  the 
brain.  They  are  arranged  in  an  irregular  horizontal  row.  The 
total  number  of  eyes  is  smaller  than  in  any  other  member  of  the 
genus  \  D.  willeyanus  coming  next  with  a  total  of  1 6. 

EuNEMBKTEs  NEESi  (CErsted,  1844). 

Nemertes  neesi,  Mcintosh,  1873-74. 

Eunemertes  neesi,  Biirger,  1895. 

Fragments  of  a  large  specimen  from  Grreenlaud,  amounting  to 
35  cm.  in  length  with  a  breadth  of  7  mm.  I  have  compared  a 
series  of  sections  from  this  animal  with  a  similar  series  from  a 
specimen  of  E.  neesi  procured  at  Plymouth.  The  Greenland  speci- 
men is  typical  both  with  regard  to  external  colour  and  form  and 
also  internal  anatomy. 

HETBEONEMERTIlSri. 

Cerebratultjs  aREENLAKDicus,  u.  sp.  (Plate  VI.  figs.  1-3  and 
Plate  VII.  figs.  10,  12.) 

Portions  of  two  specimens  from  Grreenlaud  and  from  North  Green- 
land (collected  by  Herr  Lohmann).  The  anterior  end  was  preserved 
in  each  case.  The  fragments  from  Greenland  amounted  to  about 
8  cm.  in  length  and  7  mm.  in  width.  The  fragments  from  N. 
Greenland  belonged  to  a  larger  specimen  and  amounted  to  44  cm. 
in  length  and  8  mm.  in  breadth.  The  worms  were  of  a  pale  dirty 
brown  hue,  all  traces  of  the  original  coloration  having  probably 
been  extracted  by  a  10  years'  sojourn  in  alcohol.  The  head-slits  do 
not  extend  so  far  as  the  mouth,  which  is  very  evident  as  a  round 
hole. 

The  epithelium  is  faii'ly  high  and  contaius  a  few  unicellular 
glands  (Plate  VII.  fig.  12).  It  rests  upon  a  fine  basement-mem- 
brane, beneath  which  is  the  delicate  circular  muscle-layer  of  the 
cutis.  The  connective  tissue  is  fairly  well  developed  in  the  cutis. 
Its  more  superficial  portion  contains  small  scattered  bundles  of 
longitudinal  muscle-fibres  (Plate  VII.  fig.  12,  mlc).  Beneath  these 
are  the  cutis-glands,  which  rest  directly  upon  the  outer  longitudinal 
muscle-layer  of  the  body-wall. 

In  the  oesophageal  region  the  outer  muscle-layer  is  about  2|  times 
as  thick  as  the  circular  layer.  The  last-named  layer  is  of  the  same 
thickness  as  the  inner  longitudinal  layer.  The  three  muscle- 
layers  preserve  approximately  the  same  proportions  in  the  intestinal 
region.  There  is  no  well-marked  layer  of  horizontal  muscles  over 
the  mouth.     IVo  diagonal  muscle-layer. 

The  vascular  system  in  the  head-region  presents  some  slight 
points  of  divergence  from  that  usually  found  in  the  Lineidse.  In 
front  of  the  brain  there  is  a  single  lacuna  which  is  not  divided  up 
by  muscle-strands  (Plate  VII.  fig.  10,  da.).  It  possesses  a  longi- 
tudinal muscle-coat  which,  together  with  the  rhynchodeeum,  is 

^  Punnett:  Willey's  Zoological  Eesults,  pt.  v.  p.  571. 

7* 


100  MR.  E,.  c.  PUNNETT  ON  [May  21, 

surrounded  by  a  fine  circular  muscle-layer.  Just  in  front  of  the 
brain  this  lacuna  divides  into  two  limbs  which  almost  immediately 
reunite.  From  this  junction  is  given  oflP  the  median  dorsal  vessel, 
which  at  once  enters  the  proboscis-sheath.  A  little  more  pos- 
teriorly the  main  lacuna  gives  off  two  large  trunks — the  lateral 
lacunse,  which  extend  over  the  cerebral  organ  and  surround  its 
hinder  portion.  Almost  immediately  after  giving  off  the  lateral 
lacunae  to  the  cerebral  organ,  the  median  lacuna  ends  by  giving  off 
two  lateral  branches — the  buccal  lacunse,  which  at  once  fuse  with 
the  lateral  lacunse  in  the  region  of  the  cerebral  organ.  The  chief 
points  of  divergence  from  the  usual  arrangement  lie  in  the  single 
head-lacuna,  and  in  the  short  course  and  large  size  of  the  buccal 
lacunse.  A  similar  cephalic  lacuna  has,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  only 
been  described  among  the  Lineidae  for  L.  sanguineus  \ 

The  backward  extent  of  the  rhynchocoelom  relative  to  the  body- 
length  cannot,  owing  to  the  imperfection  of  the  specimen,  be 
given.  The  proboscis  is  slender,  measuring  in  the  smaller  indi- 
vidual not  more  than  "75  mm.  in  cross-section.  Its  layers  are 
arranged  in  the  following  order — proboscis  epithelium,  nervous 
layer,  circular  muscles,  longitudinal  muscles,  rhynchocoelomic 
epithelium.     There  are  two  ill-defined  muscle  crosses. 

The  excretory  system  is  extensive  and  possesses  numerous  ducts 
on  either  side  (Plate  VII.  fig.  10,  excl.).  Most  of  these  make  an 
angle  of  about  45°  with  a  line  joining  the  nervous  side-stems. 
Some  open  nearer  the  level  of  the  side-stems,  though  none  open 
more  dorsally.  The  excretory  tubules  do  not  extend  ventral  to 
the  level  of  the  nervous  side-stems.  Many  of  them  project  as  long 
tufts  into  the  lateral  lacunse,  which  here  are  easily  distinguished 
from  the  cesophageal  lacunse. 

The  brain  is  fairly  well  developed,  the  dorsal  ganglia  being  half 
as  large  again  as  the  ventral.  The  dorsal  commissiTre  is  very  short, 
and  the  ganglion-cells  of  the  two  dorsal  ganglia  here  almost  meet 
dorsally  over  the  proboscis-sheath.  The  dorsal  lobe  of  the  dorsal 
ganglion  does  not  reach  as  far  as  the  commencement  of  the  cerebral 
organ.     No  neurochord-cells  are  present. 

The  cerebral  organ  is  not  large.  It  lies  directly  over  the  side- 
stems  (Plate  VI.  figs.  1,  2, 3).  It  is  rounded  in  transverse  section, 
and  is  almost  completely  sheathed  in  gland-cells. 

The  head-slits  are  deep  and  end  before  the  level  Avhere  the 
cerebral  organ  starts  (Plate  VII.  fig.  10).  The  head-glands  are 
well  marked  dorsally  and  ventrally.  Before  the  level  of  the  brain 
they  merge  into  the  cutis-glands. 

A  small  frontal  organ  of  the  typical  Line  id  form  is  present. 
Eyes  are  absent. 

Synopsis  of  the  Genus  Amphiporus. 

By  adding  new  species  to  the  genus  Amphiporus  this  paper  raises 
the  total  of  the  named  species  referred  to  that  genus  to  over  40. 
^  OudemaDS,  A,  C  :   loc.  cit.  p.  45. 


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1901.]  SOME  ARCTIC  NEMBRTEANS.  101 

As  descriptions  of  these  species  are  scattered  over  numerous  papers, 
it  has  seemed  worth  while  to  collect  them  into  a  list  and  to  give  in 
each  case  a  brief  diagnosis  based  upon  such  characters  as  have  been 
shown  to  exhibit  marked  and  definite  divergences  among  the  various 
species  (see  Table  facing  this  page).  The  details  necessary  for 
forming  a  complete  list  are  not  forthcoming  in  all  the  species,  and 
the  list  has  in  part  been  made  with  the  idea  of  drawing  to  such 
omissions  the  attention  of  those  who  may  be  able  to  remedy  them. 
In  the  original  description  of  some  species  the  external  appearance 
alone  has  been  chronicled.  The  names  of  such  species  are  given 
in  a  footnote  at  the  bottom  of  the  table.  The  species  have  been 
tabulated  according  to  their  geographical  distribution.  In  the 
nomenclature  of  the  marine  regions  the  classfication  suggested  by 
Ortmann  ^  has  been  follovi-ed.  The  species  found  in  the  North 
Atlantic  and  in  the  Mediterranean  are  fairly  well  known,  though 
perhaps  the  region  for  which  our  knowledge  is  most  accurate  is 
the  North  Pacific,  owing  to  the  recent  publication  of  a  valuable 
paper  by  Coe ".  With  the  exception  of  a  few  South-Georgian 
forms  described  by  Biirger,  we  have  practically  no  knowledge  of 
the  genus  south  of  the  Equator.  Until  our  knowledge  of  Southern 
and  Tropical  forms  is  somewhat  more  extensive,  it  is  safest  to 
avoid  any  elaborate  discussion  on  the  aifinities  of  the  groups  of 
species  inhabiting  the  various  regions.  A  few  points,  however, 
call  for  short  notice.  Numerous  collections  of  Nemerteans  have 
now  been  worked  out  from  the  tropics — more  particularly  from 
the  Indian  Ocean.  A  feature  of  such  collections  is  the  almost 
total  absence  of  species  of  Amphiporus.  As  nearly  all  the  species 
of  the  genus  are  of  fair  size,  often  very  plentiful,  and  readily 
found  where  they  occur,  it  would  appear  that  they  are  relatively 
scarce  in  the  tropics,  where  their  place  is  taken  by  the  genera 
Drepanophorus  and  Prosadenoporus.  Whether  the  genus  is  well 
represented  or  not  in  the  South,  it  is  not  yet  possible  to  say.  The 
few  Antarctic  species  worked  out  by  Biirger  are  interesting  when 
compared  with  those  from  other  regions.  A  careful  examination 
of  the  table  will  bring  out  the  fact,  that  whilst  the  species  of 
Ampliiporus  inhalDiting  the  Arctic  circumpolar,  the  Atlantic  boreal, 
and  the  Mediterranean  respectively,  show  as  groups  considerable 
amount  of  resemblance,  they  differ  as  much  from  the  Pacific 
boreal  forms  as  these  do  from  the  Antarctic  forms.  In  fact  it 
might  be  said  that  the  Pacific  boreal  forms  are  more  closely  allied 
to  the  Antarctic  forms  than  to  the  North-Atlantic  forms.  In  the 
Pacific  boreal  and  Antarctic  forms,  as  compared  with  the  rest,  the 
cerebral  organ  is  more  often  in  front  of  the  brain,  the  average 
number  of  proboscis-nerves  is  a  great  deal  higher  (about  20  7o): 
the  number  of  reserve  stylet-pockets  is  much  more  frequently 
greater  than  two,  and  lastly  there  is  a  greater  tendency  for  tlie 
central  stylet  to  be  shorter  than  its  base.     That  there  should  be 

^  Ortmann,  A.  E. :  '  Grundziige  der  marinen  Tiergeograpbie,'  Jena,  1896. 
-  Coe,  W.  R. :  "  Papers  from  the  Harriman  Alaska  Expedition  :  The  Nemer- 
teans," Proc.  Wash.  Acad.  Sc.  1901. 


Pnoc.  Zo«L.  Soc.— 1901,  Vol.  II.j 


iTofm-i  11.  101. 


Foaition  of 
cerebral 

.,      ,        Position  of 
.Number    i3tblind- 

Number 

Kelatire    , 
lengths  of 
stylet  (S) 

and  its     . 
base(B). 

or^n 

relflUve  to 

bmin. 

"'V'^    gnt  pockets 
l"*™-     relaUreto 
nerves.  ,      (jrajp^ 

Eyes. 

of  reserve 
stylet- 
pockets. 

Pecnliar  features. 

SIcI. 

/   //.  puIcAfT  

Behind. 

14       1  Not  to  br. 

■  P. 

Many. 

2 

S>B 
Mel. 

0. 

A.  /aciijtoreus 

In  front. 

U      1     To  br. 

Many. 

2 

S=B 

Many  excretory  ducts. 

P 

P.;          p. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

I.  Arctic 
Circuiiipolnr. 

A.  nrciicuB 

In  front. 

10 

Not  to  br. 

Many. 

? 

? 

(Esophagus  with  dorsal  and 
ventral  unpaire<l  diverticula. 

P. 

p. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

//.  fhompsoni 

In  front. 

10-18 

Not  to  br. 

Many. 

2 

S>B 

Vnsenhu*  network  in  o:?sopha- 

geal  region. 

'   A.  puhhi-T  

(See 

above) 

A.  marmorafits  ... 

licsidc. 

10 

Not  to  br. 

JIany. 

2 

S=B 

a. 

(Esoplnigns  with  dorsJil  and 
ventral  impaired  diverticula. 

A.  lactijlorcus     ... 

(See 

above) 

McI. 

A.  hioculeUus  

? 

? 

? 

2 

2 

Mol. 

II.  Atlnntic 

Mol. 

Mel. 

O. 

i 

A.  hastaius 

? 

? 

? 

Many. 

•1 

S=| 

Uoplialio  vascular  lacuuiu  in- 
stead of  loop. 

t^ 

R. 

R. 

A.  dissimiilam   ... 

In  front. 

Many. 

p 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

o 

A.  firccnnmni 

Beside. 

U 

To  brain. 

Few. 

2 

S=B 

-»1 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

-^ 

L  A.  f/hifi)io.vis 

Beside. 

11 

To  brain. 

Fe-,v. 

2 

S>B 

P. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

A.  iKudhucs    

In  front. 

15 

Not  to  br. 

Many. 

2 

S  =  B 

Kead-glands  reach  to  intes- 
tine. 

C, 

C. 

C. 

0. 

C. 

C. 

0. 

A.  aiujidotus  

In  front. 

17-20 

To  brain, 

Many. 

2 

S  =  B 

Occasionally  more   than   one 
pair  of  excretory  ducts. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

0. 

0. 

C. 

A.  himarulaius   ... 

Beside. 

Hi 

To  brain. 

Many. 

4 

S  =  2B 

III.  Pnciflc 

0. 

C. 

0. 

0. 

C. 

boroiil. 

A.li</rmu.. 

In  front. 

? 

Not  to  br. 

Many. 

2 

C. 

c. 

C. 

0. 

C. 

"  C. 

0. 

yi.  '/n-bulosus  

In  front. 

17 

To  brain. 

Many. 

2 

S  =  B 

Lateral  glands  in  oesopliagcal 

C. 

C. 

0. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

A.  Icuciodus    

In  fj-ont. 

? 

To  brain. 

Many. 

3 

S<:B 

Many  excretory  ducts. 

C. 

C. 

0. 

0. 

0. 

C. 

A.crUi^ 

In  front. 

? 

To  brain. 

Many. 

G-l-J 

S<B 

Many  excretory  ducts  opening 

dorsally. 

I.  Iiulo-Pucine. 

A.  anihohicitiiU  ... 
'  A.  puldwr  

Beside. 

? 

Not  to  br. 
(See 

? 
above) 

y 

? 

Diagonal  nuiscle-laycr. 

10  proboscis-nerves.     S=B. 

Opening  of  cerebral  oi'gan  in 

A.  rcticulnfiis 

Boiiind. 

i'o 

? 

Many. 

2 

S=B 

front  of  brain. 

A. fflaiidulo.-iics   ... 
A,  sttiHuittsi 

Behind. 
Behind. 

? 

14- 

To  brain. 
Jiot— to-br.— 

12 

2 

S=B 
? 

— g — 

(See 

above) ' 

A,  vivfifttus 

Beside. 

14 

Not  to  br. 

Many. 

S  =  B 

s 

M 

A.  diibhis    

In  front. 

? 

To  brain. 

2 

S<B 

Cerebral  organ  far  in  front  of 
brain. 

II.  West  Arvicau. 

A.  ahjcnsis 

In  front. 

? 

? 

Many. 
Many. 

s=? 

1 

(Mcditcn'iinoun.) 

A.  oltaaounnatits  . 
A.  poli/ommttttts... 

In  iront. 

Over  br. 

2 

?" 

s 

In  front. 

■/ 

To  brain. 

Many. 

2 

? 

g 

A.  hctijloreiis 

(See 

above) 

6 

A.  cariiicUoidcs  ... 

In  front. 

i'i 

To  brain. 

None. 

2 

? 

Well  developed  subepithelial 

M 

glands  in  front  of  brain. 

A.  langUcgemimis . 

In  front. 

12 

Not  to  br. 

None. 

2 

S=J 

A.  validissimvs  ... 

In  front. 

? 

To  brain. 

Many. 

3 

S  =  B 

A.  /msfatits  

A.  pui/na.v  

(See 

above) 

? 

y 

? 

(G«me>,.) 

A.  duhitts   

A.  spitiostis 

In  front. 

18 

(tec 
Not  to  br. 

above) 
None. 

8 

S-=rB 

B  g 

o  g  3 

A.  spimtsissimus   . 

In  front. 

16 

Not  to  br. 

None. 

11-12 

S<;B 

4« 

A.  crm-iittus   

In  front. 

IG 

Not  to  br. 

None. 

3 

? 

Tlio  letters  occurring  in  the  table  above  each  statement  denote  the  authors  on  whoso  authority  the  facts  are  given.  0.  =  Coe, 
J.=Joubin,  M.=Montgomery,  MeI.=MeIntosh,  0.  =  Oudemans,  P.  =  Punnett,  R.  =  Riche3.  Where  no  letter  occurs  the  state- 
ment concerned  is  due  to  Biirger.  The  following  species  have  been  made  by  Verrill  (Trans.  Connecticut  Acad.  1892)  on 
external  features  alone— -J.  mullisoriis,  heterosoriis,  te/rasuriis,  ochraceus,  frontalis,  mesorus,  crucntatus,  at/ilis. 

Hubreelit  also  ('  Challenger '  Reports,  vol.  is.)  has  described  two  additional  species,  A.  marioni  and  A.  7mselei/i,  but  the 
n>orphological  details  given  are  insufficient  to  make  it  worth  while  tabulating  them. 


1.02  MB.  E.  c.  puNNETT  OK  [May  21, 

this  agreement  in  the  features  chiefly  relied  upon  in  classification, 
would  seem  to  point  to  a  connection  between  the  Amphiporids  of 
these  two  regions  closer  than  that  between  those  of  either  of  them 
and  the  Northern  Atlantic  forms.  It  is  possible  that  the  present 
wave  of  Antarctic  enterprise  may  bring  to  light  fresh  forms  which 
may  help  to  settle  an  interesting  point. 

With  the  affinities  of  the  new  species  other  than  Amphiporus 
described  in  this  paper,  I  hope  to  deal  on  some  future  occasion 
when  considering  in  detail  the  genus  Drepanopliorus  and  the  family 
of  the  Lineidas, 

Note  on  the  Yascular  System  of  Metanemerteans. 

In  the  writings  of  several  authors  who  have  treated  of  this 
group  are  to  be  found  discrepancies  with  regard  to  the  somewhat 
important  point  of  the  relation  of  the  lateral  blood-vessels  and 
cephalic  loop  to  the  brain  and  the  rhynchodseum.     Mcintosh  \  in 
his  monograph   on  the  British  Nemerteans,  states  that  "  At  the 
ganglionic  region  the  vessels  which  go  to  form  the  cephalic  arch 
pass  below  the  commissures  {i.  e.  brain-commissures)  and  unite  in 
front  beneath  the  channel  of  the  snout  {i.  e.  the  rhynchodseum) ; " 
and  his  conception  of  the  arrangement  is  represented  by  a  dia- 
gram on  p.  42  of  the  same  work  and  by  several  figures  of  AmpM- 
porus  among  the  plates.     On  the  other  hand,  the  excellent  figure 
representing    the   anatomy    of    Tetrastemma    candidum    (pi.    xiv. 
fig.  1)  shows  the  cephalic  loop  entirely  above  the  rhynchodasum 
and  the  lateral  vessels  passing  through  the  nervous  ring.     This  is 
the  condition  described  by  Oudemans  for  the  Metanemerteans,  and 
arrived  at  after  studying  nine  members  of  various  genera  by  the 
method  of  serial  sections.     Oudemans  ^  finds  "  in  the  head  two 
vessels  which  communicate  in  front,  forming  a  vascular  loop  above 
the  proboscidian  sheath  (=rhynchod8eum).      These  vessels  also 
communicate  within  the  cerebral  ring,  but  now  beneath  it  (i.  e.  the 
rhynchodseum)."     I  have  been  unable  to  find  any  specific  state- 
ments for  the  Metanemerteans  with  regard  to  these  points  in 
Biirger's  monograph.     In  a  previous  paper  ^,  however,  he  mentions 
that   "  Die  Seitengefasse   vereinigt   in  der   Kopfspitze  vor  dem 
Gehirn  liber  dem  Ehynchodseum  eine  geraumige  Kopfschlinge," 
though  here  again  he  does  not  distinctly  state  whether  the  two 
vessels  are  surrounded   by  the  nervous  ganglionic  ring  or  pass 
beneath  it.     Moreover,  his  figures  are  at  variance  with  regard  to 
the   last    point.      In  his   Naples    monograph,    Biirger   distinctly 
represents   the  cephalic  vessels  of  Tetrastemma  coronatum  (pi.  ix. 
fig.  7)  and  of  Amphiporus  virgatus  (pi.  vii.  fig.  16)   as  passing 
beneath  the  ventral  commissure  of  the  brain ;  whilst  in  another 
place   (pi.   xvi.  fig.   16)   he  figures  a  section  of  the   last-named 
species  showing  these  vessels  lying  ujpon  the  ventral  brain-com- 

^  Loo.  cit.  p.  80. 
^  Loc.  cit.  p.  58. 
3  Zeitsch.  flu-  wiss.  Zool.  50  Bd.  1890,  p.  204. 


1901.] 


SOME  ARCTIC  NBMBRTEAKS. 


103 


missure,  within  the  nervous  ring.  This  last  arrangement,  which 
I  take  to  be  the  true  one,  is  also  shown  by  Biirger  in  section  for 
other  Metanemei'teans,  viz.,  for  Eunemertes  marioni  (pi.  xv. 
fig.  10),  for  Drepanoplwrus  cdholineatus  (pi.  xvii.  fig.  2),  for 
Tetrastemma  cruciatum  (pi.  xviii.  fig.  6),  and  for  Ototyj>hlone- 
mertes  duplex  (pi.  xviii.  fig.  17).  On  pi.  xviii.  fig.  3,  however, 
Biirger  figures  a  section  through  the  brain  and  its  commissures 
in  Mcdacohdella  grossa,  where  the  lateral  vessels  are  shown 
lying  entirely  outside  the  nervous  ring.  In  a  series  of  sections 
made  through  a  specimen  of  this  species,  I  have  been  unable 
to  confirm  this  arrangement.  In  my  specimen  the  cephalic 
loop  divided  just  before  the  brain,  and  whilst  one  branch  ran 
along  the  lateral  edge  of  the  body,  as  in  Biirger's  figure,  the  other 
Isbj  just  over  the  ventral  brain-commissure,  and  consequently 
within  the  nervous  ring.  The  vessels  lying  outside  the  nervous 
ring  are  probably  to  be  regarded  as  secondary.  In  many  Metane- 
merteans  (esp.  AmpJiiporus  and  Drepanopliorus')  the  cephalic  and 


Text-figs.  4-6. 
5. 


rCs 

S^ 

dorsal 
■vessel 

lateral 
..-'  vessel  "--- 

f 

Amphj^iorus,  &c.  Malacohdella.       Malacobdella  according 

to  Biirger. 

lateral  vessels  are  strongly  bent  just  before  entering  and  just 
after  leaving  the  nervous  ring  (text-fig.  4).  It  is  probably  by  the 
confluence  of  these  arches  that  the  outer  lateral  vessels  of  Mala- 
cobdella are  formed  (text-fig.  5).  If  now  we  suppose  the  portion 
of  the  lateral  vessels  lying  within  the  nervous  ring,  anterior  to  the 
point  of  origin  of  the  median  dorsal  vessel,  to  disappear,  we  arrive 
at  a  condition  similar  to  that  described  ,by  Biirger  (text-fig.  6). 
Such  a  condition  must,  however,  be  regarded  as  secondary,  and 
derived  from  the  normal  Metanemertean  type.  The  conclusion 
then,  I  think,  is  justified,  that  in  the  Metanemerteans,  as  in  all 
the  rest  of  the  phylum,  the  lateral  blood-vessels  pass  throiigJi  the 
nervous  ring  formed  by  the  brain  and  its  commissures,  and  that 
the  limbs  of  the  cephalic  loop  unite  at  the  tip  of  the  snout  above 
the  rhynchodaeum. 

I  have  laid  upon  this  point  partly  because  of  its  morphological 
importance,  and  partly  because  eiToneous  statements  on  this  head 
tend  to  become  perpetuated  in  text-books.  Thus  in  the '  Cambridge 
Natural  History,'  vol.  ii.  p.  106,  Miss  Sheldon  gives  a  diagram  in 


104  MB.  E.  c.  PFNNETT  Ojst  [May  21, 

which  the  relations  of  the  vascular  system  on  both  these  points   • 
are  entirely  wrong.     At  the  same  time  the  accoant  given  in  the 
text  is  erroneous. 

Note  on  a  Secondary  Sexual  Character  in  a  Nemertean. 

Hitherto  no  instance  of  an  anatomical  difference  between  the 
sexes  of  any  species  of  JN^emerfcean  has  been  observed.  Occasion- 
ally during  the  breeding-season  the  male  may  be  distinguished  by 
its  colour  from  the  female,  but  such  differences  are  always  directly 
due  to  the  hue  of  the  gonads  themselves.  It  has  already  been 
mentioned  (p.  92)  that  the  number  of  proboscis-nerves  in 
A.  tliomjpsoni  is  subject  to  considerable  variation.  Fourteen  speci- 
mens taken  at  random  were  sectioned,  and  the  number  of  their 
proboscis-nerves  and  their  sex  noted.  From  the  subjoined  table 
it  will  be  seen  that  the  sexes  are  in  almost  equal  proportions. 
All  were  collected  together  from  the  same  locality,  all  were  of 
about  the  same  size,  and  all  were  sexually  mature. 

No.  of  proboscis-nerves 10     11     12     13     14     15     16     17     18 

2     1      —     6     ______ 

6     __4----2      2 

Erom  this  it  would  appear  that  whilst  the  female  has  12 
nerves  or  less  in  the  proboscis,  the  male  has  either  12  or  else  a 
much  greater  number,  i.e.  17  or  18,  though  this  proboscis  itself 
was  in  all  cases  of  about  the  same  size.  If  a  considerably  greater 
number  could  be  examined  with  regard  to  these  points,  it  is  not 
improbable  that  we  should  obtain  for  the  male  a  bimodal  curve, 
such  as  has  been  described  by  Bateson  and  Brindley  ^  in  the  case 
of  certain  earwigs  and  beetles.  It  is  interesting  to  notice  that  we 
have  here  a  case  of  sexual  dimorphism  where  the  organ  affected  is, 
so  far  as  we  know,  in  no  way  concerned  with  sexual  functions. 
That  the  proboscis  has  nothing  to  do  with  copulation  may  be 
gathered  from  Mcintosh's  '^  interesting  account  of  the  deposition 
of  the  ova  and  spermatozoa  in  an  allied  form — Eunemertes  gracilis, 
where  the  individuals  of  either  sex  did  not  approach  within  three 
inches  of  one  another,  and  fertilization  took  place  in  the  surround- 
sea-water.  Into  the  possible  raison  cSetre  of  such  a  phenomenon 
as  this  it  seems  at  present  useless  to  enquire.  It  is  sufficient 
here  to  draw  to  such  facts  the  attention  of  those  who  propound 
theories  concerning  secondary  sexual  characters. 

Develojiment  of  the  Ovum  in  Drepanophorus  borealis. 

That  the  ovary  of  Drepanophorus  borealis  contains  eggs  in 
various  stages  has  already  been  seen  (p.  97).  Throughout  the 
greater  portion  of  the  intestinal  region  the  ovaries  are  large  and 
usually  contain  one  almost  or  quite  ripe  ovum,  and  a  number  of 

1  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1892,  p.  588. 
^  Loc.  cit.  p.  89. 


1901.]  SOME  ARCTIC  NEMEBTEANS.  105 

othei's  in  stages  fairly  well  advanced  (Plate  VI.  fig.  5).  Towards 
the  hind  end  of  the  body,  however,  earlier  stages  in  the  formation 
of  the  ovary  may  be  found.  At  certain  spots  within  the  copious 
gelatinous  connective  tissue  surrounding  the  intestine  may  be  seen 
a  very  young  ovum  (Plate  VII.  fig.  13),  around  which  a  space  is 
commencing  to  appear.  The  connective-tissue  nuclei  around  this 
space  are  somewhat  more  plentiful  than  in  other  parts.  The 
ovum  at  this  stage  is  surrounded  by  a  small  amount  of  yolk- 
material,  though  whether  this  represents  its  own  protoplasm  or 
has  been  derived  from  other  cells  which  apply  themselves  to  it,  I 
am  unable  for  certain  to  say.  At  a  somewhat  later  stage  the 
cavity  in  the  connective  tissue  has  become  larger,  with  a  more 
definite  outline,  whilst  at  the  same  time  the  ovum  has  increased 
in  size  and  is  seen  to  be  surrounded  by  cells  (Plate  VII.  fig.  i4) 
composed  mainly  of  yolk-material.  In  some  of  these  cells  is  to 
be  found  a  well-marked  nucleus  and  a  nucleolus  of  similar  staining 
reactions  to  those  of  the  ovum  itself.  In  others  the  large  nucleolus 
alone  can  be  recognized,  whilst  in  others  again  all  traces  of  both 
nucleus  and  nucleolus  have  disappeared.  It  seems  reasonable  to 
suppose  that  these  cells  are  in  reality  primitive  ova  which  apply 
themselves  to  the  functional  ovum  and  become  converted  into  yolk- 
material  around  it.  The  ovum  now  increases  greatly  in  size,  and 
the  ovarian  cavity  becomes  lined  with  a  flattened  epithelium 
derived  from  the  cells  of  the  gelatinous  connective  tissue.  This 
epithelium  may  be  traced  passing  over  and  covering  the  ovum 
(vide  some  of  sioallest  ova  in  Plate  VI.  fig.  5),  where  it  gives  rise 
to  a  peculiar  coat  of  follicle-cells.  The  follicular  layer  takes  the 
form  of  a  layer  of  irregular-shaped  cells,  with  branched  processes 
on  the  outer  side,  forming  delicate  strands  connecting  the  ovum 
with  the  adjacent  ovarian  wall  or  other  follicle-cells,  whilst  on  the 
inner  side  are  more  regular  processes  like  little  waterspouts  pro- 
jecting through  the  delicate  limiting  membrane  of  the  ovum  into 
the  sea  of  yolk  beneath  (Plate  VII.  figs.  15  &  16).  As  the 
ovum  nears  the  ripe  condition  it  becomes  coated  with  a  shell-like 
structure.  On  the  ventral  surface  of  the  ovum  (^.  e.  on  the  surface 
furthest  from  the  dorsal  opening  of  the  ovary)  the  follicular  layer 
degenerates  into  an  undulating  homogeneous  deeply  staining 
covering  to  the  ovum  (Plate  VII.  fig.  15).  At  the  same  time  the 
surface  of  the  ovum  in  this  region  takes  on  a  similar  appearance. 
This  process  gradually  spreads  round  the  ovum.  Between  the 
two  layers  are  small  spaces  which  subsequently  disappear,  though 
the  two  layers  can  still  be  recognized  by  the  fact  that  the  outer 
takes  on  a  far  deeper  stain,  owing  probably  to  its  containing  more 
chromatin  derived  from  the  nuclei  of  the  follicle-cells  (Plate  VII. 
fig.  17).  The  outer  egg-covering  is  undoubtedly  derived  from  the 
follicle-cells ;  the  inner  layer  is  formed  within  the  fine  limiting 
membrane  of  the  ovum,  though  the  material  which  composes  it 
has  probably  been  derived  also  from  the  follicle-cells.  The  largest 
ova  observed  were  irregularly  oval  in  shape,  measuring  about 
700  X  420  {x. 


106 


ON  SOME  ARCTIC  NEMBRTBANS. 


[May  21, 


The  foregoing  account  differs  in  several  points  from  that  given 
by  Burger  ^  for  two  other  species  of  the  genus,  viz.  D.  crassus  and 
D.  cerinus.  In  the  former  species,  whilst  the  ova  are  still  quite 
small,  an  oval  deeply  staining  body  is  found  lying  in  close  proximity 
to  each  of  them.  These  subsequently  increase  in  number,  surround 
the  ovum,  and  later  become  metamorphosed  into  yolk.  At  a 
later  stage,  when  the  ova  are  already  of  considerable  size,  there  is 
developed  around  them  a  delicate  follicular  tissue  like  a  network, 
in  the  meshes  of  which  the  ova  then  lie.  What  the  nature  of  the 
coverings  of  the  ova  are,  and  whether  the  follicular  epithelium 
plays  any  part  in  their  formation,  Biirger  does  not  state. 

The  process  which  occurs  in  D.  horealis  throws  some  light  upon 
tlie  peculiar  nuclear-like  little  bodies  which  give  rise  to  the  yolk 
in  D.  crassus,  and  which  have  also  been  found  by  Hubrecht"  in 
Amphiporus  marioni.  They  are  probably  to  be  regarded  as 
primitive  ova  in  which  the  nucleolus  has  greatly  increased  in  size 
at  the  expense  of  the  rest  of  the  cell,  and  it  seems  plausible  to 
regard  the  enormous  development  of  the  nucleolus  at  the  expense 
of  the  rest  of  such  primitive  ova  as  a  stage  in  their  conversion 
into  yolk.  The  peculiar  behaviour  of  the  follicle-cells  in  D.  horealis 
is  probably  correlated  with  the  relatively  great  size  attained  by 
the  ova  in  this  species.  Whilst  in  D.  crassus  the  nearly  ripe  ova 
measure  144  ju  x  100  jw,,  in  D.  ho^-ealis  thev  attain  the  dimensions 
of  700/ix420/x. 

Gatty  Marine  Laboratory, 
St.  Andrews,  N.B. 

EXPLANATION   OF  THE  PLATES. 

Lettering  in  both  Plates. 


bm.,  basement-membrane. 
cc,  ciliated     canal    of     cerebral 

oi'gan. 
cl.,  cephalic  vascular  loop. 
da.,  cephalic  lacuna. 
coTff.,  cerebral  organ. 
cts.,  spaces  in  gelatinous  connective 

tissue. 
dbv.,  median  dorsal  blood-vessel. 
dc,  dorsal  nervous  commissure. 
dg.,  dorsal  ganglion. 
ep.,  epithelium. 
exd.,  excretory  duct. 
ext.,  excretory  tubules. 
fr.,  frontal  organ. 
get.,  gelatinous  connective  tissue. 
glcorg.,  glands  of  cerebral  organ. 
gll.,  lateral  glands. 
gs.,  gonidial  sac. 


hs.,  head-slit. 
Ibv.,  lateral  blood-vessel. 
II.,  lateral  blood-lac  ana. 
m.,  mouth. 

■mc.,  circular  muscle-layer. 
mcc.,  circular  muscle-layer  of  cutis. 
ml.,  longitudinal  muscle-layer. 
mlc.,  longitudinal   muscle-layer   of 

cutis. 
mlo.,  outer     longitudinal     muscle- 
layer. 
(US.,  oesophagus. 
ps.,  proboscis-sheath. 
rd.,  rhynchocoelomic  diverticulum. 
rde.,  expansioiis  of  rhynchocoelomic 
diverticula. 
ss.,  nervous  side-stem. 
vc,  ventral  brain  commissure. 
vg.,  ventral  ganglion. 


»  marks  point  vrhere  the  median  blood-vessel  leaves  the  proboscis-sheath. 


1  Zeitsch.  fiir  wiss.  Zool.  50  Bd.  1890,  p.  243,  and  pi.  x. 
^  '  Challenger '  Reports,  vol.  ix.  (the  Nemertea)  p.  120. 


p.  z .  s.  1901,  -^oiiiPi.vin. 


«%Vk    '-«k. 


.-^  ^' 


^  E 


M  P.Parker  llth. 


JVNATOMY     OF     COGI_A. 


Ps-rksv  ii  "West  imp. 


p.  Z.  S.  1901,  -v-olJI.Pl.IX. 


,4''"^^/1p^ 


M.P.PaAei-latV.. 


Fa-Tker  &  "West  imp. 


ji^lSTATOMY     OF     COGIA. 


p.  Z.  S.  1901,  -7-ol.II.Pl.X. 


MP  Parker  Titk. 


Parker  &  "West  imp. 


j^intatomy   of   cqgia.. 


p.  Z.  S.   1901,   •^^ol.3I.Pl.XI 


MP  Parker  lith. 


-Cxt. 

V.Ac 
A    Er 


-Bph. 


Packer  &'West  imp. 


AlsTATOMY     OF     COGIA.. 


1901.]  ON  THE  ANATOMY  OF  COGTA  BEETICEPS.  107 

Plate  VI. 

Figs.  1,  2,  &  3.  Cerebratulus  greenlandiciis  (p.  99).  Sections  through  cerebral 
organ  and  neighbouring  parts,  taken  at  intervale  of  about  50  p.     X  45. 

Fig.  4.  I)repano2)horus  borealis  (p.  95).  Section  through  i-hynchocoelomic  diver- 
ticulum at  the  point  where  it  gives  off  an  expansion.  Enlarged  view 
of  *  in  text-fig.  3,  p.  98.     X  85. 

The  minute  structure  of  the  cerebral  organ  is  not  shown. 

5.  B.  borealis.     Section  through  a  gonad.     X  45. 

6.  Amphiporus  thompsoni  (p.  97).     Dorsal  view  of  anterior  end.     X  f . 

7.  B.  borealis.     Dorsal  view  of  anterior  end.     X  1. 

Plate  VII. 

Fig.  8.  Ajnphiporus   thompsoni.      Schematic    reconstruction    of  anterior  end, 
showing  the  relations  of  the  various  systems.     The  alimentary  canal, 
proboscis,  and  its  sheath  are  omitted.     The  vascular  system  is  more 
arched  than  shown  here  (c/.  text-fig.  1,  p.  91).     X  10. 
9.  A.  arcticus  (p.  94).     Similar  to  fig.  8.     X  10. 

10.  Cerebratulus  greenlandiciis.     Similar  to  fig.  8.      X  5. 

11.  A.  paiclinus.     Transverse  section  through  oesophagus,  just  before  the 

first  appearance  of  the  blind  gut.      X  45. 

12.  C.  greenlandieiis.     Section  through  skin  of  oesophageal  region.      X  85. 

13.  B.  borealis.     Very  young  stage  of  ovum.      X  410. 

14.  B.  borealis.     Slightly  later  stage  than  fig.  13.      The  functional  ovum 

has  become  surrounded  by  several  primitive  ova,  in  one  of  which  the 
nucleus  and  its  contained  nucleolus  are  seen,  whilst  in  others  the  large 
nucleolus  alone  can  be  made  out  as  a  deeply  staining  body.     X  410. 

15.  B.  borealis.     Older  ovum,  in  which  the  greater  part  is  surrounded  by 

waterspout  follicle-cells.  At  the  lower  pole  the  follicle-cells  and  the 
outer  surface  of  the  ovum  are  forming  the  egg-coverings.     X  85. 

16.  B.  borealis.     Enlarged  view  of  a  few  follicle-cells  from  the  ovum  shown 

in  preceding  figure.     X  410. 

17.  B.  borealis.     Portion  of  the  outer  wall  of  a  nearly  ripe  ovum,  showing 

the  two  coverings  of  the  egg  enclosing  the  yolk  {y).     X  410. 


3.  On  the  Anatomy  of  Cogia  breviceps.  By  W,  Blaxland 
Benham,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.Z.S.,  Professor  of  Biology  in 
the  University  of  Otago,  New  Zealand. 

[Eeceived  April  30,  1901.] 

(Plates  VIII.-XI. ') 

(Text-figures  7  &  8.) 

At  the  end  of  August,  1900, 1  received  information  that  a  "young 
Sperm- Whale "  had  come  ashore  at  Parakanui,  a  spot  about 
12  miles  north-east  of  Dunediu.  Next  morning,  accompanied  by 
the  museum  taxidermist,  I  went  down  by  train  to  the  spot,  where 
I  ascertained  that  the  whale  had  been  thrown  ashore  just  a  week 
previously.  We  found  the  carcase  at  about  high-water  mark, 
nearly  entirely  covered  by  sand,  which  had  preserved  the  animal 
from  decomposition,  so  that  the  carcase  did  not  present  the 
unpleasant  odou.r  usual  to  deceased  whales.  Unfortunately,  how- 
ever, the  animal  had  been  much  cut  about ;  but  I  at  once  saw  that 

^  For  explanation  of  the  Plates,  see  p.  132. 


108  PRor.  w.  B.  BBisrHAM  ON  THE  [May  2l, 

it  was  not  a  "  young  Sperm- Whale,"  but  a  full-grown  "  Small 
Cachalot,"  or  Cogia  hrevicejys.  The  head  had  been  most  skilfully 
disarticulated  from  the  cervical  vertebrae,  and  remained  close  to 
the  body ;  the  lower  jaw  had  been  cut  away  and  was  missing.  I 
found,  later,  that  it  was  in  the  possession  of  an  old  whaler,  who 
intended  to  keep  it  as  a  curio,  but  who  parted  with  it  for  a  small 
consideration. 

The  "  flukes,"  too,  had  been  cat  off  and  carried  away  by  the 
finder  of  the  whale ;  while  much  of  the  flesh  of  the  head  and  trunk, 
including  the  dorsal  fin,  had  also  been  removed  for  the  purpose  of 
extracting  the  oil.  I  subsequently  obtained  the  flukes,  but  the 
damage  done  to  the  carcase  prevented  me  making  any  observations 
of  value  on  the  contour  of  the  body  or  its  coloration,  or  accurate 
measurements.  This  is  the  more  to  be  regretted,  as  I  gather  from 
Flower  and  Lydekker's  '  Mammals  '  that  some  uncertainties  exist 
as  to  these  matters. 

The  abdominal  wall  had  been  cut  through  and  the  viscera  were 
scattered  about  on  the  sand  near  the  body  ;  the  thorax,  also,  had 
been  opened  and  the  lungs  and  heart  abstracted. 

Thus  I  obtained  the  entire  skeleton,  which  together  with  some 
of  the  viscera  were  packed  in  barrels  and  taken  to  Dunedin.  At 
the  time  I  was  unaware  of  the  rarity  of  Cogia,  otherwise  I  should 
have  taken  care  to  preserve  all  the  viscera,  and  to  have  taken 
fuller  measurements,  even  though  these  would  have  been  imperfect. 
The  only  organs  that  I  removed  for  study  were  the  larynx, 
stomach,  and  penis,  while  the  narial  canals  remained  adherent  to 
the  skull. 

An  account  of  the  larynx  I  have  already  presented  to  the 
Society,  it  agrees  closely  with  that  of  other  Odontocetes.  The 
present  contribution  deals  with  the  remaining  organs. 

I,  External  Features. 

The  general  form  of  the  body  of  Cogia  has  been  described  and 
figured  by  Owen  [7]  for  specimens  from  India,  and  Von  Haast  [2] 
gave  an  account  of  a  specimen  from  New  Zealand  seas.  These 
are  the  only  accounts  accessible  to  me. 

The  dorsal  surface  of  the  Parakanui  specimen  was  black  ;  the 
under  surface  dirty  white  with  a  tinge  of  yellow  in  it,  especially 
noticeable  on  the  under  surface  of  the  pectoral  fin.  Von  Haast 
says  the  "  belly  is  greyish  white";  Owen  states  (from  Eliott's 
MS.)  that  the  lower  surface  was  "  pinkish."  Possibly  these  varia- 
tions from  pure  white — which  is  usual  in  the  Cetacea — -are  due  to 
postmortem  changes.  In  a  young  Eorqual  that  reached  me  in  a 
perfectly  fresh  condition  early  in  August,  within  48  hours  after 
its  death,  the  belly  was  pure  snow-white,  but  after  exposure  to 
the  air  for  a  couple  of  days  the  white  took  on  a  bluish  tinge. 

The  total  length  of  this  specimen  of  Cogia,  which  is  a  full- 
grown  male,  was  8  feet  9  inches,  measured  in  a  straight  line  from 
the  tip  of  the  snout  to  the  bottom  of  the  notch  in  the  flukes. 


1901.]  AN  ATOMY  OF  COGIA  BEEVICEPS.  109 

This  total  is  obtained  by  adding  together  the  measurements  of  the 
separated  head  (1  ft.  4  in.),  trunk  (5  ft.  10  in.),  and  tail  (1  ft. 
7  in.) ;  it  is,  therefore,  liable  to  a  small  error  owing  to  shrinkage 
of  the  flesh,  and  to  the  fact  that  the  tape  would  follow  slightly 
different  lines  and  curves  in  the  three  separate  pieces,  instead  of 
one  line  ;  but  the  error  cannot  be  greater  than  an  inch  or  two 
one  way  or  the  other. 

At  any  rate  this  specimen  is  considerably  longer  than  the  female 
described  by  Von  Haast,  which  was  7  ft.  2  in.  long,  and  much 
longer  than  Owen's  Indian  male,  which  was  only  6  ft.  8  in. 
Plower  and  Lydekker  state  that  the  adult  may  attain  a  length  of 
10  feet,  and  the  head  is  about  one-sixth  of  the  length  of  the  body  ; 
from  the  above  it  is  seen  that  the  head  is  contained  in  the  total 
length  6|  times,  or  in  body  alone  5|  times. 

This  was  the  only  measurement  I  took,  for  naturally  the  cir- 
cumference &c.  could  not  be  measured  with  anything  approaching 
accuracy. 

The  pectoral  fin  measured  14  inches  in  a  straight  line  from  base 
to  tip,  or  15  inches  along  the  curved  anterior  margin  ;  it  was 
5  inches  across  the  oblique  base  of  attachment,  5|  across  the 
widest  part. 

The  shape  of  the  fin  does  not  differ  much  from  that  usual  in 
the  Cetacea  ;  its  anterior  margin  is  slightly  conves ;  its  posterior 
margin  is  angulate,  the  rounded  angle  being  enclosed  by  a  short 
proximal  limb  of  4  inches,  and  a  longer  distal  limb  of  8  inches, 
which  is  slightly  excavated. 

The  colour  of  the  fin  was  very  dark  grey  on  the  upper  surface 
— probably  black  in  life  ;  for  in  the  young  Eorqual  the  jet-black 
of  the  fresh  animal  gave  place  to  a  dark  grey  after  exposure  to  air 
for  a  few  days.  The  under  surface  of  the  flipper  was  yellowish 
white ;  but  the  dark  tint  of  the  upper  surface  passes  round  the 
margin  and  comes  on  to  the  lower  surface,  so  that  there  is  a  narrow 
black  margin  nearly  all  the  Avay  round. 

The  '■^JluJces"  measured  2  ft.  3  in.  from  tip  to  tip  ;  the  notch 
was  5|  in.  deep,  i.  e.  from  a  line  joining  the  tips  ;  and  the  distance 
from  the  base  of  origin  of  the  flukes  across  the  lobe,  parallel  to 
the  long  axis  of  the  body,  is  12  inches  ;  the  flukes  are  black  below. 

II.  The  Nasal  Passages. 

The  top  of  the  head  had  suffered  like  the  other  parts  of  the 
body,  and  much  of  the  flesh  anterior  to  the  blowhole  had  been  cut 
away.  There  is  but  a  single  blowhole  as  in  other  Odontocetes  ; 
it  is  not  median  in  position  nor  symmetrical  in  shape. 

It  is  a  crescentic  slit,  situated  just  to  the  left  of  the  median 
line,  W'ith  the  horns  of  the  crescent  directed  backwards  and  slightly 
towards  the  middle  line  (PI.  VIII.  fig.  1),  so  that  its  concavity  is 
backwards  \ 

^  In  the  Porpoise,  Grampus,  and  others,  the  blowhole,  situated  on  the  right 
side  of  the  top  of  the  head,  has  its  concaTity  forwards.  In  'Physeter  it  is  on 
the  left  side,  slightly  sigmoid  and  near  the  anterior  end  of  the  snout. 


110  PROF.  W.  B.  BENHAM  OlS"  THE  [May  21, 

It  is  situated  about  12  inches  from  the  tip  of  the  snout ;  but  as 
the  measurement  was  made  after  the  removal  of  skin  and  blubber, 
it  is  probable  that  the  fissure  containing  the  blowhole  has  shrunk 
backwards  a  little ;  for  in  Owen's  6-foot  specimen  the  blowhole  is 
only  5  inches  from  the  tip  of  the  snout. 

The  distance  between  the  horns  of  the  crescent  is  2|  inches ;  the 
inner  horn  terminates  (1|  inch)  further  forwards  than  the  outer. 

The  blowhole  is  the  external  opening  of  a  "  vestibule "  into 
which  open  the  two  narial  canals,  of  which  the  right  is  much  the 
smaller.  The  anterior  wall  of  the  opening  has  a  sharply  marked 
edge  or  lip  (PI.  VIII.  fig.  2,  a),  especially  well-marked  towards  the 
left,  where  it  overlaps  the  posterior  lip  or  "  opercular  fold  "  (d). 
The  hinder  limit  of  the  blowhole  is,  however,  quite  ill-defined  ;  the 
surface  of  the  head  slopes  gradually  downward  and  disappears 
behind  the  above  lip,  forming  a  kind  of  flap  or  operculum. 

On  a  closer  examination  of  this  apertm^e,  it  is  seen  to  be  im- 
perfectly divisible  into  two  portions :  a  small  portion  on  the  right 
(b)  just  above  the  median  line,  and  a  much  longer  curved  slit  (a) 
forming  the  greater  moiety  of  the  cresceuu ;  the  separation  is  indi- 
cated by  an  interruption  in  the  lip,  for  over  a  short  space  (c)  the 
anterior  limit  of  the  blowhole  slopes  gradually  forwards  to  pass 
below  the  operculum  (d). 

On  pressing  apart  the  lip  and  operculum,  or  by  cutting  across 
the  lip,  the  crescentic  blowhole  is  found  to  open  into  a  shallow, 
but  wide  chamber — the  "  spiracular  sac  "  as  Von  Baer  termed  it  in 
Dolphins,  or  the  "  vestibule  "  as  I  would  term  it  here.  This  is 
lined  by  a  blaek-pigmented  epithelium  continuous  with  that 
covering  the  head,  and  passing  downwards  into  the  narial  canal 
on  the  left  side. 

The  greater  part  of  this  vestibule  is,  in  reality,  the  upper  end 
of  the  large  left  narial  canal,  its  floor  is  highly  convex  owing  to 
the  existence  of  a  very  prominent  fleshy  "valve"  (PL  VIII.  fig.  3,  E) 
which  is  developed  on  the  mesial  wall  of  the  canal,  but  which,  as 
it  approaches  the  top  of  the  head,  assumes  a  transverse  and  nearly 
horizontal  position.  This  valve  becomes  less  convex  as  it  approaches 
the  surface  of  the  head,  with  which  it  is  continuous  at  the  spot  c, 
where  the  above-mentioned  interruption  in  the  lip  of  the  spiracle 
occurs.  This  valve  reduces  the  cavity  of  the  vestibule  to  a  horse- 
shoe-shaped cleft,  the  limbs  of  which  pass  anteriorly  and  posteriorly 
towards  the  right ;  the  bend  lying  towards  the  left,  where  the  cleft 
deepens  suddenly  to  form  the  left  narial  canal. 

In  the  Delphinidse  this  "  spiracular  sac  "  or  vestibule  is  described 
by  Murie  [4]  as  possessing  in  its  fioor  a  pair  of  smooth,  convex, 
obliquely  transverse  cushions ;  the  above-mentioned  "  valve '' 
appears  to  correspond  with  the  left  of  these,  but  I  find  no  mention, 
in  either  of  the  works  consulted,  of  the  continuance  of  this  con- 
vexity down  into,  and  along  the  wall  of,  the  narial  canal  itself. 
Indeed,  in  these  papers,  more  attention  has  been  paid  to  the 
muscular  arrangements  than  to  details  as  to  the  dispositions  of  the 
sacs  and  canals. 


1901.]  AXATOMY  OF  COGIA  BEEVICEPS.  Ill 

Turning  our  attention  to  the  posterior  cleft  on  the  floor  of  the 
vestibule,  it  is  seen  to  be  a  groove  between  the  convex  floor  (valve) 
and  the  hinder  lip  of  the  blowhole  {d\  which  here  bends  suddenly 
downwards  to  form  a  vertical  wall  to  the  vestibule  :  on  pressing  it 
backwards,  a  horizontally  disposed  furrow  (g)  is  seen  about  half- 
way down — a  furrow  which  is  about  |  inch  deep  and  nearly  co- 
extensive with  the  length  of  the  wall ;  it  appears  to  be  connected 
with  the  working  of  the  lip  itself.  At  the  extreme  right  corner 
of  the  cleft  is  the  small  entrance  to  the  right  narial  canal,  having 
the  form  of  a  horizontal  slit,  aboiit  |  inch  in  length,  bounded  by 
smooth,  inconspicuous  lips  (fig.  4).  The  "  spiracular  sac,"  or 
vestibule,  then  receives  both  right  and  left  narial  canals,  which 
are  extx'emely  disproportionate  in  size  and  are  very  different  in 
structure. 

The  left  narial  canal  being  the  more  conspicuous,  and  having  a 
simple  course,  may  be  considered  first.  From  the  vestibule  it 
passes  outwards  for  a  brief  space,  and  then  abruptly  downwards 
with  a  slightly  inward  bend  towards  the  median  line,  to  reach  the 
bones  of  the  facial  region  of  the  skull ;  it  passes  through  these  to 
open  into  the  naso-palatine  canal.  The  "  valve  "  which  was  seen 
in  the  vestibule  is  continued  throughout  the  entire  length  of  the 
canal  as  a  well-marked  convex,  typhlosole-like  ridge  on  its  mesial 
wall,  and  is  visible  at  the  lower  opening  of  the  canal  into  the  naso- 
palatine canal  (Pi'.  VIII.  fig.  5 ;  PL  IX.  fig.  9). 

This  left  narial  canal,  then,  is  quite  simple ;  but  it  is  otherwise 
with  the  right  canal,  which  is  complicated  by  the  existence  of  a 
couple  of  dilatations  to  form  "  spiracular  chambers,"  similar  to 
those  occurring  in  the  Delphinidae,  from  which,  however,  they 
differ  in  two  or  three  particulars. 

The  right  "  nostril "  is  a  small  slit-like  orifice  bounded  by  thin 
muscular  lips  ;  it  leads  into  a  short  canal  which  passes  across  the 
middle  line,  obliquely  forwards,  downwards,  and  to  the  right.  It 
terminates  in  a  considerable  chamber,  but  on  its  way  gives  rise  to 
branches  that  pass  towards  the  left,  and  subdivide  to  form  a  number 
of  narrow,  anastomosing  tubules,  lying  in  front  of  the  left  narial 
canal  (PI.  IX.  fig.  9,  n). 

The  chamber,  or  upper  chamber  {A)  as  it  may  be  called  to 
distinguish  it  from  a  second  one  lower  down,  is  irregularly  ovoid 
in  shape,  with  its  longer  diameter  transversely  disposed;  this 
longer  axis  measures  about  5  inches  ;  its  shorter  axis,  or  height,  is 
3  inches.  The  chamber  is  situated  immediately  below  the  fibro- 
muscular  dermis,  and  is  lined  by  a  smooth,  greyish  membrane  ;  its 
wall  is  not  muscular,  and  relatively  thin,  though  it  is  embedded  in 
the  muscles  of  this  region. 

Its  roof  is  formed  of  a  series  of  trabecul^e  having,  in  general,  a 
transverse  direction ;  these,  by  lateral  branches,  connect  with  one 
another,  so  as  to  form  a  kind  of  network,  leaving  shallow  pits 
between  the  trabeculse.  Some  of  these  are  deeper,  and  lead  into 
short  ceecal  tubes  projecting  backwards  ;  whilst  lower  down  on  the 
binder  wall  are  a  few  larger,  circular  apertures  leading  into  similar 


112  PEOF,  W.  B.  BENHAM  OlST  THE  [May  2] , 

tubes,  most  of  wliicli  lie  behiud  the  chamber  itself.  These  tubes, 
as  well  as  those  that  are  in  connection  with  the  canal  itself,  are 
similarly  lined  with  a  greyish  membrane. 

On  the  floor  of  the  chamber,  towards  the  median  line,  is  a 
prominent  aperture,  somewhat  curved,  and  provided  with  raised 
black  lips.  I  took  this,  at  first,  for  the  true  right  nostril,  but,  for 
reasons  given  below,  this  is  probably  not  the  correct  interpretation. 
This  aperture  leads  into  a  short  canal,  curved  towards  the  right, 
and  then  bending  backwards  towards  the  left,  which  in  its  turn 
opens  intoalovser  and  larger  spiracular  chamber  ^  This  lower 
chamber  (PI.  IX.  fig.  7,  B)  rests,  by  its  posterior  wall  and  its  sides, 
against  the  bones  of  the  cranial  region  of  the  skull ;  its  anterior 
wall  (/S),  however,  is  soft,  reddish,  thick  and  muscular,  and  is 
evidently  capable  of  considerable  movement.  The  chamber  is 
irregularly  pyriform,  the  dorso-ventral  diameter  being  much  greater 
than  its  transverse  diameter ;  it  is,  too,  wider  near  the  dorsal  than 
at  the  ventral  end.  The  longer  axis  is  not  truly  dorso-ventral,  but 
is  somewhat  oblique,  the  lower  end  being  slightly  more  forwards 
than  the  upper,  which  is  situated  behind  the  upper  chamber  (see 
diagram,  PI.  IX.  fig.  9).  The  roof  is  cojieave  and  asymmetrical ;  the 
anterior  and  posterior  walls  meet  beloM'  at  an  angle,  where  it  is 
apparently  closed ;  but  in  the  middle  of  the  angular  furrow  the 
reddish  colour  of  the  anterior  wall  becomes  feebly  pigmented  with 
black,  and  here,  by  closer  inspection,  is  to  be  found  a  very  small 
aperture — about  |  inch  in  diameter — which  leads  by  a  short  canal 
into  the  nasopalatine  canal  (PI.  VIII.  fig.  5,j;  PI.  IX.  fig.  9,  c). 

It  is  stated  by  Owen,  in  his  '  Comparative  Anatomy,'  that  the 
right  bony  canal  in  the  skull  does  not  transmit  a  narial  canal :  this 
is  an  error  (which  may  probably  have  already  been  pointed  out). 
The  right  narial  canal  is  perfectly  evident,  though  much  smaller 
than  the  left  one. 

This  lower  chamber  (PI.  IX.  figs.  7,  9,  B)  is  about  twice  the  size 
of  the  upper  chamber,  or  even  greater;  but  I  omitted  to  make  a 
note  of  the  dimensions.  It  is  lined  by  a  membrane  that  differs  in 
character  in  the  antei-iorand  posterior  walls.  The  former  is  lined 
by  a  smooth,  reddish  "  mucous  membrane,"  the  latter  and  the  sides 
and  roof  are  covered  by  a  shining,  grey,  tough  membrane,  covered 
with  small  closely-set  papillae,  which  I  at  first  mistook  for  some 
kind  of  parasite. 

These  papillae  (PI.  IX.  fig.  8)  are  vascular.  Each  is  short  and 
somewhat  club-shaped,  measui'ing  ^  inch  in  height  by  ^  inch 
across.  They  are  most  numerous,  and  quite  densely  aggregated, 
on  the  roof,  and  the  upper  part  of  the  hind  wall  and  sides  :  lower 
down  they  become  sparser  (in  the  drawing  they  are  not  represented 
in  their  true  abundance). 

The  junction  of  the  side  walls  with  the  back  of  the  chamber 
is  crossed  by  a  number  of  narrow  tendinous  strands,  some 
of  which  are  covered  with  papillae.     The  microscoine  structure  of  a 

^  This  short  canal  has  been  severed,  but  no  part  appears  to  hare  been 
removed. 


1901.]  ANATOMY  OF  COGIA  BBEVICEPS.  113 

papilla  is  as  follows: — it  is  more  or  less  circular  in  transverse 
section ;  its  epithelium  consists  of  about  three  layers  of  cells,  the 
most  superficial  of  which  are  well-defined,  ref  ringent,  and  somewhat 
cuticular  in  aspect.  The  nuclei  of  these  cells  are  not  much  more 
flattened  than  those  of  the  deeper  cells,  which  are  arranged  with 
the  long  axis  parallel  to  the  surface ;  the  upper  ones,  however,  are 
smaller  and  take  the  stain  less  deeply  than  the  others.  The  bulk 
of  the  wall  of  the  papilla  is  formed  of  concentric  fibres  of  elastic 
connective  tissue,  which  is  somewhat  looser  externally  than 
internally.  Below  this  comes  white  fibrous  tissue  penetrated 
by  numerous  capillaries  and  small  blood-vessels.  The  centre  of 
the  papilla  is  occupied  by  a  cavity  (?  lymphatic)  in  which  an 
unstainable  coagulum  was  noted :  it  is  lined  by  a  layer  of  flat 
cells. 

Towards  the  lower  end  of  the  papillae  the  white  fibrous  tissue 
becomes  more  abundant,  and  passes  gradually  into  that  of  the 
membrane  lining  the  chamber,  while  the  elastic  tissue  decreases. 

I  have  no  suggestions  to  make  as  to  the  functions  of  these 
peculiar  structures. 

The  muscles  that  act  upon  these  chambers  in  the  Delphinidae 
have  been  fully  described  by  Sibson,  Murie,  and  others :  un- 
fortunately the  head  of  my  specimen  was  too  much  injured  to 
allow  me  to  trace  them  out  in  Gogia. 

Remarks. — A  comparison  of  the  foregoing  account  of  the 
spiracular  sacs  in  Gogia  with  that  given  by  various  authors  for 
members  of  the  family  Delphinidse  brings  out  several  differences 
which  seem  to  be  of  importance. 

In  the  Delphinidae  the  single  blowhole  opens  into  a  "  vestibule  " 
or  spiracular  cavity,  which  is  in  communication  with  (1)  the  two 
narial  canals,  and  (2)  from  four  to  seven  diverticula,  that  are 
known  as  "  spiracular "  pouches  or  sacs.  (The  nomenclature  of 
the  parts  is  in  need  of  revision.) 

In  Gogia  the  "  vestibule"  is  extremely  reduced  ;  indeed  it  seems 
rather  to  be  represented  by  the  upper,  slightly  dilated  end  of  the 
left  narial  canal,  into  which  the  small  right  narial  canal  has  come 
to  open,  having  pushed  its  way  across  the  middle  line  in  order  to 
reach  it.  The  "  spiracular  chambers  "  are  here  dilatations  in  the 
course  of  the  right  narial  canal :  they  are  unpaired  and  are  not 
diverticula. 

This  being  the  case,  it  seems  impossible  to  homologise  them 
with  the  functionally  similar  pouches  in  the  Delphinidse.  At  the 
same  time  I  must  confess  that  the  only  accounts  to  which  I  have 
access  ai'e  those  of  Sibson  [10],  Murie  [4, 5, 6  j,  and  Struthers  [12],  in 
addition  to  that  by  Huxley  in  his  '  Manual.'  Of  these,  the  first  gives 
a  detailed  description  of  the  relations  of  the  various  sacs  to  the 
"  spiracular  vestibule "  and  to  the  narial  canals ;  and  he  gives 
figures  of  actual  dissections  in  illustration  thereof.  Murie  deals 
chiefly  with  the  muscular  arrangements,  and  discusses  the 
homologies  of  the  apparatus  with  structures  present  in  other 
mammals  ;  while  Struthers's  account  is  in  a  footnote,  and  merely 

Peoc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  VIII.  8 


114  PROF.  W.  B.  BENHAM  ON  THE  [May  21, 

enumerates  the  pouches  present  in  the  White  Whale.  Huxley's 
account  is  descriptive  but  not  illustrated ;  and,  unfortunately,  his 
account  does  not  agree  with  Sibson's  in  regard  to  the  point  of 
origin  of  the  sacs;  so  that  I  am  in  some  doubt  whether  my 
conclusions  as  to  the  interpretation  of  the  "  upper  chamber  "  (A) 
are  correct  or  not.  In  the  Porpoise  there  are  five  pouches,  two 
pairs  and  an  unpaired  one ;  in  the  White  Whale  two  pairs  only  ; 
in  the  Grampus  seven  pouches  in  all. 

According  to  Sibson  the  fire  pouches  in  the  Porpoise  all  com- 
municate W'ith  the  "  vestibule"  above  the  openings  of  the  narial 
canals  into  that  cavity.  He  writes : — "  Connected  with  the 
channel  [i.  e.  vestibule]  that  leads  from  the  external  opening 
[blowhole]  down  to  the  two  bony  conduits  [^.  e.  narial  canals]  is  a 
series  of  pouches."' 

His  figures  indicate,  but  do  not  show  quite  clearly,  that  the 
pouches  are  outgrowths  of  the  vestibule,  with  w-hich  they  com- 
mimicate  above  the  entrance  of  the  narial  canals. 

On  the  other  hand,  Huxley  in  his  '  Manual '  describes  for  the 
Porpoise  the  "  spiracular  chamber "  (i.  e.  vestibule)  as  receiving 
the  two  nasal  passages,  the  openings  of  which  are  guarded  by 
valves  ;  and  then  goes  on  to  say  that  "  Each  nasal  passage,  after 
it  ceases  to  be  surrounded  by  bone,  sends  off  two  diverticula,  one 
forward  and  one  backward." 

The  accounts  given  by  the  other  authors  referred  to  do  not  aid 
us  in  deciding  which  of  these  two  accounts  is  correct.  But, 
apart  from  this  point  of  disagreement,  all  accounts  agree  that  the 
various  pouches  are,  in  the  Delphinida?,  not  dilatations  of  the 
canal  but  diverticula,  either  of  the  narial  canal  or  of  the 
"  vestibule." 

With  regard  to  the  "  upper  chamber  "  in  the  present  Whale,  it 
is  a  possible  view  that  it  is  the  "  vestibule,"  asymmetrically 
expanded  towards  the  right  side,  receiving  the  large  left  narial 
canal  near  the  external  '•  blowhole,"  and  the  small  right  narial 
canal  deeper  down :  in  other  words,  that  the  slit  carried  by  the 
prominent  papilla  in  the  floor  of  the  "  upper  chamber "  is  the 
true  right  nostril.  The  chief  facts  that  seem  to  me  to  be  opposed 
to  this  contention  is  that  this  "  upper  chamber  "  has  a  thin,  grey 
wall,  and  is  devoid  of  that  black  pigmentation  that  appears  to 
characterize  the  "  vestibule  "  in  Delphinidse ;  and,  secondly,  there 
is  no  convex  valve  on  the  floor  of  the  "  upper  chamber,"  as  we 
should  expect  if  it  were  a  "  vestibule." 

But,  however  this  may  be,  there  is  no  uncertainty  about  the 
lower  one  (B)  :  it  communicates  below  \vith  the  naso-palatine 
canal,  while  above  it  opens,  by  a  canal,  into  the  upper  chamber : 
it  is  a  dilatation  in  the  course  of  the  narial  canal.  So  that,  which- 
ever view  is  taken  as  to  the  upper  chamber,  it  is  clear  that  in 
Oogia  there  are  tw^o  asymmetrically  placed  sacs,  which  though 
physiologically,  no  doubt,  corresponding  with  the  series  of  paired 
spiracular  sacs  in  the  Delphinidse,  are  morphologically  different. 
I  have    therefore    avoided    the    use   of   the    descriptive    terms 


1901.]  ANATOMY  or  COGIA  BREVIOEPS.  115 

"  maxillary  "  aud  "  premaxillary,''  that  Murie  uses  in  describing 
the  analogous  chambers  in  that  family. 

III.  The  Buccal  Cavity. 

The  lower  jaw  having  been  removed,  the  skull  disarticulated, 
and  the  larynx  severed  from  its  position,  I  am  unable  to  make 
any  remarks  upon  the  tongue  or  pharynx. 

The  tough  gum  on  each  side  was  provided  with  13  shallow  pits 
for  the  reception  of  the  13  teeth  borne  by  the  corresponding 
ramus  of  the  lower  jaw.  Further,  each  premaxilla  bears  a  tooth  : 
that  on  the  right  side  was  sufficiently  long  to  project  for  ^  inch 
beyond  the  gum  ;  but  the  left  tooth  could  only  be  felt ;  it  had 
not  been  "  cut."  This  premaxillary  tooth  was  about  1|  inches 
from  the  anterior  end  of  the  snout ;  it  is  conical  and  slightly 
curved,  with  the  point  directed  backwards. 

In  the  loiver  jaw  there  are  thirteen  teeth  on  each  side,  of  the 
shape  usual  in  the  genus ;  that  is,  each  is  a  rather  slender  cone, 
curved,  and  sharply  pointed.  They  are  all  so  arranged  that  the 
points  ai'e  directed  inwards,  and,  with  the  exception  of  the  first, 
slope  slightly  outwards ;  those  in  the  middle  of  the  series  having 
a  greater  slope  than  those  at  the  ends. 

The  front  tooth  projects  |  inch,  and  the  last  |  inch  above  the 
(dried)  gum,  (The  lower  jaw  had  been  removed  and  was 
partially  cleaned  when  I  obtained  it.)  The  series  of  teeth,  or 
"  dental  area,"  measures  b\  inches,  and  the  individual  teeth  are 
separated  by  a  space  of  |  inch,  though  the  two  hindmost  are 
nearer  together. 

The    dental   formula,   then,   for    the    Parakanui   specimen   is 

r|^  =  28,  which  is  the  same  as  that  of  von  Haast's  specimen. 

In  another  skull  in  the  Otago  University  Museum,  obtained 
from  Napier,  on  the  East  coast  of  the  North  Island,  in  1892,  the 

formula  is  j^Eis-     ^^'   is   true   that   the    premaxillary    teeth   are 

absent  in  the  specimen,  and  that  there  are  only  14  teeth 
remaining  on  each  side  of  the  lower  jaw,  the  tip  of  which  has 
been  broken  across  at  the  level  of  the  sockets  of  the  front  teeth ; 
the  sockets  are,  however,  quite  visible  at  the  fracture. 

This  skull  is  rather  larger  than  that  of  the  Parakanui  specimen 
(which  I  hope  to  describe  in  the  future),  and  the  teeth  are  longer 
and  stouter ;  the  anterior  teeth  measuring  |  inch,  the  hinder  ones 
§  inch  above  the  dried  gam.  The  dental  area  measures  6|  inches, 
allowing  for  the  front  teeth ;  and  the  dental  interval  is  |  inch, 
except  for  the  hinder  3  teeth,  which  are  separated  by  a  space  of 
only  -^  inch ;  these  last  teeth  have  their  points  turned  backwards, 
though  whether  this  is  dae  to  the  shrinkage  and  distortion  of 
the  gum  in  drying  I  am  unable  to  say. 

I  have  referred  to  this  skull,  since  in  Plower  and  Lydekker's 
'  Mammals'  it  is  stated  that  Cogia  has  9  to  12  teeth  in  the  lower 
jaw.     Owen  gives  9  for  the  Indian  specimen.     I  have  not  access 


116  PROI'.  W.  B.  BENHAM  ON  THE  [May  21, 

to  other  accounts,  but  it  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  three  specimens 
described  from  New  Zealand  have  each  more  than  the  above 
maximum.  Moreover,  Owen  states  (p.  41)  that  "  the  teeth  are 
small,  straight,  conical,  obtuse,  not  exceeding  8  lines  in  length," 
&c.  It  is,  I  understand,  generally  believed  that  there  is  but  one 
species  of  this  Small  Cachalot ;  it  is  therefore  worth  noting  these 
small  differences. 

The  soft  folate  had  been  partially  cut  away,  and  the  broad  naso- 
palatal  canal  exposed.  A  short  slit  was  all  that  was  needed  to 
exhibit  the  lower  ends  of  the  narial  canals,  which  are  shown  m 
PI.  VIII.  fig.  5. 

IV.  Alimentary  Tract. 

My  observations  are  incomplete,  as  the  gut  had  been  cut  across, 
close  to  the  stomach,  and  indeed  across  the  narrow  chamber  of  this 
organ.  When  removing  the  viscera — which  were  buried  in  sand— 
this  fact  was  overlooked,  and  the  intestine  with  the  rest  of  the 
stomach  was  left  behind,  so  that  I  am  unable  to  give  measure- 
ments of  the  entire  canal. 

The  hindmost  portion  (about  7  feet)  of  the  intestine  remained 
attached  to  the  body ;  and  at  a  point  about  3  feet  6  inches  from  the 
anus  the  intestine  suddenly  dilates  to  form  a  sac,  filled  with  a  very 
dark-brovrn  fluid,  of  considerable  density,  which,  when  smeared  on 
the  paper  of  my  note-book,  left  a  dark  sepia-coloured  mark. 

Sir  W.  Turner  [15]  describes  a  similar  rich  brown  fluid  in  the 
hind  gut  of  Eisso's  Grampus,  and  suggests  that  it  is  derived 
from  the  sepia  of  the  ink-sacs  of  the  cuttles  on  which  the 
cetacean  had  fed  ;  and  further  explains  the  absence  of  the  dark 
material  in  the  stomach  and  anterior  part  of  the  intestine,  by 
supposing  that  the  ink-bags  pass  uninjured  into  the  posterior 
region  of  the  gut,  where  their  walls  become  dissolved  and  the 
fluid  released.  This  seems  to  be  the  case  in  Cogia,  for  the  small 
intestine  did  not  contain  the  dark  fluid. 

This  specimen  of  Cogia  contained  in  its  stomach  a  great 
quantity  of  cuttle-beaks,  lenses  of  eyes,  and  the  remains  of  the 
pens  of  some  Loligo-like  species,  probably  OmmastrepJies  sloanil ; 
also  some  partially  digested  red  membranes  which  appear  to  have 
been  cylindrical.  Each  bears,  near  one  end,  a  thick,  firm,  white 
patch  on  which,  and  on  the  membrane,  are  horny,  conical  teeth- 
like  structures,  recalling  gizzard-teeth  of  Aplysia,  but  no  dark 
fluid. 

Von  Haast  [2]  states  that  in  the  specimen  studied  by  him,  "  the 
contents  of  the  stomach  consisted  of  a  dark  slimy  matter ;"  and 
noting  the  absence  of  cuttle-beaks,  and  the  small  size  and  the 
position  of  the  mouth,  he  concluded  that  Cogia  is  "  probably  a 
ground-feeder,  perhaps  on  the  smaller  hydroid  polyps."  This 
view  is,  evidently,  negatived  by  the  presence  of  beaks  in  the 
Parakanui  specimen. 

The  stomach  (PI.  IX.  fig.  10),  as  I  have  said,  is  imperfect ;  but 
I  will  describe  so  much  as  remains,  for  in  some  respects  it  confirms 


1901.]  AKATOMY  or  COGIA  BEBVICEPS.  117 

Turner's  accounts  (13, 14)  of  the  organ  in  Odontocetes,  though  it 
diiFers  from  that  of  Porpoise  or  Dolphin,  and  appears  to  agree 
with  that  of  the  Sperm  Whale.  The  oesophagus,  which  is  2 
inches  across  (externally),  is  dilated  below  the  entrance  to  the 
true  stomach,  to  form  a  large  ovoid  pouch  or  "  paunch  "  7  inches 
in  length  and  5  in  breadth  \ 

The  true  stomach  arises  from  the  side  of  the  oesophagus  just 
above  the  commencement  of  the  crop-like  dilatation.  It  has  the 
form  of  a  long  wide  sac,  somewhat  like  a  curved  sausMge,  extending 
beyond  the  end  of  the  paunch,  and  measuring  15  inches  in  a 
straight  line  taken  from  its  anterior  margin  to  the  hindmost  end. 

This  sac  may  be  termed  the  "  cardiac  chamber."  It  presents  a 
"  greater  curvature  "  directed  towards  the  right  side,  and  a  "  lesser 
curvature,"  facing  the  paunch.  Along  the  lesser  curvature  there 
are  two  slight  constrictions,  so  that  this  chamber  seems  to  be 
subdivided;  but  in  reality  it  is  one  great  sac.  The  constrictions 
are  mere  indentations  of  the  wall,  and  there  is  no  corresponding 
fold  of  the  mucous  membrane  internally.  On  the  dorsal  surface 
of  this  cardiac  chamber,  at  about  midway  along  its  length,  and 
close  to  the  lesser  curvature,  there  arises  a  small  sac,  which  soon 
becomes  a  distinct  tube.  Most  unfortunately  this  had  been  cut 
across.  It  is  the  second  chamber  of  the  true  stomach  ;  and  we  are 
at  present  ignorant  of  how  many  chambers  there  are  in  Oogia, 
though  probably  only  these  two.  For  convenience  I  will  term  it 
the  "  pyloric  chamber "  for  reasons  that  will  become  evident 
later. 

This  pyloric  chamber  commences  as  a  depressed,  subcircular, 
thin-walled  swelling  on  the  side  of  the  cardiac  chamber.  It  soon 
becomes  tubular;  but  for  about  4  inches  remains  adherent  to 
the  cardiac  chamber,  then  leaves  it  as  a  free  tube,  one  inch  in 
diameter;  but  only  about  one  inch  of  this  tube  remains  in  the 
specimen. 

The  hardened  and  distended  stomach  was  opened  by  cutting 
windows,  of  convenient  size,  in  the  walls.  The  cardiac  orifice  is 
on  the  side  wall  of  the  oesophagus.  It  is  usually  stated  that  in 
Dolphins  and  other  Cetacea  in  which  a  paunch  is  present,  this 
and  the  cardiac  chamber  communicate  with  the  oesophagus  "  at  the 
same  point,"  thereby  inferring  a  sort  of  bifurcation  of  the  oesophagus ; 
but  in  Cogia  the  cardiac  orifice  (PL  X.  fig.  14)  is  a  wide  oval 
aperture,  about  4  inches  long,  on  the  side  wall  of  the  oesophagus. 
It  is  surrounded  by  a  very  prominent  rounded  ridge  (g),  recalling  a 
sphincter  muscle,  though  it  is  a  fold  of  the  mucous  membrane  and 
the  submucosa  only,  and  the  muscular  coat  is  not  involved.  From 
the  margin  of  this  orifice  the  lining  (h)  of  the  oesophagus  projects 

1  This  and  the  following  measurements  were  obtained  from  the  preserved 
and  not  from  the  fresh  specimen.  The  stomach  and  paunch  having  been  emptied 
of  their  contents  and  thoroughly  washed  with  water,  were  distended  by  filling 
them  with  strong  alcohol,  the  ends  being  tightened  ;  the  alcohol  was  poured  in 
through  a  funnel,  not  injected,  so  that  the  distension  is  not  exaggerated.  The 
whole  was  then  laid  in  strong  alcohol  for  about  four  months  before  I  had  time 
to  examine  them. 


118  PROP.  W.  B.  BENHAM  ON  THE  [May  21, 

into  the  stomach  as  an  irregular  fringe,  or,  as  Huxley  describes  it 
in  the  Porpoise,  as  a  "  prominent  rugose  lip." 

The  communication  between  oesophagus  and  paunch  is  by  M'ay 
of  a  deep  groove  bounded  by  a  couple  of  high  and  thick  folds  {d.cl) 
on  the  outer  wall  of  the  oesophagus.  It  is  similar  to  the  groove 
between  the  oesophagus  and  psalterium  in  the  Cow's  stomach.  It 
is  evident  that  the  paunch  is  a  blind,  downward  prolongation 
of  the  oesophagus,  beyond  the  entrance  of  the  latter  to  the 
stomach. 

The  passage  from,  the  cardiac  to  the  pyloric  chamber  is  between 
two  stout  curved  folds  of  mucosa  and  submucosa,  forming  valves, 
which  only  incompletely  circumscribe  the  aperture.  One  valve, 
the  superior,  is  contiuuous  with  the  surface  of  the  cardiac 
chamber,  and  its  free  edge  is  concave  backwards  ;  the  other,  or 
inferior  valve,  is  at  a  slightly  diiferent  level,  being  the  projection 
forwards  of  the  adherent  wall  of  the  pyloric  chamber ;  this  fold 
is  concave  forwards,  and  its  right  end  overlaps  that  of  the  superior 
valve.  Eurther,  as  part  probably  of  the  apparatus,  there  is  a 
stroug  rounded  ridge  (3  inches  in  length)  in  the  ventral  wall  of 
the  pyloric  chamber,  passing  forwards  and  curving  over  the 
inferior  valve. 

The  mucous  membrane  of  these  parts  exhibit  very  characteristic 
differences,  both  macroscopic  and  microscopic ;  these  have  been 
described  for  some  Cetacea   by  Sir  W.   Turner  in  some   detail 

The  lining  of  the  oesophagus  (PL  IX.  fig.  11),  which  in  the 
preserved  specimen  is  whitish  and  hard  to  the  touch,  is  thrown 
into  labyrinthine  folds,  the  general  trend  of  which  is  transverse. 

In  sections,  the  epithelium  is  seen  to  be  "  stratified,"  consisting 
of  some  6  or  7  layers  of  cells  :  the  nuclei  of  the  deepest  layer  are 
oval  and  closely  set ;  the  upper  ones  are  more  or  less  flattened,  and 
those  on  the  free  surface  quite  flat.  These  last  take  the  stain 
(haematoxylin)  much  more  faintly  than  the  deeper  ones.  The 
surface  of  the  epithelium  is  very  ill-defined  and  irregular,  due 
partly  no  doubt  to  the  manipulation  it  had  undergone ;  though, 
partly,  this  seems  to  be  a  natural  character,  for  even  in  the  deep 
pits  formed  by  the  above-mentioned  foldings,  where  the  tissue 
would  be  less  liable  to  disturbance,  the  epithelium  is  comparatively 
thin.  Moreover,  it  is  everywhere  of  very  irregular  depth,  as  the 
subumucosa  rises  up  into  it  at  intervals  in  such  a  way  that  the 
epithelium  seems  to  dip  downwai-ds  in  the  form  of  solid  columns  ; 
and  I  imagined  that  these  were  tangential  sections  of  small  pits ;  but 
I  failed  even  in  thin  sections  to  determine  the  existence  of  any- 
thing of  the  kind.  I  find  that  Sir  W.  Turner  notices  the  same 
thing  in  the  Porpoise,  and  suggests  that  they  are  "  in  all  probability 
slender  folds  of  the  mucous  membrane,  which  when  vertically 
divided  look  in  sections  as  if  separated  by  papillse  "  of  the  under- 
lying connective  tissue. 

There  are  no  glands,  either  macroscopic  or  microscopic,  in  the 
wall  of  the  oesophagus. 


1901.]  ANATOMY  OP  CO&IA  BBEVICEPS.  119 

Opposite  the  entrance  to  the  cardiac  chamber,  the  mucous  mem- 
brane is  thrown  into  a  few  powerful  longitudinal  folds,  two  of 
which  are  more  prominent  than  the  rest,  about  one  inch  in  height, 
and  delimit  the  groove  that  leads  to  the  paunch.  Below  the  point 
there  are  10  well  marked  ridges,  which  radiate  from  the  groove, 
along  the  wall  of  the  paunch  ;  some  reach  almost  to  the  hinder  end, 
others  die  out  half-way  along.  In  addition  to  these  longitudinal 
folds,  a  few  irregular  ones  originate  from  them  and  pass  in  a 
transverse  direction. 

The  mucous  membrane  (Pi.  X.  fig.  12)  is  in  the  paunch  distinctly 
yellow ;  it  is  marked  by  irregularly  arranged,  straight,  narrow,  and 
shallow  furrows,  appearing  as  lines  crossing  one  another  at 
various  angles,  but  i;here  is  nothing  approaching  the  labyrinthine 
character  seen  in  the  oesophagus. 

Sections  show  that  the  epithelium  is  stratified ;  but  it  is  much 
thicker  than  in  the  oesophagus,  and  more  closely  resembles  the 
epidermis  of  a  mammal  than  the  epidermis  of  part  of  the  gut.  In 
fact,  it  is  from  the  character  of  this  epithelium  that  this  region  is 
recognized  as  being  part  of  the  oesophagus,  and  not  part  of  the  true 
stomach. 

The  epithelium  consists  of  very  well  marked  stratum  mal- 
pighii  and  st.  corneum,  of  about  equal  depth.  The  lowermost 
nuclei  of  the  st.  malpighii  are  oval,  closely  set,  with  the  long  axis 
vertical  to  the  plane  of  the  surface ;  the  others  are  rounder,  till 
immediately  below  the  st.  corneum  the  nuclei  undergo  sudden 
degeneration,  and  are  represented  by  small,  horizontal,  and  almost 
linear  groups  of  deeply  stained  granules  ;  two  to  four  rows  of 
such  cells  exist,  evidently  the  st.  granulosum.  There  is  a  very 
sharp  line  between  them  and  the  overlying  st.  corneum,  which  is 
coloured  yellow  (m  the  sections  that  were  stained  on  the  slide  in 
Delafield's  haematoxyliu)  except  the  outermost  margin,  which  is 
faintly  purple  ;  the  whole  stratum  is  distinctly  "  lamellate,"  with 
small  linear  groups  of  ref  ringent,  unstained  granules  interspersed 
here  and  there  between  the  lamellae. 

The  free  surface  is  slightly  irregular,  the  cells  appear  to  be 
dropping  away,  and  are  somewhat  swollen. 

In  short  the  lining  of  the  paunch  is  a  typical  epidermis. 

The  mucous  membrane  of  the  cardiac  chamber  (PI.  X,  fig.  13)  is 
pinkish,  even  in  the  preserved  stomach  ;  it  is  thrown  into  more 
or  less  pronounced  and  irregular  folds,  and  the  surface  is  furrowed, 
marking  out  rounded  gyri  of  larger  size  than  those  of  the  oesoph- 
agus. Towards  the  hiuder  end  the  membrane  is  smoother.  A  few 
stray  ridges  start  from  the  cardidc  orifice,  but  soon  die  down,  giving 
rise  to  the  above-mentioned  irregular  folds.  In  sections,  the 
epithelium  is  seen  to  be  typically  "  gastric ;  "  it  is  many  times 
thicker  than  that  of  the  paunch,  and  consists  of  closely-set,  long, 
tubular  and  branched  "  peptic  glands."  The  cells  at  the  surface 
had  macerated  off,  but  in  the  deeper  parts  of  the  glands  they, 
though  displaced,  remain  ;  and  the  two  kinds  of  cells — "  chief  "  or 
"  central"  and  oxyatic  or  parietal — are  recognizable. 


120  PROF,  W.  B.  BENHAM  ON  THE  [May  21, 

In  the  pyloric  chamber  "  the  raucous  membrane  is  smooth,  soft, 
and  of  a  darker  red  than  in  the  preceding  chamber.  Sections  show 
that  here,  too,  peptic  glands  occur ;  though  of  a  different  shape  and 
length.  From  the  ill-preserved  state  it  is  difficult  to  give  an 
accurate  detailed  account,  but  ifc  appears  that  the  "  duct  "  of  each 
gland  is  much  longer,  and  the  branching  takes  place  deeper  in  the 
epithelium  than  in  the  cardiac  chamber.  The  mucous  membrane  is 
not  uniformly  thick,  but  in  a  given  section  the  free  surface  describes 
undulations  ;  in  the  thinner  parts  of  the  sections  the  g^lands  consist 
of  one  kind  of  cell  only,  recalling  the  pyloric  glands  of  ordinary 
mammals  ;  but  in  the  thicker  parts  patches  of  glands  occur  which 
show  the  osyutic  cells  quite  plainly,  and  even  in  greater  numbers 
than  in  the  cardiac  chamber. 

Although  figures  are  apt  to  be  misleading,  yet  the  following 
afford  an  idea  of  the  relative  thickness  of  the  mucous  membrane  in 
these  different  parts  : — 

In  oesophagus  it  is  0-025  mm. 
„  paunch  ifc  is  0*37  mm. 
„  cardiac  chamber  it  is  1'5  mm. 
„  pyloric  chamber  it  is  from  0-4  to  0-75  mm. 

BemarJcs. — It  is  well  known  that  in  the  Cetacea  the  "  stomach  " 
consists  of  several  chambers,  and  Sir  W.  Turner  (13,  14)  has 
given  an  account  of  the  arrangements  met  with  in  different  families 
of  the  Order.  It  appears  that  in  the  majority  of  Odontocetes  the 
"  first  chamber "  is  in  reality  a  dilatation  of  the  cesophagus  ;  a 
fact  that  was  recognized  more  than  200  years  ago  by  Edward 
Tyson  [16]  who,  according  to  Turner,  recognized  that  this  first 
compartment  is  "  lined  by  a  continuation  of  its  inward  tunic,  which 
we  now  know  to  be  of  squamous  epithelium,"  so  that  it  seems  to  be 
a  sac-like  dilatation  of  that  tube  ;  or,  in  short,  a  "  paunch."  Only 
in  the  Ziphioids  is  this  paunch  absent;  in  them,  notwithstanding 
the  many  chambers,  all  are  true  gastric  chambers,  lined  by 
glandular  epifchehum.  Although  other  authors,  as  for  example 
Murie  [4]  for  the  Caa'ing  Whale,  compares  this  first  chamber  to  a 
ruminant  paunch,  and  Huxley  in  his  Textbook  (p.  395)  also  speaks 
of  the  first  chamber  as  "  a  kind  of  paunch  lined  by  a  thick  epi- 
thelium "  (see  also  Yf  iedersheiin),  yet  it  appears  that  Turner  was 
the  first  to  investigate  the  character  of  the  mucous  membrane  by 
means  of  microscopic  sections ;  the  literature  at  my  disposal  is 
sparse,  but  Turner  gives  no  reference  to  anyone  who  had  previously 
cut  sections  of  the  stomach-wall. 

It  seems  necessary  to  insist  on  this  fact  that  the  first  chamber  is, 
in  the  majority  of  Cetace:i.,  a  "  paunch "  since  in  some  English 
textbooks,  even  of  recent  years,  the  complex  of  chambers  is  still 
spoken  of  as  "  stomach."  Turner  has  pointed  out,  and  no  doubt 
other  workers  on  the  group  have  done  so,  that  this  'paunch" 
serves  not  merely  for  receiving  and  holding  food,  in  the  way  that  the 
paunch  of  the  Euminant  does,  but  that  there  is  abundant  evidence 
that  the  digestive  juice  is  discharged  from  the  true  stomach  into 


1901.]  ANATOMY  or  COGIA  BEEVICBPS.  121 

this  chamber  ;  for  fish-bones,  cuttle-beaks,  and  other  indigestible 
remains  of  the  food  are  found  in  the  paunch,  and  never  in  the 
stomach  :  that,  in  fact,  it  is  a  "  macerating  chamber  :  "  that  these 
things  are  rejected  through  the  mouth,  just  as  owls  reject  the 
undigested  parts  of  their  food. 

In  view  of  his  own  insistence  on  the  oesophageal  nature  of  this 
first  compartment,  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  Turner  does  not, 
in  his  memoirs,  speak  more  definitely  of  it  as  a  "  paunch  "  and  thus 
draw  attention  to  it  more  strongly  ;  in  his  figures,  for  instance, 
he  labels  it  "  1 "  as  he  also  does  the  first  compartment  of  the 
ziphioid  stomach.  It  may  be  objected  that  "paunch"  is  used  for 
a  particular  part  of  the  ruminant  stomach  ;  that  in  this  no  digestive 
juice  is  poured  on  to  the  food  while  it  is  retained  there  ;  that  it  is 
a  mere  reservoir,  and  not  a  macerating  chamber.  But  according  to 
Prof.  Fleming  (Chauveau's  Comp.  Anat.  1891)  both  the  paunch 
and  the  reticulum  are  lined  by  "  stratified  epithelium,"  and  there- 
fore are  as  much  oesophageal  dilatations  as  the  1st  chamber  of  the 
"  stomach  "  in  Cetacea  ;  they  are  morphologically  similar,  even  if 
physiologically  dissimilar. 

In  these  days  of  '  precise  nomenclature,'  it  is  strange  that  such 
a  word  as  ''  stomach  "  is  so  very  vaguely  employed  for  all  sorts  of 
sacs  :  primarily  used  for  the  digestive  chamber  in  man,  the  meaning 
of  the  woi'd  has  been  extended  to  include  a  variety  of  dilated 
portions  of  the  alimentary  system  in  different  animals,  e.^.,  the 
gizzard  of  the  Crayfish  is  not  a  "  stomach,"  although  frequently  so 
termed,  nor  is  the  paunch  of  Cetacea  or  Ruminants. 

Messieurs  Pilliet  and  Boulart  [8]  have  pointed  out  that  the 
stomach  of  Cetacea  cannot  be  compared  in  detail  with  that  of 
Ruminants  :  but  it  seems  that,  so  far  as  this  first  compartment  is 
concerned,  there  is  a  morphological  resemblance,  and  to  some 
degree  a  physiological  one  \ 

The  true  "stomach"  consists,  as  we  know,  of  a  "pars  cardiaca"aud 
a  "  pars  pylorica  " ;  and  while  both  these  are  present  in  the  Cetacea 
and  Ruminant,  there  is  in  addition  an  oesophageal  paunch.  In  the 
whales,  the  pars  pylorica  and  perhaps  the  pars  eardiaca  may  be 
further  subdivided. 

Returning,  now,  to  Cogia ;  the  mutilated  condition  of  the 
organ  prevents  us  comparing  it  in  detail,  as  I  should  have  wished 
to  do,  with  that  of  other  Odontocetes  ;  but  so  much  as  remains 
indicates  that  it  differs  from  the  stomach  of  the  Delphinidse,  in  the 
fact  that  the  "pyloric  chamber"  (=3rd  chamber  in  the  sense  of 
other  authors)  soon  becomes  free  from  the  wall  of  the  cardiac  (or 
2nd  chamber),  and  is  evidently  the  commencement  of  a  tubular 
region;  whereas  in  Porpoise,  Dolphin,  &c.,  this  "  3rd  chamber" is 
totally  adherent  to  wall  of  the  "  2nd  "  (as  in  Glohicephalus,  where 
Murie  calls  it  the  "  burrowing  passage  "),  or  it  is  globular  in  form, 
whilst  additional  chambers  exist.  Naturally  one  turns  for  elucidation 
to  Physettr  macrocejohalus,  of  which  but  little  seems  to  be  known. 

^  I  have  beeu  unable  to  consult  either  this  or  Mas  Weber's  valuable  work 
in  the  Morph.  Jahrb.  xiii.  1888,  or  Pouchet  and  Beauregard  in  the  original. 


122  PBor.  w.  B.  BENHAM  OK  THE  [May  21, 

I  quote  from  Turner's  memoir  [13],  who  summarizes  the  account 
given  by  Dr.  Jackson  [3]  of  the  stomach  of  the  Sperm  Whale. 
"  The  iirst  cavity  is  nearly  globular,  and  is  lined  by  a 
continuation  of  the  cuticle  and  cutis  from  the  oesophagus.  The 
2nd  cavity  opens  freely  into  both  oesophagas  and  the  iirst  cavity. 
It  is  elongated,  and  the  rugae  on  its  inner  surface  are  nowhere 
strongly  marked.  The  3rd  cavity  is  elongated,  narrow  at  its 
commencement,  but  becomes  dilated  and  curved  upon  itself.  The 
mucous  coat  is  less  rugose  than  in  the  2nd  cavity.  There  is  no 
small  intermediate  chamber  between  the  2nd  and  3rd.  The  3rd 
cavity  opens  into  a  dilatation  by  an  orifice  ^  inch  in  diameter ;  this 
dilatation  ends  in  the  intestine." 

Of  course  by  "  1st  cavity"  is  meant  what  in  his  paper  Turner 
speaks  of  as  "  paunch  ;  "  the  "  2nd  cavity  "  is  the  cardiac  chamber, 
and  the  3rd  cavity  is  the  pyloric  chamber.  Unfortunately,  this 
summary  does  not  enable  us  to  form  a  very  vivid  picture  of  the 
Sperm-whale's  stomach,  as  we  are  not  told  where  the  3rd  chamber 
originates  from  the  2nd,  nor  the  relative  size  of  the  parts  ;  but,  so 
far  as  it  goes,  it  appears  that  Gogia  has  a  stomach  of  the  same  kind. 
At  any  rate,  we  have  the  evidence,  that  Prof.  Turner  desired  to 
have,  that  in  the  Physeteridse  the  ]st  chamber  is  a  pannch. 

According  to  the  account  of  the  Cachalot's  stomach  given  by 
Pouchet  and  Beauregard  [9]  the  "  first  chamber  "  is,  in  its  upper 
part,  lined  by  a  mucous  membrane  similar  to  that  of  the  oesophagus, 
while  in  the  lov^er  part  a  "  gastric  epithelium  "  exists.  Thus  this 
chamber  is  partly  "  paunch,"  partly  cardiac  region  of  stomach. 
It  appears  that  though  the  boundary  between  the  two  kinds  of 
mucous  membrane  is  distinct,  there  is  no  constriction  here. 

The  "  pyloric  chamber  "  is  separated  from  the  two  following  or 
"  duodenal  chambers  "  by  a  short  definite  duct. 

Of  the  two  "  duodenal  chambers,"  the  first  is  lined  by  a  smooth 
mucous  membrane ;  while,  in  the  second,  valvulce  conniventes  are 
present  \ 

Without  access  to  the  original  account,  it  is  difficult  to  correlate 
this  description  with  Jackson's  with  certainty.  But  it  seems  that 
the  "  narrow  commencement "  of  the  3rd  elongated  chamber  of  his 
account  corresponds  to  the  "true  duct"  of  Pouchet  and  Beauregard, 
and  their  "  first  duodenal  chamber "  with  its  smooth  lining  is 
Jackson's  dilated  part  of  the  3rd  chamber. 

There  is  one  point  in  the  above  account  that  is  of  general 
importance,  viz. :  the  absence  of  any  constriction  between  the 
paunch  and  cardiac  region  of  the  stomach.  Have  we,  here,  a 
commencement  of  the  process  by  which  a  part  of  the  stomach 
becomes  modified  to  serve  as  a  receptacle  for  food,  by  the  down- 
growth  of  the  oesophageal  membrane  ?  or,  is  an  original  paunch 
being  invaded  by  gastric  epithelium  ? 

^  But  it  is  not  clear  from  the  abstract  in  the  Zool.  Jaliresher.  whether  the 
2nd  "cavite"  is  the  pyloric,  or  whether  a  third  "chambre"  (pyloric)  also 
exists. 


1901.]  ANATOMY  or  COGIA  BEEVICEPS.  123 

No  doubt  this  matter  is  dealt  with  by  the  French  authors  ;  but 
in  view  of  the  condition  of  the  "  stomach  "  in  other  Oetacea,  that 
of  the  Cachalot  is  rather  puzzling. 

It  appears,  then,  that  in  the  family  Physeteridae  the  apparatus  is 
simpler  than  in  the  Delphinidae,  and  agrees  with  the  Platanistidae  in 
having  only  three  chambers,  viz.,  a  paunch,  a  cardiac  chamber,  and 
a  pyloric  chamber. 

V.  The  Penis. 

The  body- wall  between  the  anus  and  the  aperture  of  the  penial 
sheath  had  been  cut  about,  so  that  the  position  of  these  apertures 
and  their  distance  apart,  with  regard  to  the  body-length,  could  not 
be  ascertained. 

In  the  arrangement  of  the  muscles  at  the  base  of  the  organ,  and 
some  other  matters,  Oogia  differs  from  the  accounts  given  for  the 
Dolphin  and  the  Eight  Whale'(by  Professors  Turner  and  Struthers 
respectively),  so  that  it  is  worth  while  to  put  on  record  the  arrange- 
ments in  the  present  whale.  The  total  length  of  the  apparatus,  in 
the  fresh  condition,  was  28  inches,  measured  from  the  base  of  the 
"  accelerator  urinjB  "  muscles  to  the  end  of  the  penial  sheath,  but 
more  detailed  measurements  of  the  preserved  material  show  that 
a  certain  amount  of  shrinkage  had  occurrred. 

In  dealing  with  the  penis,  it  will  be  convenient  to  distinguish 
three  regions  : — 

(1)  A  basal  portion  consisting  of  the  crura  penis,  surrounded  by 

the  muscles,  which  in  Oogia  are  4  in  number,  a  pair  of 
medial  acceleratores  urince  and  a  pair  of  lateral  erectores penis. 
This  region  measures,  in  the  preserved  specimen,  7  inches  in 
length  and  about  5  inches  at  the  broadest. 

(2)  The  middle  region  or  "  body  of  the  penis,"  rather  more  than 

6  inches  in  length,  formed  almost  wholly  by  the  single 

corpus  cavernosum. 

And  (3)  the  distal  region  of  12  inches,  extending  from  the 

insertion  of  the  sheath  or  prepuce  into  the  penis,  up  to  the 

external  pore.     The  terminal  region  of  the  penis,  enclosed 

within  the  sheath,  is  8|  inches  in  length :  this  region  may 

be  termed  the  '  glans,'  though  it  contains  a  continuation  of 

the  corpus  cavernosum. 

We  will  consider  the  middle  region  or  body  of  the  penis  first. 

It  consists  of  a  single  corpus  cavernosum,  having  the  usual  struc- 

ure,  with  a  thick  tunic  of  fibrous  tissue,  and  enveloped  in  a  looser 

connective  tissue  carrying  blood-vessels  and  nerves  (PL  X.  fig.  16), 

The  body  is  not  quite  cylindrical,  but  is  slightly  higher  than  broad 

(1|  inch  by  11  inch,  in  the  measured  specimen)  ;  it  was  not  straight, 

but  somewhat  undulating  ^. 

The  upper  surface  is  convex.  There  is  no  dorsal  furrow,  such 
as  is  described  for  Balcenoptera,  and  the  plexus  of  blood-vessels 

^  The  only  figure  of  transverse  sections  of  a  Cetacean  penis  that  I  have  seen 
is  that  given  by  Murie  (4)  for  Balmnoptera,  where  it  is  broader  than  high. 


.  124  PROP.  w.  B,  BEifHAM  ON  THE  [May  21, 

destined  for  the  glans  is  not  in  the  mid-dorsal  line,  but  consists  of 
a  right  and  left  group  of  veins  and  arteries,  lying  on  either  side  of 
the  upper  surface  of  the  penis.  Only  for  a  short  space,  just  behind 
the  attachment  of  the  penial  sheath,  do  the  two  bunches  of  vessels 
widen  out  so  as  to  meet  dorsally,  but  almost  immediately  they 
separate  again  as  the  "  glans  "  is  entered,  and  take  up  a  still  more 
distinctly  lateral  position  (PI.  X.  fig.  17,  Bv). 

The  ventral  surface  of  the  c.  cavernosum  embraces,  as  usual,  the 
corpus  spongiosum,  in  which  the  urethra  is  contained  in  a  slightly 
asymmetrical  position. 

In  transverse  section  the  c.  spongiosum  is  ^  inch  in  height  by 
I  inch  across. 

While  the  tunic  of  the  c.  cavernosum  is  very  thick  and  dense, 
that  of  the  c.  spongiosum  is  quite  thin,  and  to  the  naked  eye  is  not 
distinguishable  from  the  tissue  of  the  spongy  body  itself. 

As  the  distal  region  or  glans  is  approached  the  relative  sizes  of 
the  parts  change.  The  glans  is  an  elongated  cylindrical  cone, 
terminating  in  a  blunt  and  slightly  upturned  point,  the  slit-like 
urinogenital  pore,  which  is  |  inch  in  length,  being  subterminal.  In 
the  preserved  specimen  the  skin  of  the  glans  has  a  yellowish  tint,  is 
smooth  but  much  wrinkled  transversely,  owing  no  doubt  to  shrinkage. 
Soon  after  the  c.  cavernosum  has  entered  the  glans,  it  undergoes  a 
considerable  reduction  in  size  :  thus,  at  a  distance  of  6  inches  from 
the  tip  (PI.  X.  fig.  17)  it  is,  in  transverse  section,  circular  in  outline, 
with  a  diameter  of  only  |  inch,  while  the  c,  spongiosum  has 
slightly  increased  in  size.  Pui-ther  forwards,  two  inches  from 
the  tip  (PI.  X.  fig.  18),  the  cavernous  body  has  almost  disappeared. 
It  is  but  I  inch  in  diameter,  while  the  spongy  body  is  now  |  inch 
across,  and  is  practically  circular.  The  rest  of  the  substance  of  the 
penis  is  now  occupied  by  fibrous  tissue  with  abundant  vessels,  chiefly 
laterally  placed,  derived  from  the  previously  mentioned  dorso- 
lateral "  plexus." 

The  urethra  has  enlarged,  and  here  commences  the  usual  dila- 
tation to  form  the  "  fossa  navicularis."  Turning  to  the  proximal 
region,  we  find  a  very  interesting  condition  of  affairs.  After 
dissecting  away  the  muscles — or  rather  by  slicing  them  away — 
the  usual  crura  penis  (c.  c.  spongiosi)  are  exposed  (PI.  X.  fig.  19), 
each  embedded  in  a  muscle  fchat  appears  to  be  the  "  erector  penis  " 
(or  M.  ischio-cavernosus).  But  the  c.  spongiosum  instead  of 
terminating  posteriorly  in  the  usual  bulb  at  the  angle  of  origin  of 
the  crura,  bifurcates ;  and  each  limb  or  the  cms  c.  spongiosi  is  enclosed 
in  one  of  the  "  accelei-ator  urinae  "  muscles  (or  M.  bulbo-cavernosus), 
within  which  it  enlarges  to  several  times  its  former  size  (PI.  XI. 
fig.  20).  Bach  crus  of  the  spongy  body  is  2|  inches  in  length,  and 
is  as  long  as  the  crus  penis  :  it  is  here  irregularly  oval  in  section, 
and  measures  g  by  |  inch  across. 

The  crus  c.  spongiosi  lies  ventrad  and  mediad  of  the  crus  c. 
cavernosi  of  its  side,  and  the  upper  and  external  face  rests  against 
the  tough  tunic  of  the  latter,  while  on  the  other  three  sides  it  is 
enveloped  in  muscle. 


1901.]  ANATOMY  OE  COGIA  J3E.EVICEPS.  125 

This  forked  character  of  the  c.  spoBgiosum  in  Cogia  is  readily 
seen  both  in  transverse  sections  and  horizontal  sections.  So  far 
as  I  have  been  able  to  find  out  from  textbooks,  the  Kangaroo  (and 
perhaps  some  other  Marsupials)  presents  a  similar  condition 
(according  to  Owen).  In  Cetacea  no  mention  is  made  of  the  phe- 
nomena, and  generally  a  "  bulb  "  is  described  and  figured,  as  in  the 
majority  of  mammals. 

It  is,  of  course,  in  this  basal  region  that  the  urethra  enters  the 
penis,  and  in  the  general  disposition  of  parts  Gogia  is  quite 
typical.  The  thick- walled,  muscular  urethra  passes  obliquely  back- 
wards and  downwards  towards  the  angle  formed  by  the  crura 
penis  ;  it  dilates  to  form  the  thin-walled  bulbus  urethrce,  and  here 
the  angulation  of  the  tube  occurs :  it  then  enters  the  c.  spongiosum, 
through  which  it  runs,  slightly  to  the  right  side. 

The  prostate  gland  in  Cogia  agrees  very  closely  with  the  account 
given  by  previous  authors  {e.  g.  Turner,  15)  for  other  Whales ; 
it  is  a  loose  glandular  and  vascular  tissue  surrounding  the  lower 
half  of  the  bulbus  urethrse.  Above  the  gland  is  a  circular  muscle, 
the  "compressor  prostatse"  or  "  comp.  urethrce."  (PI.  XI.  figs.  24, 
25,  Cm.) 

The  seminal  ducts  deserve  a  few  words.  For  a  considerable  part 
of  their  lower  portion,  each  duct  takes  a  straight  course,  as  a  wide, 
thin-walled  tube  ;  the  internal  lining  of  which  is  raised  into  a 
series  of  imperfectly  transverse,  thin  membranous  valves  (PI.  XL 
fig.  21).  They  do  not  form  a  continuous  spiral,  as  they  do  in  the 
Rorqual  and  the  Dolphin,  according  to  Beauregard  and  Boulart(l), 
who  compare  the  arrangement  to  the  well-known  spiral  valve  of  the 
Elasmobranch  intestine. 

Below  the  valves,  for  a  distance  of  about  an  inch  and  a  half,  the 
mucous  membrane  is  thrown  into  a  number  of  very  fine,  lamellose, 
longitudinal  ridges,  which  continue  almost  to  the  entrance  of  the 
sperm  duct  into  the  urethra. 

The  verumontanum  (PI.  XL  fig.  22)  is  a  long,  narrow,  but  well- 
marked  ridge,  fading  out  anteriorly,  and  higher  and  broader 
posteriorly.  At  this  point,  on  the  posterior  ventral  wall  of  the 
"  bulbus  urethras,"  is  a  transversely  oval  aperture  (a)  situated  on  a 
slight,  rounded  prominence.  This  aperture,  which  has  a  rounded 
margin,  leads  into  a  shallow,  but  well-marked  pit,  into  which,  right 
and  left,  the  seminal  duets  open  by  slightly  curved  slit-like  pores, 
guarded  by  distinct  and  whitish  lips.  These  pores  are  quite  below 
the  general  level  of  the  mucous  membrane,  and  between  them  is  a 
very  slight  recess,  in  the  substance  of  the  urethral  wall,  which  no 
doubt  represents  the  uterus  masculinus  (cf.  Beauregard  and 
Boulart). 

The  pores  of  the  prostate  gland  (PI.  XL  fig.  22,  Pro.)  open  behind 
this  oval  aperture ;  on  each  side  of  which,  and  behind  it,  a  number 
of  delicate  transversely  dispersed  ridges  or  lamellae  occur.  Most 
of  the  prostate  pores  are  placed  between  the  outer  ends  of  neigh- 
bouring ridges  :  four  on  the  left  side,  three  on  the  right,  but  two 
others  on  this  side  are  at  a  different  level,  and  lie  at  the  side  of 


126  PROF.  W.  B.  BENHAM  ON  THE  [May  21, 

the  longitudinal  ridge  of  the  verumontanum,  between  it  and  a 
smaller  lateral  ridge. 

There  appear,  from  the  preliminary  account  by  the  above- 
named  authors,  to  be  various  differences  in  this  arrangement 
from  the  conditions  in  Dolphin  and  Rorqual. 

The  basal  region  of  the  penis  is  perhaps  of  the  most  interest, 
as  we  shall  find  striking  differences  in  the  arrangement  of  the 
muscles  in  Cogia,  Bcdcena,  and  Grampus. 

In  the  whale  under  consideration  there  are,  as  I  have  said,  two 
pairs  of  muscles,  to  which  I  apply  the  older  names  "  accelerator 
urinee  "  and  "  erectores  penis."  The  two  accelerators  lie  side  by 
side  on  each  side  of  the  middle  line,  and  have  a  length  of  7  inches 
on  the  ventral  surface.     (PI.  XI.  figs.  20,  22,  24,  25,  Ac,  Er.) 

The  fascicles  of  which  the  muscle  is  composed  are  strikingly  large, 
and  have  in  general  a  transverse,  i.  &.  circular,  disposition.  At 
the  extreme  anterior  end,  the  fascicles  of  the  right  and  left  muscle 
interdigitate ;  but  for  the  most  part  they  are  separated  by  a 
distinct  median  septum  of  connective  tissue.     (T'ig.  20,  1.) 

By  the  passage  of  the  retractor  penis,  the  accelerators  are 
divisible  into  a  larger  anterior  moiety  (^c),  and  a  smaller  posterior 
moiety  (^c'),  where  the  fascicles  are  oblique,  with  their  mediad 
extremities  directed  slightly  backwards. 

The  anterior  moiety  of  the  accelerator  embraces  and  conceals 
the  cms  corporis  spongiosi  of  its  side,  and  the  fascicles  are 
arranged  as  follows.     (See  PI.  XI.  fig.  20.) 

Each  muscle-fascicle  is  a  broad  band,  thicker  in  the  vertical  than 
in  the  horizontal  direction  (with  regard  to  the  surface  of  the 
muscle),  so  that  we  may  distinguish  two  faces  and  two  edges,  as 
well  as  two  ends. 

The  faces  are  pressed  against  the  faces  of  neighbouring 
fascicles  ;  one  edge  is  directed  outwards  and  forms  the  surface  of 
the  muscle  ;  the  other  edge  is  fixed  to  the  thin  connective  tissue- 
sheath  of  the  crus  c.  spongiosi.  The  ends  are  attached  to  the 
vertical  longitudinal  septa,  one  of  which  separates  the  right 
accelerator  from  the  left  (fig.  20,  i) ;  the  other  separates  the 
accelerator  from  the  erector  of  its  side  (fig.  20,  2') ;  and  in  part 
these  outer  ends  are  inserted  in  the  crus  corporis  cavernosi,  with 
which  this  septum  is  continuous. 

It  is  evident  that  the  contraction  of  these  circularly  disposed 
fibres  must  exert  considerable  pressure  upon  the  spongy  body. 

The  posterior  moiety  of  the  accelerator  is  marked  off  from 
the  anterior,  by  the  passage  of  the  retractor  penis  (PI.  XI. 
fig.  23,  Re^).  On  the  ventral  surface  there  appears  to  be  a  very 
marked  break  in  the  muscle  at  this  point ;  but  this  is  less  marked 
on  the  dorsal  surface  (PL  XI.  fig.  25),  where  the  transversely 
disposed  fascicles  of  the  anterior  moiety  only  gradually  take  on 
an  oblique  direction  ;  the  mediad  ends  are  directed  backwards,  and 
the  last  3  or  4  fascicles  enter  the  mass  of  muscle  constituting 
the  "  sphincter  ani,"  but  do  not  mix  with  it.  They  are,  here, 
inserted  in  a  semicircular  septum  or  sheath,  concave  anteriorly. 


1901.]  ANATOMY  or  COGIA  BREVICEPS.  127 

which  is  continuous  laterally  with  the  longitudinal  septa  above 
referred  to. 

The  fascicles  in  this  region  are,  then,  attached  only  to  the  septa, 
and  are  independent  of  the  crus  c.  spougiosi. 

The  erector  penis  (Er.)  is  a  plano-convex  muscle,  enclosing  the 
crus  corporis  cavernosi  of  its  side.  It  is  shorter  than  the  acce- 
lerator, being  only  4  inches  in  length.  It  is  made  up  of  large 
fascicles,  the  direction  of  which  varies  in  different  parts  of  its 
extent ;  in  fact,  they  radiate  from  a  small  circular  tendinous  patch 
on  the  outer  svirface  near  the  binder  end  of  the  muscle  (t). 

From  this  area  the  most  anterior  fascicles  pass  directly  forwards 
to  be  inserted  in  the  corpus  cavernosum  ;  those  in  the  middle  of  the 
series  pass  directly  inwards,  and  the  most  posterior  ones  backwards 
and  inwards.  The  opposite  ends  of  these  fascicles  are  attached  to 
the  fibrous  tunic  of  the  crus  penis. 

A  small  separate  muscle  (PI.  XI.  figs.  24,  25,  m.)  arises  from 
this  tendinous  patch,  the  fibres  of  which  pass  backwards  and  enter 
the  sphincter  ani.  It  seems  probable  that  this  represents  the  muscle 
marked  "  a"  in  Struthers's  figures  13  &  14,  arising  from  the  hinder 
end  of  the  pelvic  bone,  and  which  he  terms  the  "  caudal  muscular 
mass.'^ 

Prof.  Turner  found  no  muscle  attached  to  the  hinder  end  of  the 
pelvic  bone  in  the  Grampus. 

The  retractor  penis  {Re.)  is,  as  usual,  a  double  muscle,  though  the 
two  are  closely  bound  together.  Each  is  band-like,  and  measured 
-|  inch  across  and  ^  inch  in  thickness.  They  are  attached  at  one 
end  to  the  corpus  cavernosum,  immediately  proximal  to  the  insertion 
of  the  penial  sheath ;  posteriorly  they  lie  in  the  groove  between 
the  two  accelerators,  and  finally  burrow  upwards  between  the 
anterior  and  posterior  moieties  of  these  muscles,  to  gain  the  dorsal 
surface.  They  then  pass  behind  the  posterior  margin  of  the 
"  pelvic  fascia "  and  enter  the  muscle  surrounding  the  rectum 
(PL  XI.  fig.  25). 

The  retractors  are  13  inches  long,  and  they  lie  quite  loosely 
separated  from  the  penis,  except  at  the  two  ends. 

The  upper  surface  of  the  accelerator  muscles  is  covered  by  a 
tough,  inextensible  membrane,  the  margins  of  which  had  been  cut. 
But  from  its  relation  to  the  muscles  and  other  structures,  it 
appears  to  be  the  "  pelvic  fascia"  (PI.  XI.  fig.  24,  Z.).  Anteriorly,  it 
bears  on  its  under  surface  the  two  seminal  ducts ;  on  each  side  is 
seen  an  artery  {ar.) — dipping  downwards  below  it — the  pudic 
artery,  and  posteriorly  it  is  slightly  reflected  on  to  the  rectum. 

A  short  distance  behind  the  anterior,  cut  edge  is  a  depression 
caused  by  the  origin,  from  its  under  surface,  of  a  couple  of  muscles, 
which  pass  forwards,  diverge,  and  embrace  the  urethra,  just  above 
the  prostate  gland.  The  muscle-fibres  enter  the  muscular  coat  of 
the  urethra  on  its  anterior  face  (Pi.  XI.  fig.  25,  C.u.).  This  almost 
circular  muscle  appears  to  be  the  "  compressor  urethras"  (  =  com- 
pressor prostatae  of  Turner).  In  the  Grampus,  however,  it  is 
rather  a  sheet  of  muscle-fibres,  covering  the  whole  of  the  upper 


128 


PROF.  W,  B.  BENHA.M  ON  THE 


[May  21, 


surface  of  the  prostate,  and  encircling  also  the  seminal  ducts  and 
the  urethra  ;  it  arises,  however,  from  the  "  interpelvic  ligament " 
(which  represeuts  the  "  pelvic  fascia  ").  I  find  that  in  Cogia 
some  of  the  fibres  of  this  muscle  originate  from  the  inner  and 
upper  faces  of  the  crura  penis. 

Another  muscle,  though  cut  through,  may  be  mentioned.  On 
each  side,  and  immediately  below  the  cut  edge  of  the  pelvic 
fascia,  is  a  fairly  stout  bundle  of  longitadinal  fibres  (PL  XI. 
fig.  24,  lev.),  which,  passing  backwards,  loses  itself  in  the  mass  of 
muscle  above  referred  to  as  "  sphincter  ani ";  this  pair  of  muscles 
appears  to  be  the  levatores  ani.  • 

Text-fig.  7. 


Muscles  of  Penis  of  Risso's  Grrampus,  seen  from  below  (copied  from  Turner). 

A.  M.  accelerator  urin£e. 
A'.  Its  posterior  moiety. 

B.  M.  erector  penis. 
pel.  Pelvic  bone. 


Remarhs. — 1£  we  compare  the  penial  muscles  of   Gogia  with 
those  in   Grampus  as  described  by  Prof.  Turner  [15],  and  with 


1901.] 


ANATOMY  OP  OOGIA  BEBVICEPS. 


129 


those  in  the  Greenland  Eight  "Whale  as  described  by  Prof. 
Struthers  [12],  we  shall  find  an  interesting  series  of  stages  in 
their  arrangement. 

For  this  purpose  I  reproduce  the  figures  given  by  these  authors 
(see  text-figs.  7  and  8). 

In  the  Grampus  (text-fig.  7,  p.  128)  there  are  two  pairs  of 
distinct  muscles ;  also  a  pair  of  accelerators  (A),  which  only  differ 
from  those  in  Cogia  by  their  smaller  size,  for  in  the  Small  Cachalot 
they  extend  mucla  beyond  the  "  erectores  "  and  are,  relatively,  much 
more  conspicuous.  JSTo  doubt  this  is  in  relation  to  the  much 
greater  development  of  the  posterior  end  of  the  corpus  spongiosum 
and  its  bifurcation. 

Text-fig.  8. 


Muscles  of  Penis  of  Greenland  Eight  Whale,  seen  from  below  (copied  from 

Struthers). 

S.  Horseshoe-shaped  septum;  other  letters  as  in  text-fig.  7,  p.  128. 

Compare  text-figs.  7  &  8  with  the  figure  of  these  muscles  in  Cogia  (PI.  XI.  fig.  23). 

Peoc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  IX.  9 


130  PEOF.  W,  B.  BENHAM  ON  THE  [May  21, 

The  retractor  penis  (B)  is  seen  to  have  precisely  the  same 
relation  in  both,  and  the  hinder  moiety  of  the  accelerators  (A') 
presents  the  same  modification  described  above.  But  the  muscles 
for  which  I  have  used  the  name  "  ereetores  penis  "  are  in  the 
G-rampus  represented  by  a  much  larger  pair  (B),  termed  by  Turner 
(and  others)  the  "  ischio-cavernosi."  In  this  whale,  each  arises 
from,  and  almost  entirely  conceals,  the  pelvic  bone  (pel.).  Apart 
from  this,  the  relations  are  similar  to  those  in  Cogia. 

When  removing  the  viscera  from  Cogia,  I  sought  for  the  pelvic 
bone,  and  not  iinding  it  in  the  neighbourhood,  imagined  that 
it  would  be  concealed  within  the  lateral  ereetores  ;  but  on  dis- 
secting these  muscles  I  find  no  trace  of  it.  I  think,  then,  we  may 
conclude  that  there  is  no  pelvic  bone  in  Cogia.  I  cannot  speak 
with  absolute  certainty,  since  the  body- wall  was  much  cut  about ; 
but  if  it  had  been  present  it  would  have  been  connected  with  the 
penis ;  and  there  is  no  trace  of  any  muscle,  other  than  I  have 
described,  which  would  have  been  attached  to  it.  We  may  take  it, 
then,  that  the  pelvic  bone  is  absent,  and  that  the  "  ereetores  "  are 
homologous  with  the  m.  ischio-cavernosi. 

At  first  sight,  the  account  and  figure  given  by  Struthers  from 
the  Greenland  Eight  Whale  differs  considerably  from  the  other 
two  Cetacea.  On  the  ventral  surface  (text-fig.  8)  there  is  a  great 
muscular  mass  consisting  of  a  right  and  left  half,  sepai-ated  by  a 
median  raphe  or  septum.  This  mass  is  subdivided  into  an  anterior 
(J5)  and  a  posterior  {A)  muscle  by  a  "  horseshoe-shaped  septum  " 
(/S).  To  this  great  muscle  he  gives  the  name  "  compressor." 
The  anterior  compressor  consists  of  fibres  with  various  origins, 
but  with  in  general  an  antero-external  direction,  as  seen  from 
below.  The  hindmost  fibres  arise  from  the  inner  surface  of  the 
hinder  part  of  the  pelvic  bone  (as  in  the  case  of  the  mus.  ischio- 
cavernosus  in  the  Grrampus) ;  they  pass  forwards  to  be  inserted, 
on  the  dorsal  surface,  into  the  median  septum  or  raphe  :  the 
deeper  fibres  are  inserted  in  the  outer  surface  of  the  crus  penis.  A 
second  lot  of  fibres  arise  on  the  ventral  surface  from  this  septum 
and  pass  round  the  corpus  cavernosum  to  be  inserted  in  its 
dorsal  surface :  these,  in  fact,  surround  the  base  of  the  corpus 
cavernosum. 

On  p.  306,  the  author  goes  on  to  say  : — "  This  vast  muscle  in 
Mysticetus  corresponds  to  two  muscles  in  human  anatomy :  the 
part  from  the  inner  slope  on  both  aspects  of  the  [pelvic]  bone  to 
the  erector  penis  (ischio-cavernosus),  enormously  developed ;  the 
part  from  the  mesial  raphe,  on  the  under  surface,  to  the  anterior 
part  of  the  accelerator  urinse  (bulbo-cavernosus)." 

Before  giving  reasons  for  controverting  this  view,  I  will  continue 
his  account  (p.  307)  of  the  posterior  part  of  the  great  compressor 
(A)  behind  the  horseshoe-shaped  septum. 

Its  fibres  are  only  visible  from  the  ventral  aspect ;  they  arise 
from  the  median  raphe,  pass  foi'wards  and  outwards,  towai'ds  the 
horseshoe-shaped  septum,  and  "are  inserted  into  the  whole  fibrous 
surface  covered  by  this  muscle  :    tJie  deeper  into  the  fibrous  coat 


1901.]  A]SrATOMT  OE  COGIA  BEEVICEPS.  131 

of  the  bulb  ^ ;  the  most  superficial  into  the  hinder  surface  of  the 
horseshoe-shaped  septum ;  the  intervening  and  greater  part  into 
the  hard  fibrous  coat  of  the  crus." 

Behind  this  muscle  he  represents  a  gi'oup  of  curved  fibres 
(A',  fig.  2),  the  ends  of  which  arise  from  the  horseshoe-shaped 
septum  in  front ;  the  right  and  left  by  a  median  raphe.  These 
cross  over  behind  the  retractor  penis.  To  this  muscle  he  gives 
the  name — with  some  hesitation  owing  to  the  mutilation — "  levator 
ani"  (p.  308). 

This  "  horseshoe-shaped  septum  "  is  a  vertical  sheet  of  fibrous 
tissue,  attached  to  the  lower  faces  of  the  crura  penis  and  of  the 
bulbus  spongiosi.  "  In  sections  the  septum  appears  as  a  prolonga- 
tion of  the  special  fihrous  stratum  ivhich  thickens  the  under  surf  ace  of 
the  crus^,  and  may  be  regarded  as  a  continuation  of  that  stratum, 
shelving  to  the  surface  in  relation  to  the  attachment  and  action 
of  the  posterior  compressor  muscle  "  (p.  306). 

From  the  relations  of  the  "  anterior  compressor  "  (B) — that  part 
which  lies  in  front  of  the  horseshoe-shaped  septum — it  seems  to 
me  that,  not  merely  one  part  of  it,  but  the  whole  is  homologous 
with  the  erector  penis  or  ischio-cavernosus,  while  the  "  posterior 
compressor"  (A)  is  nothing  else  than  a  much  reduced  "  accelerator 
urinse" ;  for,  like  it,  it  is  related  to  the  corp.  spongiosum,  and  the 
account  of  its  attachments  agrees  with  that  given  by  Sir  W.  Turner. 
Further,  the  so-called  "  levator  ani "  (A ')  has  relations  practically 
identical  wdth  the  "  posterior  moiety"  of  the  accelerator. 

As  to  the  horseshoe-shaped  septum,  it  seems  to  correspond  with 
the  longitudinal  septum  that,  in  Cogia,  separates  the  acceleratores 
from  the  erectores  (PI.  XI.  fig.  20,  2),  which,  owing  to  the  short- 
ening of  the  median  muscle  and  the  great  development  of  the 
lateral  ones,  has  assumed  this  curved  form. 

A  comparison  of  the  arrangement  in  the  three  genera  shows  the 
same  two  pairs  of  muscles  in  each,  but  an  interesting  disproportion 
in  the  relative  sizes.  At  one  end  of  the  series,  Cogia,  we  find  the 
accelerators  {A)  relatively  enormously  developed,  probably  in  re- 
lation to  the  bifurcation  of  the  corp.  spongiosum ;  at  the  other 
end  of  the  series,  in  B.  mysticetus,  the  accelerator  is  much  reduced, 
while  the  erectores  (B)  are  enormously  developed — no  doubt  in 
relation  to  the  great  size  of  the  pelvic  bone  and  to  the  existence  of  a 
rudiment  of  the  hind  limb,  both  of  which  are  absent  in  Cogia. 
The  Grampus  occupies  a  middle  place  in  the  series,  in  which  a 
pelvic  bone  is  present,  but  with  neither  a  hind  limb  nor  crura  c. 
spongiosi. 

List  of  Papers  referred  to  in  the  text. 

1.  Beatjeegaed  &  BouLAET. — "  Sur  FUtricule  prostatique  et  les 
Canaux  deferents  des  Cetaces."  C.E.  Ac.  Sc.  vol.  119,  1895, 
p.  596. 

^  Note. — The  italics  ai-e  mine. 


132  PEOF.  W.  B.  BENHAM  ON  THE  [May  21, 

2.  V.  Haast. — "  On  tlie  Occurrence  of  a  new  Species  of  Euphyseies 
&c.  on  the  N.  Z.  Coast."  Tr.  N.  Z.  Inst.  vi.  1873,  p.  97,  and 
P.  Z.  S.  1874,  p.  260. 

3.  Jackson,  J.  B.  S.,  in  Boston  Journ.  Nat.  Hist.  v.  1845. 

4.  MuBiE. — "  Anatomy  of  the  Caa'ing  Whale,  Glohiceplialus 
melas."     Tr.  Zool.  Soc.  viii.  1867. 

5.  MuME. — "  Notes  on  the  White-beaked  Bottle-nose,  Lageno- 
rynchus  albirostris."  Journ.  Linn.  Soc.  (Zool.)  xi.  1870, 
p.  141. 

6.  MuRiE. —  "On   Eisso's    Grampus."      Journ.   Anat.    Physiol. 

(ser.  2)  iv.  1871,  p.  118. 

7.  Owen. — "  On  some  Indian  Cetacea."  Tr.  Zool.  Soc.  vi.  1865, 
p.  17. 

8.  Pilliet  &  BoTJLAET. — "  L'Estomac  des  Cetaces."  Journ.  de 
I'Anat.  et  Physiol,  xxxi.  1895,  p.  250.  [Abstract  in  Zool. 
Jahresber.] 

9.  PotroHEx   &   Beaubegaed, — "  Sur   I'Estomac    du    Cachalot." 

C.E.  Biol.  Soc.  ix.  1889,  p.  92.    [Abstract  in  Zool.  Jahresber.] 

10.  SiBSON. — "  On  the  Blowhole  of  the  Porpoise."     Phil.  Trans. 

1848,  p.  117. 

11.  Steuthees. — "On  the  Bones,  Articulations  and  Muscles  of 
the  Rudimentary  Hind  Limbs  of  the  Eight  Whale  {B.  mystiee- 
tus)."     Journ.  Anat.  Physiol,  xv.  1881,  p.  301. 

12.  Steuthees. — "  Anatomy  of  Beluga."  Journ.  Anat.  Physiol. 
(3rd  ser.),  x.  1893. 

13.  Tuenee. — "Anatomy  of  Sowerby's  Whale."      Journ.  Anat. 

Physiol.  XX.  1886,  p".  144. 

14.  TuENEE. — "Additional  observations."  Journ.  Anat.  Physiol, 
xxiii.  1889. 

15.  TuENEE. — "Notes  on  some  of  the  Viscera  of  Eisso's  Grampus." 

Journ.  Anat.  Physiol,  xxvi.  1892,  p.  258. 

16.  Tyson.  "  Phoccena,  or  the  Anatomy  of  the  Porpoise." 
London,  1680. 

Dunedin,  March  8,  1901. 


EXPLANATION   OP  PLATES  VIII.-XI. 

Anatomy  of  Coyia  hreviceps. 

Plate  VIII. 

Figs.  1-9  illustrate  the  structure  of  the  Nasal  Passages. 

Fig.  1.  Outline  of  the  head,  to  show  the  position  of  the  blowhole  (reduced). 
This  is  not  absolutely  correct,  as  the  flesh  of  the  head  had  been  partially 
x-emoved. 

2.  Enlarged  view  of  the  blowhole  (nat.  size),      a,  h,  the  anterior  lip; 

c,  the  interruption  in  the  lip,  where  the  lip  becomes  continuous  with 
the  skin  of  the  head  ;  d,  posterior  lip.  mm,  the  median  line  of  head. 
X  points  to  region  that,  in  the  next  figure,  has  been  cut  across. 

3.  The  spiracular  vestibule,  exposed  by  cutting  across  the  auterior  lip  at 

r,  and  turning  backwards  the  hinder  lip  d  (nat.  size),   h,  the  right-hand 


1901.]  ANATOMY  or  COGIA  BREVICEPS.  133 

corner  of  the  blowhole.  E,  the  valve,  vrhich  is  continued  down  the 
left  narial  canal.  /,  vertical  wall  of  the  hind-lip  of  blowhole  ;  g,  the 
recess  in  this,  h,  left  narial  canal ;  h',  probe  passed  into  it.  i,  probe 
passed  into  the  right  narial  canal,  mm,  median  line  of  head,  a,  c,  as 
in  fig.  2. 
Fig.  4.  The  right-hand  corner  of  the  foregoing  figure,  enlarged,  showing  the 
right  narial  canal  and  its  lips.     Letters  as  in  fig.  3. 

5.  The  naso-palatine  canal  exposed  by  slitting  open  the  soft  palate,  seen 
from  behind,  h,  the  lower  end  of  left  narial  canal,  j,  the  lower  end 
of  right  narial  canal.  S,  valve.  fcj;i.,basisphenoidbone.  p^'ery.,  ptery- 
goid,   prs.,  presphenoid. 

6.  Dissection  of  the  head,  exposing  {A)  the  upper  spiracular  chamber, 
the  front  wall  of  whichis  laid  open  (nat.  size),  h,  the  narial  canal  passing 
to  the  lower  spiracular  chamber,  fib.,  fibro -muscular  dermis. 
i,  probe  passes  through  the  left  nostril  into  the  spiracular  chamber. 
m,  another  probe  passed  into  the  nostril  and  issuing  through  the  cut 
end  of  a  branched  canal  similar  to  n.     mus.,  cut  muscle. 


Plate  IX. 

Fig.  7.  Further  dissection  exposing  lower  spiracular  chamber,  the  front  wall 
of  which  is  turned  downwards  (^  nat.  size).  A,  posterior,  inferior 
face  of  the  upper  chamber.  B,  the  opened  lower  chamber  ;  r,  its 
posterior  wall ;  S,  its  anterior  wall,  mics.,  mvisoles.  fib.,  fibrous 
dermis.  /,  right  narial  canal  disappearing  behind  the  surrounding 
tissue,  b',  the  lower  end  of  a  probe  passed  through  the  inter-cavity 
canal  (/')  of  the  previous  figure,  b"  and  V",  another  probe  passed 
through  the  dissevered  part  of  this  same  canal ;  //",  its  entrance  into 
the  lower  chamber,  c,  probe  passed  down  into  the  naso-palatine 
canal. 

8.  A  group  of  papillfe  from  the  wall  of  the  lower  chamber  ( X  4). 

9.  Diagram  of  the  nasal  jjassages  in  the  form  of  a  projection  seen  from 
in  front,  a,  blowhole,  b,  intercavitary  portion  of  right  narial  canal, 
c,  lower  end  of  right  narial  canal.  E,  longitudinal  valve  in  the  left 
narial  canal,  h,  left  narial  canal.  _;',  upper  end  of  right  narial  canal. 
n,  branching  outgrowths  of  this  right  narial  canal,  q,  nasopalatine 
canal.  A,  upper  spiracular  chamber.  B,  lower  spiracular  chamber, 
the  dotted  outline  indicates  its  dorsal  extension  behind  A.  m.e.s,,  me- 
dian line  of  the  head. 

Figs.  10-14  refer  to  the  Alimentary  Canal. 

Fig.  10.  View  of  the  dorsal  surface  of  the  paunch  and  stomach  (^  nat.  size). 
a,  oesophagus,     b,  paunch,     c,  cardiac  chamber,    d,  commencement  of 
pyloric  chamber  which  had  been  cut  short. 
11.  Surface  view  of  the  lining  of  the  oesophagus  (slightly  enlargedl,     a, 
section  through  the  same. 


Plate  X. 

Fig.  12.  Epithelial  lining  of  the  paunch  (slightly  enlarged). 

13.  Mucous  membrane  of  the  cardiac  chamber  (slightly  enlarged). 

14.  A  part  of  the  wall  of  the  cardiac  chamber  has  been  removed,  and  the 

cardiac  orifice  thus  exposed  (^  nat.  size),  a,  oesophagus,  b,  paunch. 
c,  cardiac  chamber,  d,  the  two  ridges  bounding  the  furrow  leading 
from  oesophagus  to  paunch.  E,  probe  passing  from  oesophagus. 
/,  probe  passed  along  the  furrow  into  the  paunch,  c/,  circular  ridge 
of  mucosa  and  submucosa  surrounding  the  orifice,  k,  k,  free  fold  of 
oesophageal  mucosa  projecting  through  the  orifice. 


134  ON  THE  ANATOMY  OF  COGIA  BEEVlCEIPS.  [May  21, 

Figures  15-25  refer  to  the  Penis. 

Fig.  15.  View  of  the  entire  penis  from  the  right  side  (|  nat.  size):  the  penial 
sheath  is  opened  to  show  the  tip  of  the  gians.  A  portion  of  the  abdo- 
minal wall  (B)  is  represented  to  show  the  connection  of  the  nmscles  of 
the  sheath. 

16.  Transverse  section  of  the  body  of  the  penis  (nat.  size). 

17.  Transverse  section  of  penis  about  6  inches  from  the  tip  (nat.  size). 

18.  Transverse  section  of  penis  two  inches  below  the  tip  (nat.  size). 

19.  A  dissection  of  the  base  of  the  penis  (J  nat.  size) :  the  upper  half  of 
the  muscles  and  of  the  corp.  cavernosum  and  corp.  spongiosum  has 
been  sliced  away  so  as  to  expose  the  crura  of  these  two  bodies. 


Plate  XI. 

Fig.  20.  Transverse  section  of  the  base  of  the  penis  at  the  point  of  bifurcation 
of  the  erectile  tissues  (^  nat.  size,  somewhat  diagrammatic).  It 
exhibits  the  relation  of  the  muscles  to  the  crura.  1,  2,  connective- 
tissue  septa. 

21.  A  sperm -duct  opened,     a,  its  upper  region  ;  h,  its  lower  region. 

22.  Internal  surface  of  the  hind  wall  of  the  bulbus  urethrje  and  the 
commencement  of  the  penial  region  of  the  uretlira.  a,  the  mouth  of 
shallow  pit,  which  is  drawn  on  an  enlarged  scale  at  the  side  to  show 
the  apertures  of  the  two  sperm-duets. 

23.  Ventral  view  of  the  base  of  the  penis  {^  nat,  size). 

24.  Dorsal  view  of  the  base  of  the  penis  (^  nat.  size),  with  the  pelvic  fascia 
in  situ,  and  a  couple  of  lymphatic  glands  on  the  left.  In  the  centre, 
forwards,  the  origin  of  the  compressor  urethras  (C.u.)  in  the  under  sur- 
face of  the  fascia  is  indicated. 

25.  Dorsal  view  of  the  base  of  the  penis  after  removal  of  the  pelvic  fascia 
(I  nat.  size).  The  "sphincter  ani"has  been  turned  backwards  to 
show  the  compressor  urethras  and  termination  of  the  retractor  penis 
in  the  rectal  muscles. 


Explanation  of  the  lettering. 

Ac,  accelerator  urina  muscle.  Ac' ,  its  posterior  division,  ar.,  pudic 
artery.  Bv.,  blood-vessels  on  penis.  Ca.,  corpus  cavernosum. 
Cr.ca.,  crus.  corp.  cavernosi.  C'r.Sp.,  crus  corp.  spongiosi.  a.m.,  cir- 
cular muscles  in  sheath  of  penis.  Ct.,  connective-tissue  coat  of  penis. 
C.U.,  compressor  urethrEe  muscle,  ep.,  epidermis  of  glans  penis. 
Er.,  erector  penis  muscle,  g,  lymphatic  gland,  gl-p.,  glans  penis. 
L,  pelvic  ligament,  fey.,  levator  ani  muscle.  «;.,  muscle  of  doubtful 
homology.  P.,  external  aperture  of  penial  sheath.  Pro.,  prostate 
gland  or  its  pores.  B.,  rectum.  Be.,  retractor  penis  muscle,  r,  longi- 
tudinal ridges  in  sperm-duct.  S.d.,  sperm-duct,  or  its  opening  into 
ux'ethra.  5'A.,shc;cilh  of  penis.  <Sjd.,  corpus  spongiosum.  /SpA.,  sphincter 
ani  muscle,  t.,  tendinous  patch  on  erector  muscle,  tu.,  tunic  of  corp. 
cavernosum.     IT.,  urethra,     v.,  valves  in  sperm-duct. 


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1901.]        ON  NEW  CHAMELEONS  FEOM  BRITISH  BAST  AEEICA.  135 

4.  Descriptions  of  two  new  Chameleons  from  Mount 
E-uwenzori,  British  East  Africa.  By  G.  A.  Boulenger, 
F.R.S. 

[Eeceived  May  6,  1901.] 

(Plates  XII.  &  XIII.^) 

The  already  long  list  of  East- African  Chameleons  has  receatly 
been  enriched  hj  the  discovery  of  two  most  strikingly  new  species 
represented  in  Sir  Harry  Johnstons  collection,  which  I  have  been 
authorised  to  describe.  Examples  of  these  new  species  were 
obtained  on  Mount  Euwenzori  at  an  altitude  of  6000  feet,  together 
with  specimens  of  0.  ellioti,  Gthr. 

Chameleon  xenokhinus.     (Plate  XII.) 

Casque  elevated  posteriorly,  very  much  in  the  male,  with 
strong,  curved  parietal  crest ;  the  distance  between  the  commissure 
of  the  mouth  and  the  extremity  of  the  casque  equals  the  length 
of  the  buccal  cleft  in  the  male,  a  little  less  in  the  female ;  lateral 
crest  distinct  all  round  the  head,  strong  and  tubercular ;  upper 
head-scales  large,  unequal  in  size ;.  interorbital  region  concave ; 
the  snout  of  the  male  terminating  in  two  large  compressed 
bony  processes  directed  forward  and  slightly  upward,  closely 
appressed,  fused  together  at  the  base,  nearly  twice  as  long  as  deep; 
in  the  female,  the  processes  replaced  by  two  ver}^  small  tubei'cular 
knobs  ;  no  trace  of  occipital  lobes.  Body  covered  with  rather  coarse 
granules,  intermixed  with  numerous  feebly  enlarged  flat  tubercles. 
A  feeble  dorsal  crest  in  the  male,  barely  indicated  in  the  female ; 
no  gular  or  ventral  crest ;  enlarged  flat  tubercles  on  the  side  of 
the  throat.  No  tarsal  process.  Tail  longer  than  head  and  body, 
not  crested.  Male  uniform  dark  olive,  the  rostral  appendage  and 
part  of  the  tail  lighter.  Eemale  purplish  brown,  with  a  large 
blackish,  light-edged  blotch  on  each  side  of  the  body. 

millim.  millim. 

Total  length 240  197 

Erom   end   of   snout    to   extremity   of 

mandible  (rostral  process  excluded) . .       25  21 

From   end   of   snout    to   extremity   of 


casque 


38  25 


Length  of  rostral  appendage    14  — 

Greatest  width  between  lateral  cranial 

crests 16  13 

Depth  of  skull  (mandible  included) 26  16 

Width  of  head 16-5  14 

Body 75  66 

Tibia 17  15 

Tail     140  110 

Two  specimens,  male  and  female. 

This  species  stands  nearest  to  G.  fischeri,  Reichen. 

^  For  an  explanation  of  the  Plates,  see  p.  136.  j 


136         ON  NEW  CHAMELEONS  PROM  BRITISH  EAST  AERICA.     [May  21, 

Chameleon  johnstoni.    (Plate  XIII.) 

Casque  feebly  raised  posteriorly,  with  obtusely  angular  posterior 
contour,  with  a  short,  feeble  parietal  crest ;  the  distance  between 
the  commissure  of  the  mouth  and  the  extremity  of  the  casque 
equals  the  length  of  the  buccal  cleft ;  lateral  crest  strong  and 
tubercular,  but  absent  on  the  snout ;  no  canthus  rostralis  ;  inter- 
orbital  region  concave ;  male  with  three  long,  conical,  smooth, 
horn-like  processes  with  circular  striae,  directed  forward  and 
slightly  upwai'd,  one  in  front  of  each  orbit  and  the  third  on  the 
snout ;  the  rostral  horn  a  little  thicker,  but  not  longer  than  the 
orbitals  ;  no  trace  of  such  appendages  in  the  female ;  scales  on 
upper  surface  of  head  unequal,  moderately  large  ;  no  trace  of 
occipital  lobes.  Body  with  angular  spine,  but  without  crest, 
coarsely  granular,  with  scattered  small  flat  tubercles  ;  no  gular 
or  ventral  crest.  No  tarsal  process.  Tail  as  long  as  head  and 
body,  not  crested.     Uniform  dark  olive  ;  horns  yellowish. 

millim.  millim. 

Total  length 224  220 

From    end   of    snout   to  -extremity   of 

mandible    24  24 

From  end  of  snout  to  extremity  of  casque  33  33 

Eostral  horn 16  — 

Praeorbital  horn 17  — 

Grreatest  width  between  lateral  cranial 

crests 13  13 

Depth  of  skull  (mandible  included)     .  .  21  21 

Width  of  skull 17  17 

Body 88  80 

Tibia 22  20 

Tail 112  115 

Three  male  specimens,  one  female  and  one  young. 

The  Chameleon  which  I  have  the  pleasure  of  naming  after 
Sir  Harry  Johnston,  K.O.B.,  is  most  nearly  related  to  the  one 
described  by  me  as  C.  jacksoni,  from  which  it  is  easily  distinguished 
by  the  more  feeble  occipital  crest,  the  finer  granulation  of  the 
body,  and  the  absence  of  large  tubercles  on  the  spine,  forming  a 
dorsal  crest. 

EXPLANATION  OP  THE  PLATES. 

Plate  XII. 

Chamceleon  ccenorhinus,  male,  with  upper  view  of  head,  and  side  view  of  head 
of  female. 

Plate  XIII. 

Ckamcsleon  johnstoni,  male,  with  upper  view  of  head,  and  side  view  of  head  of 
female. 


P.Z.S.1901,vol.II.Pl.XIV, 


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PJ.Sxni-t  cLel.etlLtK.  MbrvbexTaBros.im-p- 

l.BUTSrOPUS     SPATALURA.      2.AGAM0D0U  ARABICUS. 


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1901.]  ON  KBPTILES  AND  BATEACHIA.NS  TEOM  ARABIA.  137 

5.  A  List  of  the  Reptiles  and  Batrachians  obtained  by 
Mr.  A.  Blayney  Percival  in  Southern  Arabia.  By  the 
late  Dr.  J.  Anderson,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  With  Notes  by 
the  Collector.^ 

[Received  May  14,  1901.] 

(Plates  XIV.  &  XV.^) 

REPTILIA. 
LACERTILIA. 

GrBCKONID^. 

1.  Stenodacttlus  dobi^  Blanf. 

Three  specimens  from  the  Abian  country.  One,  an  adult 
female,  the  largest  of  the  species  I  have  seen,  measures  60  mm. 
from  the  snout  to  the  vent,  and  the  tail  46  mm.  The  second 
female  is  about  half -grown  ;  the  third  is  a  male,  also  young.  It 
has  two  well-developed  preanal  pores.  All  three  were  collected 
by  Mr.  Percival  in  the  Abian  country. 

The  adult  female  has  well-defined  large  brown  spots  on  the 
back  and  much  smaller  whitish  ocelli,  margined  with  brown,  inter- 
mixed among  the  brown  speckling.  The  other  two  individuals 
have  no  large  brown  dorsal  spots,  but  the  pale  brownish  of  the 
back  is  marked  by  numerous  round  white  spots,  with  a  dark  ring 
encirchng  each,  intermixed  among  the  dark  rings  and  dark  brown 
speckling.  The  coloration  is  much  the  same  as  that  of  the  Egyptian 
S.  elegcms,  from  which  this  form  differs  chiefly  by  the  divided 
character  of  the  scales  or  plates  on  the  under  surface  of  the  toes. 

2.  BuNOPUS  SPATALTJEUS,  sp.  n.     (Plate  XIV.  fig.  1.) 

Head  oval,  flattened  from  between  the  eyes  and  backwards  to 
the  occiput.  Snout  short  and  somewhat  broad,  its  length  equalling 
once  and  a  half  the  longitudinal  diameter  of  the  eye  and  one-third 
the  total  length  of  the  head  on  the  upper  surface.  Eorehead 
convex  ;  a  short  depression  behind  each  nostril.  Eye  rather  large, 
its  longitudinal  diameter  equal  to  the  distance  between  the  hinder 
border  of  the  ear  and  external  canthus.  Ear  a  narrow  oval 
slit  placed  obliquely,  from  above  downwards  and  forwards,  about 
half  the  long  diameter  of  the  eye.  Body  not  depressed  but 
rather  compressed,  covered  with  somewhat  imbricate  or  juxtaposed 
scales    of    irregular  size,  the   larger    more  numerous  than    the 

^  This  paper  had  been  prepared  shortly  before  his  death  by  the  author,  whose 
MS.,  however,  comprised  no  introduction.  For  an  account  of  Mr.  Percival's 
Expedition,  see  P.  Z.  S.  1900,  p.  95. 

^  For  an  explanation  of  the  Plates,  see  p.  152. 


138  DR.  J.  AKDERSON  ON  REPTILES  AND  [May  21, 

smaller  scales,  some  of  them  ou  the  middle  of  the  back  showing  a 
tendency  to  carination.  •  Scales  of  the  upper  surface  of  the  head 
juxtaposed,  flat,  rounded,  hexagonal.  A  few  I'ounded  tubercles 
on  the  temporal  and  occipital  regions.  B-ostral  once  and  nearly 
one  half  as  broad  as  high,  upper  external  angles  rounded  off,  mesial 
line  cleft  in  its  upper  half.  Nostril  defined  by  the  rostral,  first 
labial,  and  three  nasals.  Ten  upper  and  lower  labials.  Mental 
nearly  as  broad  as  long,  outer  margin  opposed  to  first  labial,  concaye, 
with  another  shorter  concave  margin  behind  it,  against  which  lies  a 
small  shield,  the  most  anterior  of  the  line  of  enlarged  granules 
which  lies  below  the  lower  labials.  Gular  scales  granular.  Ventral 
scales  more  or  less  pointed  and  feebly  carinated.  Tail  verticillate 
throughout,  cylindrical  in  its  anterior  half,  and  flattened  from  above 
downwards  in  its  posterior  moiety,  with  the  tip  slightly  laterally 
expanded ;  no  enlarged  scales  inferiorly.  Limbs  moderate  ; 
digits  slender,  with  two  or  three  of  the  distal  phalanges 
forming  an  angle  with  the  base  as  in  Gymnodactylus,  covered  with 
transverse  lamellae  more  or  less  spiny  or  tubercular.  Four  preanal 
pores.  General  colour  greyish,  the  head  finely  and  obscurely 
speckled  irregularly  with  black.  A  broad  black  band  passing 
from  side  to  side  across  the  nape  of  the  neck  from  behind  the 
temporal  region,  succeeded  by  five  similar  broad  bands  on  the 
trunk  and  eight  on  the  tail,  the  intervening  greyish  areas  being  not 
quite  so  broad  as  the  black  bands.  The  dark  bands  are  continued 
down  on  both  sides  of  the  trunk,  but  on  the  tail  they  form  rings. 
Underparts  whitish. 

Prom  snout  to  vent  35  millimetres ;  tail  23. 

This  species  is  of  considerable  interest,  as  it  seems  somewhat  to 
connect  the  two  genera  Bunopus  and  Gymnodactylus  together.  Its 
flattened  tail  somewhat  expanded  at  the  tip  and  the  character  of 
the  body-scales  are  its  most  striking  features. 

Only  one  specimen  was  collected  by  Mr.  Percival,  in  the  Wadi 
Jimil. 

3.  Pristurus  jlatipunctatus  Eiipp. 

Numerous  examples  from  the  hills  north  of  Lahej,  towards 
Jimil,  and  from  the  Jimil  Valley. 

4.  Prisiurus  Cruciper  Val. 

Numerous  examples  from  the  same  localities  as  the  preceding, 
and  also  from  the  hill-country  east  of  Aden,  from  Wadis  between 
Lahej  and  the  mountains  and  below  Mount  Manif. 

5.  Pristurus  collaris  Steindachner. 

Two  specimens  from  the  hills  north  of  Lahej  towards  Jimil,  and 
one  from  the  Wadis  between  Lahej  and  the  mountains.  These 
specimens  are  exactly  like  those  described  from  the  Hadramut  \ 
This  is  the  first  time  it  has  been  recorded  from  Aden. 

^  Herpetology  of  Arabia  (Anderson),  1896,  p.  34. 


1901.]  BATEAOHIANS  FEOM  ARABIA.  139 

These  specimens  do  not  throw  any  additional  light  on  the 
relation  between  this  species  and  P.  carteri  (Gray)  ^. 

[We  found  these  strange  little  beasts  on  the  very  hottest  stony 
deserts  near  Manif ,  and  again  amongst  the  black  volcanic  rocks  in 
the  xibian  country :  they  are  extremely  quick  and  are  also  very 
fragile,  tails  breaking  off  without  any  provocation.  I  obtained 
several  with  a  pistol  by  shooting  at  the  stone  where  they  sat,  the 
splashes  of  lead  from  bullet  killing  them.  When  sitting  on  a  stone 
the  tail  is  usually  curled  round,  something  like  a  chameleon's. 
They  look  almost  white  when  alive.  As  I  passed  the  stone  on 
which  they  were,  they  would  move  round  it  so  that  their  head  was 
to  be  seen  over  the  top. — A.  B.  P.] 

6.  Hemidaottlus  verbueyi  Anderson. 

2  (S  .     Erom  the  Bungalow  at  Lahej. 

1  c?,  1  $  .     North  of  Lahej, 

These  specimens  agree  in  all  their  details  of  structure  and  in  their 
coloration  with  the  types. 

[Very  common  on  walls  and  roof  of  the  Bah  Bungalow  at 
Lahej ;  also  about  the  Sultan's  palace. — A.  B.  P.] 


Agamid^. 

7.  Agama  siisTAiTA  Heydeu. 

1  c?  &  1  $  .  Wadis  between  Lahej  and  the  mountains. 
1  c?  &  1  $  •  Wadis  below  Mt.  Manif,  north  of  Lahej. 

1  J  &  1  $ .  Lahej. 

These  specimens  resemble  the  examples  of  this  species  from  the 
Hadramut  in  their  large  dorsal  scales.  They  consequently  differ 
from  the  Sinaitic  and  Egyptian  Hzards  ;  but  as  this  is  the  only 
featm-e  by  which  they  can  be  distinguished,  and  as  they  have  the 
third  digit  the  longest,  possess  an  enlarged  plate  under  each  claw, 
and  have  brown  spines  on  the  transverse  plates  of  the  digits,  all 
of  which  are  characteristic  of  this  species,  the  enlargement  of  the 
dorsal  scales  is  only  a  local  variation  which  begins  to  show  itself 
to  the  north  at  Medina,  where  the  species  is  traced  to  the  south 
from  the  Sinaitic  Peninsula. 

8.  Uromastix  (Apoeoscelis)  bbnti  Anderson.    (Plate  XV.) 

2  S  adnlt  and  1  $  .     Between  Mt.  Manif  and  Jimil. 
1  S  •  Abian  Mountain. 

'  This  species,  originally  described  from  the  Hadramut,  was 
obtained  by  Captain  Nurse  about  four  years  ago  from  the  hills  50 
miles  to  the  north  of  Aden  ".     The  present  specimens  differ  in  no 

1  Oouf.  Boulenger,  Ann.  Mus.  Genov.  (2)xvi.  1896,  p.  549. 
^  Herpetology  oi  Arabia  (Anderson),  1896,  p.  63. 


140  DR.  J.  ANDERSON  ON  REPTILES  AND  [May  21, 

respect  from  those  obtained  by  Captain  Nurse,  nor  from  the 
Hadramut  type. 

Mr.  Percival  has  added  the  accompanying  note  regarding  this 
Lizard,  which,  as  is  well  known,  is  a  vegetable-feeder.  He  says 
it  is  much  hunted  by  the  Beduins,  who  eat  it. 

[This  fine  lizard  is  fairly  numerous  in  the  hills  of  Southern 
Arabia.  It  is  a  vegetable-feeder,  and  is  much  hunted  by  the 
Beduins,  who  eat  it.  The  specimens  now  in  spirit  in  my  collections 
all  contained  small  twigs  and  grass  in  stomach.  The  first  specimen 
was  brought  me  at  J.  Manif  cut  to  pieces  by  a  spear.  I  impressed 
upon  the  briuger  that  I  did  not  want  them  in  that  state,  and  he 
promised  to  get  some  more  alive  :  next  day  he  brought  one  alive 
and  in  nice  condition.  Two  days  later  at  Jimil  I  got  two  more 
specimens  ;  and  on  the  last  trip  into  the  Abian  country,  to  the  east 
of  Aden,  I  got  two  more  specimens,  the  live  one  I  brought 
home  being  one  of  them.  It  is  a  slow  beast,  and  when  seen  is  very 
easily  captured,  unless,  as  happened  to  me,  they  get  into  a  crack 
in  the  rocks  and  so  escape.  There  are,  I  think,  one  or  two  more 
species,  as  the  Beduins  say  that  in  Dethina  there  is  a  larger  species 
that  is  particularly  good-eating.  I  did  not  try  the  lizard  as  an 
article  of  food,  much  as  some  of  the  men  wished  me  to.  I  was 
told  that  they  were  particularly  numerous  along  the  sides  of 
W.  Teramis,  but  I  saw  only  one  and  that  one  escaped  me  into  a 
crack  in  rocks ;  it  was  on  the  northern  side. — A.  B.  P.] 

The  larger  species  referred  to  by  the  natives  as  occurring  at 
Dethina  may  probably  prove  to  be  U.  ornatus. 

The  figure  here  given  of  this  beautiful  lizard  is  taken  from  the 
living  specimen  brought  home  by  Mr.  Percival. 

Vaeanid^. 

9.  Vaeanus  griseus  Daud. 

[Native  name  "Waral."  I  saw  only  one  specimen  of  this  fine 
Lizard.  They  are  not  uncommon,  as  we  often  saw  their  spoor. 
Seem  to  live  in  same  holes  as  the  large  Jerboa  Eats  (Tuft-tail 
Eats).— ^.  B.  P.] 

AmPHISBjENIDjE. 

10.  Agamodon  aeabicus,  sp.  n.     (Plate  XIV.  fig.  2.) 

Body  much  compressed,  its  transverse  breadth  at  the  middle 
being  little  more  than  one-half  of  its  depth,  whilst  before  the 
vent  it  is  less  than  half  of  the  depth.  Head  very  short,  higher 
than  broad.  Eostral  considerably  broader  than  long,  triangular  ; 
the  apex  or  labial  border  curved  downwards  and  slightly  back- 
wards and  nearly  half  the  breadth  of  the  base  of  the  shield.  Frontal 
more  or  less  concave  from  side  to  side,  the  lateral  margins  of  this 
shield,  as  well  as  of  the  rostral,  projecting  and  raised  aboA^e  the 
shields  on  the  sides  of  the  head.     Nostril  elongated,  parallel  to  the 


1901.]  BATRACHIANS  PROM  ARABIA.  141 

outer  border  of  the  rostral,  in  a  single  shield  resting  on  the  1st,  2nd, 
and  3rd  upper  labials.  Pive  upper  labials,  the  fourth  and  fifth  the 
largest,  the  first  lying  below  and  close  to  the  nostril.  A  large 
quadrangular  postnasal  lying  above  the  3rd,  4lh,  and  5th  labials 
and  below  the  anterior  half  of  the  ocular  shield.  Ocular  plate 
considerably  longer  than  deep,  partially  divided  about  the  middle 
of  the  eye  ;  a  large  postoeular  with  three  shields  between 
it  and  the  hinder  margin  of  the  gape.  A  subocular,  higher 
than  broad,  lying  between  the  postnasal  and  the  shield  below  the 
postoeular.  Three  lower  labials,  the  first  only  in  contact  with  the 
mental ;  the  last  very  large  and  elongated  from  above  downwards, 
separated  from  its  fellow  of  the  opposite  side  by  seven  scales  which 
are  shut  off  from  the  posterior  end  of  the  chin-shield  and  from  the 
first  and  second  labials  by  seven  other  shields  and  scales,  one  or 
two  of  the  shields  being  in  contact  with  all  the  lower  labials. 
Mental  very  elongate  and  ribbon-shaped,  reaching  as  far  back  as 
the  posterior  border  of  the  second  labial.  161  annuli  on  the  body, 
18  on  the  tail.  About  55  scales  round  the  body,  including  the 
irregular  scales  of  the  vertebral  and  ventral  lines,  in  the  former  of 
which  there  are  about  7  and  in  the  latter  3;  each  annulus  containing 
about  45  quadrangular  segments. 

Salmon-coloured  in  life,  the  majority  of  the  segments  of  the 
annuli  being  generally  partially  or  wholly  marked  by  a  dark 
brown  spot,  absent,  however,  from  the  lower  half  of  the  sides  and 
ventral  aspect ;  head-plates  yellowish. 

A  single  specimen,  from  the  Abian  country,  measuring  144 
millimetres. 

This  species  is  the  first  of  the  Emphyodont  group  of  Amphis- 
bsenidse  which  has  been  recorded  from  the  Asiatic  Continent,  but 
Pachy calamus  is  found  in  Socotra. 

Three  species  of  Agamodon  are  known,  viz.,  A.  anguliceps  Peters  \ 
the  type  of  the  genus,  A.  compi'essus  Mocquard  ^,  and  A.  arabicus 
Anders.  The  first  was  described  from  a  specimen  obtained  at 
Barava,  and  the  second  also  from  Somaliland.  They  constitute 
three  well-defined  species  distinguished  from  one  another  by 
the  number  of  annuli  round  the  body.  In  the  first  they  do 
not  exceed  133.  In  A.  compressus  there  are  as  many  as  147, 
and  in  A.  arabicus  there  are  over  160.  A.  ay^hicus  has  a  greater 
number  of  upper  labials  than  in  the  African  forms,  but  it  is 
quite  possible  that  with  further  materials  the  supposed  dis- 
tinction will  vanish.  It  also  differs  from  the  other  species  in 
the  way  in  which  the  second  lower  labial  is  broadly  excluded  from 
the  mental. 

A.  arabicus  has  the  compressed  form  of  A.  compressus,  from 
which  it  is  at  once  distinguished  by  the  shape  of  its  frouto-parietal 
in  addition  to  the  other  characters  here  enumerated. 


1  Peters,  Sitz.  Ak.  Wiss.  Berl.  1882,  p.  579,  pi.  x. 

2  Mocquard,  Mem.  Cent.  Soc.  Philom.  1888,  p.  121*,  pi.  xi.  figs.  2,  2  a  to  2  c, 


142 


DE.  J.  ANDERSON  OK  REPTILES  AND 


[May  21, 


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Somaliland. 

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1901.] 


BATBACHIASrS  PEOM  ARABIA. 


143 


Peters's  definition  of  the  genus  is  as  follows  : — "  Dentes  maxil- 
larum  tomiis  innati.  Caput  siiperne  scutis  duobus,  rostrali  fronto- 
parietalique,  obtectum.  Oculi  distineti,  superolaterales.  Corpus 
subbreA' e  ;  segmenta  lateralia  quadrangularia,  dorsalia  ventraliaqne 
media  minora,  squamiformia ;  sulcus  lateralis  nullus,  spinalis 
obsoletus,abdominalis  medianus  distinctus ;  pori  prseanales  distineti. 
Cauda  compressa,  apice  acuminato."  In  his  further  explanation 
of  the  generic  characters  he  states  that  the  nasal  was  sickle-formed, 
and  in  his  account  of  the  specific  characters  he  states  that  there 
were  three  upper  labials,  but  that  in  the  type  the  first  upper 
labial  had  united  with  the  nasal,  separating  only  two  labials,  the 
nasal  entering  the  labial  border,  there,  however,  being  in  reality 

3  upper  labials. 

Mocquard,  who  had  9  examples  of  A.  anguliceps  Peters  under 
observation,  viz.,  7  males  and  2  females,  states  that  they  all  had 

4  upper  labials  instead  of  3  as  described  by  Peters,  so  that  in 
A,  angulieeps  these  shields  may  vary  from  2  to  4,  the  smaller  of 
these  numbers  being  due  to  the  first  labial  amalgamating  with  the 
nasal.  Pour,  however,  would  appear  to  be  the  prevalent  number 
in  this  species. 

In  the  specimen  88.1.12.1  there  are  two  well-developed  and 
prominent  preanal  pores,  whereas  in  the  individual  89.12.16.32 
there  are  four  small  blackish  orifices  in  the  position  of  pores 
exactly  as  figured  by  Peters.  If  these  pores  are  confined  to  the 
males,  then  the  specimen  96.9.24.16  and  the  type  of  A.  arabicus 
are  females. 

[This  burrowing  reptile  I  obtained  at  Ai  Khaur  from  a  ploughed 
field,  it  being  thrown  out  by  the  plough  just  as  I  passed.  It  was 
salmon-pink  in  colour  when  alive. — A.B.P.^ 


Lacertid^. 
11.  AcANTHODACTYLUs  cajsttoris  Grunther. 


02 

CD 
> 

o 
o 

o 

S 
> 

o 
02 

Femoral  pores. 

1 

juv.  $ 

$ 

juv.  2 

2 

621 

60 

39 

53 

36 

46 

152 

? 

9 
? 
? 

107 

32 

34 
39 
32 
34 
39 

14 
14 
13 
14 
14 
14 

11 

14 
13 
12 
12 
10 

L.  E. 

20  21 

21  20 

22  22 
21  20 
21  20 
17  20 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

1  Measurements  throughout  in  millimetres. 


144 


DB.  J.  ANDERSON  ON  REPTILES  AND 


[May  21, 


No.  of 


specimens. 
1  &2.     2 
3,     1  juv. 


.     Wadis  between  Lahej  and  the  moiiu tains, 
,     Wadi  below  Mount  Manif  north  of  Lahej. 

4.  2  '     Hills  north  o£  Lahej  towards  Jiinil. 

5.  Juv.     Jirnil  Valley. 

6.  Abian  hill-country  east  of  Aden. 

None  of  the  examples  of  this  species  hitherto  recorded  from 
Aden  and  its  neighbourhood  have  had  fewer  than  38  scales  trans- 
versely and  dorsally  between  the  ventrals  at  the  middle  of  the 
body,  but  in  some  of  the  foi'egoing  examples  there  are  as  few  as 
32,  so  that  now  the  range  of  variation  in  the  number  of  dorsal  scales 
in  the  region  indicated  is  as  much  as  25,  the  highest  number 
occurring  in  Baluchistan,  and  the  lowest  in  the  Aden  district, 
where  the  variation  may  be  as  much  as  13. 

12.    ACANTHODACTYLUS  BOSKIANUS  Daud. 


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2 
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72 
60 

72 

9 

128 
163 

34 
36 

37 

10 
10 
10 

16 
17 

17 

11-7 
11-4 
12 

20  12 

21  21 
23    23 

2 

3 

1.  1  ?  .     Wadi  between  Lahej  and  the  mountains. 

2.  1  $  .     Wadis  below  Mt.  Manif. 

3.  1  c? .     Abian  country. 

These  specimens  belong  to  the  variety  aspera,  as  is  shown  by  the 
small  number  of  scales  between  the  ventrals  across  the  back. 
Thirty-four  is  a  lower  number  than  has  hitherto  been  recorded. 

13.  Latastia  longioaudata  Eeuss. 

1  c? .  Shaikh  Othman. 

Snout  to  vent  98  mm.,  tail  320  mm. 

The  only  distinction  in  which  this  male  differs  from  African 
specimens  is  in  the  greater  number  of  its  femoral  pores.  The 
highest  number  yet  recorded  in  Africa  is  14,  whereas  in  this  South 
Arabian  specimen  there  are  as  many  as  16.  The  following  are 
the  numbers  of  plates  and  scales  present  in  this  individual : — 

Ventrals  from  side  to  side  6.  Ventrals  between  collar  and 
preanal  region  31.  Collar-plates  9.  Upper  labials  9  (6th  below 
eye).     Scales  round  middle  of  body  58. 


1901.] 


BATEACHIANS  FROM  AllABIA. 


145 


This  is  the  second  occasion  on  which  this  species  has  been 
recorded  from  Asia.  In  the  iirst  instance  it  was  found  at  Tor  on 
the  Sinaitic  Peninsula,  and  these  specimens  constituted  the  types 
of  the  species. 

14.  Latastta  haedeggeei  Steind. 

Latastia  hardeggeri,  Steind.  Ann.  Hofmus.  Wien,  vi.  1891, 
p.  371,  ph  xi. ;  Blgr.  Zool.  Eec.  1893,  Eept.  p.  23;  id.  Ann.  &  Mag. 
N.  H.  (7)  V.  1898,  p.  130. 

Eremias  heterolejns,  Boettg.  Zool.  Anz.  1893,  pp.  115  &  193. 

Philodiortiis  neumanni,  Matschie,  SB.  Ges.  naturf.  Er.  Berl. 
1893,  p.  30. 

Latastia  neumanni,  Anders.  P.  Z.  S.  1895,  p.  643,  pi.  xxxvii. 
fig.  1 ;  id.  Herpet.  of  Arabia,  1896,  pp.  73,  80,  85,  &  88. 

1  (S ,  1  2  1  ^^^  1  ji^'^' 


Snout  to  Tent     

Vent  to  tip  of  tail 

Ventrals  across  body    . . 
Ventrals,    collar    to    preanal 

region 

Plates  of  collar 

Upper  labials 

Upper  labials  under  eye  

Scales  round  middle  of  body. . . 
Femoral  pores  


d- 

2- 

Juv. 

74 

82 

51 

205 

190 

? 

6 

6 

6 

32 

31 

31 

8 

8 

9 

9-9 

8—8 

9-9 

6-7 

5-5 

6—6 

38 

39 

39 

16—15 

15—14 

16—15 

Berbera. 
Juv.  c?. 


43 
122 

6 

30 

8 
9—9 
6—6 

34 

12 


The  first  specimen  of  this  species  from  Aden  which  came  under 
my  observation  had  42  and  47  rows  of  scales  across  the  middle  of 
the  body  between  the  ventrals.  These  recent  specimens  from 
practically  the  same  locality  have  only  38  and  39  rows  of  scales. 
In  an  example  in  the  British  Museum  from  Berbera  there  are 
only  34  rows  of  scales.  Mr.  Bouleuger,  in  identifying  this  example 
of  L.  hardeggeri  in  1898  \  remarked  that  in  fact  "nothing  but 
a  smaller  number  of  scales  across  the  body  (about  30  exclusive  of 
the  ventrals)  distinguishes  it "  from  L.  neumanni.  The  specimen, 
however,  with  which  he  dealt,  he  states  had  34  rows.  The 
circumstance  that  there  is  only  a  difference  of  4  rows  of  scales 
between  the  recent  acquisition  from  Aden  and  the  Berbera  lizard 
referable  to  L.  hardeggeri,  causes  the  supposed  distinction  to  break 
down,  and  L.  neumanni  must  be  relegated  as  a  synonym  to 
L.  hardeggem.  The  range  of  scales  exclusive  of  the  ventrals  has 
now  been  ascertained  to  be  from  30  to  47. 

15.  Eeemias  guttulata  Licht. 
1  5  .     Jimil  valley. 
1  2  .     Abian  country  east  of  Aden. 

The  palpebral  disk  of  these  specimens  consists  of  two  semifrans- 
1  Ann.  &  Mag.  N.  H.  (7)  ii.  1898,  p.  130. 
Peoc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II,  No.  X.  10 


146 


DB,  J.  ANBEfiSOJS^  ON  KEPTILBS  AND 


[May  21, 


parent  plates,  of  about  equal  dimensions,  as  in  Egyptian  examples 
of  this  species.  In  both  the  interparietal  is  directly  in  contact 
with  the  occipital. 


Snout  to 

vent. 

Tail. 

Scales  round 

body  including 

ventrals. 

Mesial  longitu- 
dinal line  of 
ventrals. 

Position  of 
subocular  be- 
tween labials. 

Femoral 
pores. 

46 

38 

73 
? 

49 
56 

30 
30 

L.        R. 

4           5 

L.  4&5 
E.  5&6 

13-13 
12-13 

Secently  figured,  see    '  Symbolse    Physicse,  seu    Icones  adhuc 
ineditse,'  of  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  Zool.  i.  Amph.  pi.  ii.  fig.  1. 

SCINCIDjE. 


Wadis  between  Lahej  and  the  mountains. 

>>  _  »i  J?  J»  J5 

2  .  Abian  hill-country  E.  of  Aden. 
Juv.  of  foregoing  specimen. 

5J  55  5) 

In  membranes  of  foregoing  specimen. 
Abian  country. 
Jimil  Valley. 


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15 

1901.]  BATEACHIANS  FitOM  ABADIA.  147 

This  lizard  and  the  specifically  identical  Euprepes  pyrrhocephalus 
Wiegm.  have  been  figured  in  the  recently  published  work  entitled 
'  Symbolse  Physicae,  seu  Icoues  adhuc  ineditae  &c.,'  of  Hemprich  & 
Ehrenberg,  Zool.  i.  Amph.  pi.  v.  figs.  1  &  2. 

The  large  female,  the  mother  of  the  young  ones,  is  complerely 
devoid  of  white  spots.  The  dark  longitudinal  lines  ax-e  only  feebly 
indicated,  but  the  small  dark  brown  spots  by  which  they  are  niarlied 
are  very  distinct.  The  white  lateral  band  is  more  or  less  distinct. 
The  specimen  ]So.  2  has  much  the  same  characters,  but  there  are 
here  and  there  faint  traces  of  white  spots.  In  the  large  female 
No.  1  the  dark  lines  and  dark  brown  spots  are  present,  and  white 
spots  on  the  anterior  part  of  the  body.  In  the  adult  male  the 
general  colour  is  pale  brown,  each  scale  having  a  dark  brown 
margin.  A  few  white  spots  occur  on  the  sides  of  the  body.  The 
pale  lateral  band  is  present,  and  below  it  is  a  broadish  dark  band 
extending  back  from  the  eye  to  the  hind  limb,  blackish  on  the  sides 
of  the  head  and  neck,  but  becoming  pale  brown  behind  the  axilla. 
The  sides  of  the  body  below  the  band  are  of  a  pale  livid  tint  ex- 
tending on  to  the  throat,  which  is  dark-spotted ;  white  spots  on 
the  upper  and  lower  labials. 

The  young  is  marked  dorsally  by  two  broad,  very  pale  brown 
bands  defined  by  a  mesial  and  by  a  very  narrow  pale  whitish  band 
externally.  These  three  lines  converge  on  the  base  of  the  tail. 
There  are  six  longitudinal  lines,  each  consisting  of  18  well-defined 
black  spots  from  the  head  to  the  interfemoral  region,  but  beyond 
that  they  are  prolonged  on  to  the  tail.  There  are  two  transverse 
sets  of  spots  to  each  of  the  broad  brownish  areas,  and  another 
somewhat  more  transversely  elongated  set  of  black  spots  along  the 
side  on  a  somewhat  pale  brownish  lateral  band  from  the  eye  to 
the  hind  limb,  the  sides  of  the  body  below  it  being  also  black- 
spotted.  The  upper  surface  of  the  fore  limbs  is  pale  brownish  with 
obscure  whitish  spots,  whereas  the  corresponding  aspect  of  the 
hind  limb  is  markedly  black-and-white  spotted.  Underparts  pure 
white.  The  mesial  white  longitudinal  dorsal  line  disappears  in  the 
adult,  but  the  white  lateral  line  of  each  side  is  more  or  less  per- 
sistent throughout  life.  In  none  of  the  very  young  which  I  have 
examined  are  white  spots  associated  \Aith  the  dark  spots  as  occur 
in  some  adults.  Young  lizards  with  the  foregoing  coloration  corre- 
spond to  M.  pulclira  Matschie. 

In  two  of  the  fcetuses  the  male  generative  organs  are  extruded. 

17.  SciNCUS  HEMPEiciiii  Wiegm. 

1  6  .  Shaikh  Othman. 

1  c? .  Lahej  and  south  to  Shaikh  Othman. 

This  lizard  has  been  recently  figured  in  the  part  of  the  '  Symboise 
Physicse '  entitled  "  Icones  adhuc  ineditae  &c.,"  1899,  Zool.  i.  Amph. 
pi.  iv.  figs.  1  &  1  a. 

The  Aden  specimen  described  by  me  in  1895  differed  from 
the  type  preserved  in  the  Berlin  Museum  and  from  Professor 

10* 


148 


DE.  J.  AlSTDERSOlSr  OK  EEPTILES  AICD 


[May  21, 


Bcettger's  Aden  example  of  the  species  in  having  24  instead  of  22 
rows  of  scales  round  the  body,  whereas  out  of  the  three  speciaiens 
now  recorded  22  is  the  prevailing  number. 

In  all  of   these  specimens  the  frontoparietals  and  frontal  are 
normal,  also  the  supi^aorbitals. 


^3 

TS 

n3 

.+3 

03 

C 

O 

=2 

^ 

■u 

t*- 

. 

iV.  JD 

"^    'D 

S  >^ 

o 

o 

O 

o  g 

=    P 

o  ~ 

-^ 

J 

-j3  ;:= 

■5  ^ 

^-^ 

Locality. 

tuD 

bc 

ID 

o 

r;2 

c 

a 

IE 

m 

02 

H 

27 

^ 

^^ 

o 

6- 

101 

48 

18 

29 

33 

22 

Shaikh  Othman. 

6- 

140 

82 

42 

29 

41 

44 

22 

Laliej  to  south  of 
Shaikh  Othmau. 

2- 

SO 

58 

25 

17 

26 

31 

24 

" 

18.  Chalcides  ocellatus  Forskal. 

1.  Wadis  between  Lahej  and  the  mountains. 
1.  Wadis  below  Mount  Manif  north  of  Lahej. 
1  juv.  Abian  country. 


m 

bO 

(3 

^• 

oi 

a 

"^ 

O 

C 

'3 

o 
o 

CD 
O 

0) 

o 

_CS 

S 

^1 
§1 

C 

Scales  roun 
body. 

102 

107 

7 

19 

21-5 

27 

over 
sutui-e  of 

1  &2 
labials. 

2 

E.  8-6 
L.  8-7 

5 

30 

124 

90 

8 

20 

23 

29 

rostral 
and  1st 
labial. 

1  &2 

2 

R.  8-7 
L.  8-7 

5 

30 

46 

43 

4 

9-5 

11 

14-5 

1&2 

2 

R.7— 6 
L.  8— 6 

5 

30 

In  both  the  adults,  the  broken,  more  or  less  oblique  or  transverse 
black  dorsal  bands,  the  breadth  of  a  scale,  are  well-defined, 
each  dorsal  and  lateral  scale  included  in  the  black  band  being 
provided  with  the  usiial  pure  white  narrow  spot.  In  the  smaller 
of  the  two,  the  black  bands  with  the  white  spots  constitute 
about  26  transverse  dorsal  bands,  whereas  in  the  larger  specimen 
they  are  nearly  obliterated.  In  the  young  there  are  no  black 
bands,  but  many  of  the  scales  have  a  white  spot  margined  with 
blackish,  but  on  the  tail  there  are  feebly  indicated  pale  brown 
dorsal  bands  with  white  spots,  as  in  the  last  mentioned  adult. 
The  coloration  of  these  lizards  thus  conforms  to  that  distinctive 
of  the  typical  form  of  this  species. 


1901.] 


BATRACHIANS  PROM  ARABIA. 


149 


The  largest  of  the  two  adults  is  four  millimetres  longer  than  the 
largest  male  yet  recorded  by  me  \ 

[JN'ot  uncommon  in  desert  between  Lahej  and  Shaikh  Othman  : 
only  obtained  at  night  by  going  out  with  a  lantern  and  looking 
for  tracks  in  sand  and  by  throwing  the  sand  aside  which  indicated 
where  the  animals  had  gone  down,  until  they  were  thrown  or  had 
come  out  again.  Chahides  ocellatus  was  very  common  in  and 
around  Lahej,  and  in  fact  everywhere  we  went. — A.  B.  P.] 

EHIPTOGLOSSA. 

CHAM^LE02fTIDJ5. 

19.  Cham.eleojS'  calcarifer  Peters. 

1  S .  Lahej. 

2S.  Shaikh  Othman. 

1  juv.  2  .  Abian  country. 


Sex. 

Snout  to  eud 
of  casque. 

Angle  of  mouth 

to  summit  of 

casque. 

Snout  to 
vent. 

Vent  to  tip 
of  tail. 

6   

6  

6  

? 

74 
71 
39 
25 

54 
60 
26 
17 

230 

195 

108 

74 

265 

220 

122 

80 

In  the  adult  and  semiadult  the  anterior  border  of  the  casque  is 
nearly  straight,  whereas  in  the  other  two  much  younger 
specimens  it  is  decidedly  concave  in  its  curvature.  The  occipital 
lobes  of  the  second  specimen  are  somewhat  more  developed 
relatively  than  in  the  adult. 


OPHIDIA. 

CoLTTBRIDjB. 

20.  Zamenis  rrodorhachis  Jan. 
1.  Abian  country. 

Snout 
to  vent. 

$...655 

This  snake  is  of  a  uniform  greyish-blue  or  slate-colour  along 
two-thirds  of  the  length  of  the  trunk,  whereas  in  the  latter  third 
and  on  the  upper  surface  of  the  tail  it  passes  into  purplish  brown. 

1  Herpet.  Arabia,  1896,  p.  50;  Zool.  of  Egypt,  Eept.  &  Batr.  1898  p.  219. 


Tail. 

V. 

A. 

0. 

Scales. 

Upper 
labials. 

Labials 
entering  eye 

245 

221 

1/1 

131 

19 

9+9 

5&6. 

150 


DR.  J.  ABTDERSOK  OlST  REPTILES  AND 


[May  21, 


Oa  the  neck  there  is  a  narrow  interrupted  blackish  mesial  line, 
becoming  more  marked  as  it  is  traced  backwards,  and  so  broad  at 
the  anterior  fourth  as  to  cover  the  greater  part  of  the  back, 
ultimately  extending  over  the  whole  of  the  dorsal  surface  and  pro- 
ducing the  purphsh-brown  colour  already  referred  to.  Externally 
to  the  dark  area,  about  the  middle  of  the  body,  there  are  a  few  black 
scales  on  the  sides  and  on  the  angles  of  the  ventrals.  The  upper 
surface  of  the  head  olive-greyish.  Upper  lips  pale  greyish-yellow. 
Under  surface  of  neck  anteriorly  yellowish,  passing  into  dusky, 
which  is  the  general  colour  of  the  ventrals,  which  have  darker 
borders,  whereas  the  under  surface  of  the  terminal  fourth  of  the 
body  is  dark  purplish-brown. 

It  recalls  in  its  coloration  the  snake  from  Ogaden  in  Somaliland 
described  by  Boettger^  under  the  name  of  Z.  ladacensis  var. 
suhnigra,  but  differs  from  it  in  some  details,  but  of  such  little 
importance  that  the  type  of  coloration  first  indicated  by  Boettger 
may  be  said  to  be  common  to  individuals  of  Z.  rhodorhacMs  from 
both  sides  of  the  Eed  Sea  in  the  latitude  of  Aden. 

The  type  of  Boettger's  var.  suhnigra  had  ventrals  213,  anals  1/1, 
caudals  118,   and  scales  19. 

21.  Tarbophis  GUEifTHERi  Andcrsou. 
1  $  .  Abiau  country. 
Snout 


to  vent.       Tail. 

650  125 

Number  of 

dark  dorsal 

spots. 

Ill-defined,  not 
sufficiently  distinct 
to  be  counted. 


V. 

229 


A. 
1 


Prceocular, 
1 


C.         Scales. 

65  21 

Eelation  of 
prEeocular 
to  frontal. 

In  contact. 


Upper 
labials. 

9+9 


Post- 
oculars. 


Labials 
entering  eye. 

3,  4,  &  5 


Temporals. 

R.  2  +  3. 

L.  2+4. 


The  coloration  of  this  specimen  resembles  that  of  the  specimen 
already  recorded  from  Lahej.  The  undivided  anal,  the  number 
of  the  scales  round  the  body  being  less  than  23,  and  the 
arrangement  of  the  labials  entering  the  orbit,  are  all  characters 
distinctive  of  this  form,  which,  however,  is  very  closely  allied  to 
T.  obtusus  Heuss. 

22,    CCELOPELTIS  MOILENSIS  EeUSS. 

1  2  •  Abian  country. 

Snout  to  Upper  Labials 

vent.  Tail.         V.         A.         C.         Scales.         labials.         entering  eye. 

495  135        167       1/1         69  17  8  4&5 

Relation  of 
prseocular  and 


Pr£BOcuIars.  frontal. 

1  Widely  separated. 


Post- 
oculars. 

2f2 


Temporals. 
2-f3 


Nasal. 
1 


Loreal. 
1 


^  Zool.  Anz.  1893,  p.  118. 


1901.]  BATEACHIA^"S  FROM  ARABIA.  151 

This  species  was  first  recorded  from  Arabia  by  Eiippell,  In  1895 
it  was  met  with  for  the  first  time  at  Aden  by  Col.  Yerbury  \  and 
in  1896  Bent  brought  it  back  with  him  from  the  Hadramut.  In 
the  smallness  of  the  dark  spots  the  present  example  corresponds  to 
the  Egyptian  snakes.  Those  from  Suakin  are  distinguished  by  large 
black  spots  and  more  vivid  colouring. 

23.  PsAMMOPHis  SCHOKAEI  Porskal. 


1.  Abian 

country. 

Snout  to  vent.         Tail. 

Ventrals. 

Anals.         Caudals. 

Scales. 

228 

155 

181 

1/1                154 

17 

Upper 
labials. 

Labials 
entering  eye. 

Relation  of 
praeocular 
to  frontal. 

Temporals  in 
contact  with 
postoculars. 

Number  of 
nasals. 

9 

5&6 

Broadly  in 
contact. 

2 

2 

A  dusky  band  from  the  nostril  through  the  eye  to  the  temporal 
region.  Upper  parts  pale  gi'eyish,  under  surface  white,  but  with  a 
minute  black  spot  generally  present  in  the  angle  of  each  ventral. 
The  lineated  form  of  this  snake  also  occurs  in  the  Aden  district. 
154  caudals  is  the  highest  number  yet  recorded  in  Arabia,  in  which 
the  individuals  of  this  species  are  distinguished  from  those  found 
in  Africa  by  the  more  numerous  caudals. 

VlPERID^. 

24.  Cerastes  cornutus  Hasselq. 

1  2  '  Abian  country. 

Snout  Upper        Scales  between 

to  vent.      Tail.       V.       A.       C.       Se.         labials.       labials  and  eye.      Horns. 
335  42       139       1       37       28    L.  13,  R.  12  5  None. 

The  two  extremes,  or  nearly  so,  of  the  range  of  variation  in  the 
ventrals  are  met  with  in  South-east  Arabia,  as  this  individual 
possesses  139  ventrals,  whereas  in  the  Hadramut  the  highest 
number  of  ventrals  (164)  hitherto  recorded  of  the  species  is  met 
with.  An  Aden  specimen  obtained  by  Colonel  Yerbury  in  1895 
had  as  many  as  159  ventrals. 

25.  EcHis  CARiNATUS  Schneider. 
1  2  •  Lahej. 

Snout  to  vent.         Tail.         Ventrals.         Anal.  Caudals.  Scales. 

610  52  167  1  27  29 

Nasals  and 
Nasals.        supranasals.  Scales  round  eye.  Upper  labials. 

2  In  contact  with  L.  19.     R.  21.  L.  12.     R.  11. 

rostral.     Left  supra- 
nasal  excluded. 

^  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1895,  p.  656 ;  Herpet.  of  Arabia,  p.  52. 


152  ME.  G.  A.  BOULEisraER  ON  A  [May  21, 

Hitherto  the  specimens  from  South-east  Arabia  have  bad  never 
less  than  30  subcaudals. 

BATEACHIA. 

1.  Eana  ctanophlyctis  Schneider. 
1  (S  .  Abian  country. 

2.  BUFO  ANDEKSONI  Blgr. 

1.  Shaikh  Othman. 

3.  BuFO  PENTONi  Anderson. 

3.  Wadis  below  Mount  Manif  north  of  Lahej. 

2.  Abian  country. 


EXPLANATION  OF  THE  PLATES. 

Plate  XIV. 

Fig.  1.  Jjunop'iis  sjjatalurus,  p.  137. 

\a.  Upper  view  of  head,     x  2. 

16.  Side         „ 

]c.  Lower     „         „  „ 

2.  Agamodon  arabiciis,  p.  140. 

'2a.  Upper  view  of  head.      X  3. 

'lb.  Side 

2c.  Lower     ,,         „  „ 

Plate  XV. 
TJromastw  {Aporoscelis)  benii,  p.  139.     |. 


6.  Description  of  a  new  Fish  of  the  Genus  Gobius  obtained 
by  Mr.  A.  Blayney  Percival  in  South  Arabia.  By 
G.  A.  BOULENGER,  F.E.S. 

[Eeceived  May  14,  1901.] 

(Text-figure  9.) 

The  collection  made  by  Mr.  Percival,  the  Mammals,  Birds,  and 
Eeptiles  of  which  have  been  reported  upon  by  Mr.  O.  Thomas 
Mr.  W.  E.  O.  Grant,  and  the  late  Dr.  Anderson,  contaiued 
examples  of  only  two  species  of  Pishes,  viz.,  the  widely  distributed 
Cyprinid  Discognathus  lamta,  and  a  fiue  Goby  which  I  propose 
to  name 

GoBiTJS  peecivali,  sp.  n.     (Text-fig.  9,  p.  153.) 
No  canine  teeth.     Depth  of  body  4  times  in  total  length,  length 
of  head  3^  times.     Head  slightly  longer  than  broad;  diameter  of 


]901.] 


NEW  FISH  OF  THE  GENUS  GOBIUS. 


153 


eye  6|  times  in  length  of  head,  twice  in  interocular  width  ;  snout 
slightly  shorter  than  postocular  part  of  head  ;  upper  jaw  extending 
somewhat  beyond  the  lower  ;  maxillary  not  extending  to  below 
anterior  border  of  eye.  First  dorsal  with  6  rays,  the  length  of 
which  is  I  that  of  head  ;  its  base  f  length  of  head  ;  its  distance 
from  the  eye  nearly  equal  to  that  between  the  end  of  the  snout 
and  the  border  of  the  prseoperculum.  Second  dorsal  with  11  rays, 
1|  as  long  as  and  slightly  deeper  than  the  first.     Anal  as   much 

Text-fig.  9. 


Gobius  percivali. 


developed  as  the  second  dorsal,  with  11  rays.  No  silk-like 
filaments  to  the  pectoral.  The  extremity  of  the  ventral  halfway 
between  its  base  and  the  vent.  Caudal  rounded.  Caudal  peduncle 
slightly  longer  than  deep.  60  scales  in  a  longitudinal  series,  28 
in  a  transverse  series.  Pale  olive-brown  above,  white  beneath  ; 
dorsal  and  caudal  fins  with  numerous  dark  dots. 

Total  length  165  millim. 

A  single  specimen  from  a  Wadi  (=  stream)  near  Lahej,  coming 
down  from  the  hills  in  the  interior. 


154  MB.  OLDFIELD  THOMAS  ON"  [June  4, 

This  Oobius,  which  I  have  much  pleasure  in  naming  after 
Mr.  Percival,  is  closely  allied  to  another  large  Arabian  species, 
described  by  me  from  specimens  obtained  at  Muscat  by  Dr. 
Jayakar,  G.  jayakari  (P.  Z.  S.  1887,  p.  663,  pi.  liv.  fig.  2).  It 
differs  from  G.  jayakari  in  the  shorter  mouth,  not  extending  to 
below  the  eye,  in  the  broader  interocular  region,  and  in  the 
shorter  caudal  peduncle. 


June  4,  1901. 
Dr.  W.  T.  Blanford,  P.E.S.,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  papers  were  read  : — 


1.  Notes  on  the  Type  Specimen  o?  Rhinoceros  lasiotis  Sclater; 
with  Remarks  on  the  Generic  Position  of  the  Living 
Species  of  Rhinoceros.     By  Oldfield  Thomas. 

[Eeeeived  May  7,  1901.] 

On  August  31st,  1900,  there  died  in  the  Gardens  of  the  Society 
the  famous  female  Ehiuoceros  from  Chittagong  which  has  so  often 
been  referred  to  in  our  'Proceedings,'  and  the  characters  of  which 
it  is  only  fitting  should  be  here  noted,  now  that  its  skull  and  head- 
skin  have  passed  into  the  possession  of  the  National  Museum. 

As  the  animal  was  captured  in  January  1868,  its  age  at  death 
was  more  than  32  years. 

The  first  reference  to  this  specimen  is  an  account  of  its  external 
characters  given  by  the  late  Dr.  Anderson,  the  Superintendent  of 
the  Calcutta  Museum  (P.  Z.  S.  1872,  p.  129).  Then  followed 
{t.  c.  p.  185)  an  announcement  of  its  purchase  for  .£1250.  In 
March  of  the  same  year  (t.  c.  p.  493,  pi.  xxiii.)  our  Secretary  gave 
the  history  of  the  specimen's  capture,  and  a  figure  of  it,  and  in 
a  footnote  assigned  to  it  the  name  of  R.  lasiotis,  given  after 
comparison  with  a  Malaccan  example  of  R,  sumatrensis  which 
arrived  in  August.  In  November  {t,  c.  p.  790)  he  gave  his  full 
reasons  for  separating  the  two  forms,  accompanied  by  figures  of 
the  heads,  and  of  the  Malaccan  specimen. 

Dr.  Gray,  however  (Ann.  Mag.  N.  H.  (4)  x.  p.  207,  1872),  with 
a  total  disregard  to  the  geography  of  the  question,  considered  that 
it  was  the  Chittagong  animal  that  was  the  true  B.  sumatrensis, 
assigning  the  Malaccan  animal  first  to  his  B.  crossii(P.  Z.  S.  1854, 
p.  250)  and  afterwards  (Ann.  Mag.  N.  H.  (4)  xi.  p.  357,  1873) 


1901.]  RHINOCEROS  LASIOTIS.  155 

giving  it  the  special  name  of  Ceratorhinus  niger  (nee  Rhinoceros 
niger,  Schinz,  Syn.  Mamm.  ii.  p.  335,  1845). 

In  the  latter  paper  Gray,  perceiving  (as  I  think  rightly)  that 
the  skulls  figured  in  Blyth's  valuable  paper  of  1863,  quoted  below, 
belonged  to  different  forms,  gave  the  name  of  Ceratorhinus  hlyihii 
to  some  of  them,  but  so  M^orded  his  remarks  that  it  is  not  easy  to 
make  out  to  which  he  applied  the  name.  This  point  is,  however, 
of  but  little  importance,  as  the  term  hlythii  is  antedated  by  names 
covering  all  the  forms  figured. 

Other  references  bearing  on  the  subject  are  as  follows  : — 

Sclater,  Ann.  Mag.  N.  H.  (4)  x.  p.  298  (1872). 

Blyth,  t.  c.  p.  399  ;  also  J.  A.  S.  B.  xxxi.  p.  151  (1863),  and  xhv. 
Burmese  Appx.  p.  51  (1875). 

Mower,  P.  Z.  S.  1876,  p.  443,  and  1878,  p.  634. 

As  might  have  been  expected,  after  so  many  years  in  confinement, 
the  animal  had  become  very  much  diseased,  and  after  its  death  it 
was  found  that  the  skull  and  the  head-skin  were  alone  worth 
preservation,  and  it  is  on  these  that  my  observations  have  been 
taken. 

For  comparison  I  have  had  before  me  13  skulls  belonging  to  the 
group  of  R.  sumatrensis,  four  of  them  having  been  kindly  lent  me  by 
Prof.  Stewart  from  the  College  of  Surgeons  collection  (Nos.  2142, 
2143,  2145,  and  2146  of  the  1884  Catalogue),  and  the  others  being 
those  belonging  to  the  British  Museum. 

In  the  first  place,  with  regard  to  the  external  characters  of 
colour  and  hair  development,  a  comparison  of  the  head-skin  of 
R.  lasiotis  with  the  two  specimens  in  the  Museum  of  "  Ceratorhinus 
niger  "  leads  me  to  the  conclusion  that  the  differences  described 
were  mainly  due  to  age.  For  it  will  be  remembered  that  the 
"  C.  niger"  (that  is  to  say  the  specimen  determined  by  Sclater  as 
sumatrensis  and  used  by  him  for  his  comparison  with  lasiotis)  was 
very  old,  while  the  type  of  lasiotis  was  then  quite  young.  In  its  old 
age  the  latter  has  become  practically  quite  like  the  former,  for  the 
tufts  on  the  ears  do  not  exceed  1^-2  inches  in  length,  and  are  in 
no  way  noticeably  different  from  those  of  the  Malaccan  specimen. 
In  fact  Dr.  Anderson's  supposition  (P.  Z.  S.  1872,  p.  130)  that  the 
tufts  on  the  ears  might  wear  off  with  age,  seems  to  me  entirely 
confirmed  by  the  evidence,  so  far  as  can  be  judged  from  a  mena- 
gerie specimen. 

Nor  is  there  in  colour  any  difference  worthy  of  note,  that 
described  by  Sclater  having  apparently  disappeared  with  advancing 
age. 

Turning  to  the  skull,  we  find  that  in  size  the  type  of  R.  lasiotis 
surpasses  all  the  other  thirteen  skulls  examined,  but  differs  in 
no  other  tangible  character,  so  that  the  question  of  the  validity  of 
R.  lasiotis  as  a  special  form  seems  to  depend  purely  on  the  matter 
of  size.  The  following  are  its  measurements,  given  in  inches  for 
comparison  with  those  published  by  Sir  W.  Flower  in  1878  : — 

Length  from  occipital  crest  to  end  of  nasals,  in  straight  line  23|, 
with  tape  over  curve  of.  nasals  24-5;  greatest  zygomatic  breadth 


l56  MR.  OLDFIBLD  THOMAS  ON  [Juue  4, 

12| ;  interorbital  breadth  8.  [Teeth  and  palate  too  much  diseased 
for  measurement.] 

From  these  measurements  it  appears  that  R.  lasiotis  exceeds 
considerably  the  equally  aged  skull  of  '*  O.niger"  (Flower's  No.  2) 
from  Malacca,  and  is  only  approached  by  No.  5  (R.  C.  S.  No.  2142), 
said  to  be  from  Sumatra. 

Allowing  for  its  much  more  youthful  couditiou,  the  latter  skull  is 
practically  of  the  same  size  as  the  Chittagong  one,  and  therefore, 
if  it  really  came  from  Sumatra,  disposes  at  once  of  the  claim  of 
li.  lasiotis  to  distinction  on  the  gi'ound  of  size. 

But  I  am  not  satisfied  about  the  question  of  locality,  for 
Sir  Stamford  Baffles,  as  a  collector  of  Natural  History  objects,  and 
a  great  Governor  and  Administrator,  might  easily  have  had 
brought  to  him  a  skull  from  any  part  of  the  East  Indies  ;  so  that, 
merely  on  the  evidence  of  this  skull  only,  I  do  not  like  to  dismiss 
the  claims  of  B.  lasiotis  to  distinction,  since  such  dismissal  would 
carry  with  it  the  assumption,  otherwise  unsupported,  that  the 
skulls  o£  the  Sumatran  Rhinoceros  vary  in  size  to  so  considerable 
an  extent. 

The  Pegu  skull  (Theobald,  B.M.  No.  68.4.15.1,  Flower's  No.  4) 
is  intermediate  in  size,  as  in  locality  ;  while  all  the  Malaccan  and 
other  Sumatran  skulls  are  comparatively  small,  as  are  those  from 
Borneo. 

For  the  time  being  therefore,  on  the  assumption  that  the  Raffles 
skull  referred  to  was  not  really  from  Sumatra,  1  should  consider 
R.  lasiotis  as  a  tenable  northern  subspecies  of  R.  sumatrensis, 
characterized  mainly  by  its  greater  size.  As  noted  by  Flower  in 
the  case  of  the  Pegu  skull,  and  borne  out  by  that  from  Chittagong, 
the  post-glenoid  processes  appear  to  be  longer  in  proportion  than 
in  the  Malaccan  and  Sumatran  Rhinoceros. 

Of  course  it  follows,  from  the  tentative  nature  of  this  conclusion, 
that  further  material  is  badly  wanted,  both  from  the  North,  to  see  if 
the  form  found  there  is  constantly  larger,  and  from  Sumatra,  to  see 
if  any  such  skull  as  R.  C.  S.  No.  2142  may  really  occur  there. 

Further  material  may  also  prove  that  the  typical  horn  of  Gray's 
"  Rhinoceros  crossii  "  belongs  to  the  northern  subspecies,  in  which 
case  the  name  crossii  will  have  to  supersede  lasiotis.  But  this 
identification  is  as  yet  too  doubtful  to  be  definitely  accepted. 

Now  with  regard  to  the  general  question  of  the  nomenclature  of 
Rhinoceroses  and  the  genera  in  which  the  recent  species  should 
be  placed,  I  would  draw  attention  to  the  recent  important  paper 
by  Prof.  Osborn  on  the  "  Phylogeny  of  the  Rhinoceroses  of 
Europe  "  ^ 

^  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.  H.  xiii.  p.  229  (1900).  I  should  demur  to  the  charac- 
terization of  B.  bicornis  as  a  dolichocephalic  form,  for  its  short  stumpy  head  is 
one  of  its  most  marked  distinctions  from  its  long-headed  congener  i?.  6m2te%  but 
in  all  other  respects  Prof.  Osborn's  conclusions  seem  justified.  In  conjunction 
with  Mr.  Lydekker,  I  have  compared  the  fine  skull  in  the  Museum  of  R.  platy- 
rhinus,  hitherto  usually  considered  related  to  the  sinuis  group,  and  after  careful 
consideration  we  have  come  to  the  conclusion  advocated  by  Osborn,  that,  in  spite 
of  its  tooth  characters,  it  is  really  most  nearly  allied  to  the  sutnatrensis  grouij. 


1901.]  EHIIS'OCEEOS  LASIOTIS.  157 

In  this  paper  no  less  than  six  groups  of  the  family  are  recognized, 
distinguished  mainly  by  the  characters  of  the  skull,  those  of  the 
teeth  being  considered  to  be  of  less  phylogenetic  value.  Of  these 
six  groups,  which  are  treated  by  the  author  as  subfamilies,  three  are 
still  existent,  the  "  Ceratorhinse  "  (sumatrensis),  the  "  Atelodinse  " 
{simiis  and  hicornis),  and  the  "  EhinocerotinsB "  (unicornis  and 
sondaicus),  groups  which  were  also  recognized  by  Flower  as  genera 
in  his  paper  of  1876. 

Now  if  there  is  to  be  any  sort  of  uniformity  in  the  value  of 
genera  as  recognized  among  Mammals,  it  appears  to  me  impossible 
to  continue  to  include  such  essentially  different  animals  in  one 
genus  Rhinoceros.  Elower  came  to  this  conclusion  in  1876, 
although  he  did  not  cany  it  out  in  his  later  works  ;  aud  now  that 
Osborn  arrives  at  a  like  opinion  from  the  palaeontological  side, 
I  venture  to  think  the  generic  groups  should  be  accepted  for 
ordinary  use. 

But  in  so  doing  it  would  be  advisable  to  start  with  the  names 
for  them  which  have  technical  priority,  so  that  no  name-changing 
may  hereafter  become  necessary.  Both  Atelodus  and  Ceratorhinus, 
used  by  Plower  and  Osborn,  are  antedated  by  earlier  names,  as  the 
following  synonymy  will  show  : — 

I.  Ehinoceeos. 

Type. 
Rhinoceros,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  (10)  i.  p.  56  (1758) .  .      R.  unicornis. 
Eurhinoceros,  Gray,  P.  Z.  S.  1867,  p.  1009 R.  unicornis. 

One-horned.  Occipital  plane  much  slanted  forward.  Meatus 
closed  in  below  by  the  junction  of  the  post-tympanic  and  post- 
glenoid  processes.  Functional  incisors  present  above,  and  canines 
below. 

1.  Rhinoceros  unicornis  L. 

2.  R.  sondaicus  Desm.  Mamm.  ii.  p.  399  (1822). 

II.    DiOEEOEHINUS. 

Type. 
Dicerorhinus,  Gloger,  Naturg.  p.  125  (1841)  .  .      D.  sumatrensis. 
Oeratorhinus,  Gray,  P.  Z.  S.  1867,  p.  1021 ....      D.  sumatrensis. 

Two-horned.  An  open  groove  below  the  meatus.  Incisors  and 
canines  as  in  Rhinoceros. 

1.  Dicer orhinus  sumatrensis  G.  Cuv. 
la.  JD.  sumatrensis  lasiotis  Selater. 

III.    DiCEEOS. 

Tvpe. 
JDiceros,  Gray,  Med.  Repos.  xv.  p.  306  (1821). .      D.  hicornis. 
Coelodonta,  Bronn,  Jahrb.  Min.  Geol.  1831,  p.  51     D.  aniiquitatis. 
Oj)siceros,  Gloger,  Naturg.  p.  125  (1841)     ....      Z).  hicornis. 


158  ME.  G.  A.  BULTLEKGEE  ON  [June  4, 

Type. 

Atelodus,    Pomel,  Ann.    Sci.  Auvergne,   xxvi. 

p.  114  (1853) D.  bicornis. 

RUnaster,  Gerrard,  Cat.  Eones  Mamm.  B.  M. 

p.  282  (1862) D.  Ucomis. 

Keitloa,  Gray,  t.  c.  p.  1025 B.  hiconiis. 

Ceratotherium,  id.  t.  c.  p.  1027 D.  simus. 

Two-horned.  Occipital  plane  slanted  backward.  Auditory 
region  as  in  Dicerorhinus.  Incisors  and  canines  rudimentary  or 
absent. 

1 .  D.  bicornis  Linn. 

2.  D.  simus  Burch. 

(Should  D.  simus,  on  the  ground  of  its  much  longer  skull  and 
the  different  structure  of  its  molars,  be  separated  generically 
or  subgenerically  from  D.  bicornis^  it  and  its  fossil  allies  would 
have  to  bear  the  name  of  Gcelodonta,  Bronn. 

These  conclusions  are  practically  identical  with  those  to  which 
Sir  W.  Flower  came  in  his  classical  paper  on  the  craniology  of  the 
group  (P.  Z.  S.  1876,  p.  443),  but  unfortunately  his  study  of 
the  nomenclature  did  not  carry  him  back  to  the  names  now  shown 
to  have  priority. 


2.  On   a   small  Collection  of   Fishes  from   Lake  Victoria 
made  by  order  of  Sir   H.  H.  Johnston,   K.C.B.      By 

G.  A.  BOULKNGER,  F.B/.S. 

[Received  May  21,  1901.] 

The  Fishes  which  have  reached  the  Natural  History  Museum 
from  the  Victoria  Nyanza  through  Sir  H.  H.  Johnston  are 
referable  to  seven  species  only,  four  of  which  were  previously  un- 
represented in  the  National  Collection,  two  being  besides  new 
to  science. 

1.  Pkotoptebus  ^thiopiuus  Heck. 

Three  specimens,  two  adult  measuring  1  m.  35  and  1  m.  10,  and 
a  young  one  measuring  160  millim.  The  latter  was  taken  from 
the  crop  of  a  Balceniceps. 

In  the  adult  specimens  the  length  of  the  head  is  contained  4| 
times  in  the  length  from  snout  to  vent,  the  diameter  of  the  eye 
is  15  or  20  times  in  the  length  of  the  head  and  4i  or  5|  times  in 
the  interocular  width  ;  dorsal  fin  originating  nearer  the  vent  than 
the  head  ;  pectoral  fin  twice  length  of  head,  ventral  fin  If ;  vent 
sinistral ;  65  scales  in  a  longitudinal  series  to  above  vent,  44  or  50 
round  middle  of  body ;  no  traces  of  extenial  gills.  The  scales 
show  very  distinctly  the  punctulations  of  (jaiioiae  already  noticed 
by  Kolliker. 


1901.]  risHES  riioM  lake  tictobia.  159 

In  the  young  the  length  of  the  head  is  4  times  in  the  length 
from  snout  to  vent,  the  diameter  of  the  eye  8  times  in  the  length 
of  the  head  and  twice  in  the  interocular  width  ;  dursal  tin  origi- 
nating a  little  nearer  the  vent  than  the  head  ;  pectoral  tin  2|  length 
of  head,  ventral  fin  1| ;  vent  dextral ;  about  65  scales  in  a  longi- 
tudinal series  to  above  vent  and  40  round  middle  of  body  ;  no 
traces  of  external  gills. 

2.  MOEMTEUS  KANNUME  Forsk. 

3.  Labeo  yicioeianus,  sp.  n. 

Body  compressed,  its  depth  equal  to  length  of  liead  and  con- 
tained 4^  to  4|-  times  in  total  length.  Head  1^  as  long  as  broad ; 
snout  rounded,  strongly  projecting  beyond  the  mouth,  with  small 
horny  warts  ;  eye  perfectly  lateral,  in  the  middle  or  a  little  anterior 
to  the  middle  of  the  head,  its  diameter  6  to  6-|  times  in  length  of 
head,  3  to  3i  times  in  width  of  interorbital  region,  which  is  slightly 
convex ;  width  of  mouth,  with  lips,  not  much  more  than  half  greatest 
width  of  head,  21  to  2|  times  in  length  of  head ;  rostral  flap  and 
anterior  border  of  lip  not  denticulated ;  posterior  border  of  lip  very 
indistinctly  denticulated ;  inner  surface  of  lip  with  numerous 
transverse  plica,  formed  of  closely-set  obtuse  papillse ;  a  minute 
barbel,  hidden  in  the  folds  at  the  side  of  the  mouth.  Dorsal  III 
9-10,  with  notched  upper  border  ;  the  longest  ray  equals  the 
length  of  head ;  fin  equally  distant  from  the  end  of  the  snout  and 
the  root  of  the  caudal.  Anal  II  5  ;  longest  ray  about  |  length  of 
head.  Pectoral  subfalciform,  as  long  as  head,  not  reaching  base  of 
ventral.  Ventral  not  reaching  vent,  its  first  ray  falling  under  the 
seventh  (fourth  branched)  ray  of  the  dorsal.  Caudal  deeply 
forked,  with  pointed  lobes.  Caudal  peduncle  about  1-^  as  long  as 
deep.     Scales  38-39  — ^  ;    4  or  5  series  of  scales  between  the 

lateral  line  and  the  root  of  the  ventral.  Olive  above,  whitish 
beneath ;  fins  greyish. 

Total  length  285  millim. 

Three  specimens. 

L.  victo7'ianus  stands  nearest  to  L.  forskalii,  from  which  the  more 
perfectly  lateral  eyes  and  the  smaller  mouth  easily  distinguish  it. 

4.  DiSCOGNATHUS  .TOHNSTONI,  sp.  n. 

Depth  of  body  equal  to  length  of  head,  5  times  in  total  length. 
Head  moderately  depiessed,  with  nearly  flat  interorbital  region  ; 
eye  supero-lateral,  in  the  second  half  of  the  head,  its  diameter  41 
times  in  length  of  head,  twice  in  interorbital  width  ;  two  very 
short  barbels  on  each  side  ;  width  of  mouth  ^  length  of  head ; 
upper  lip  moderately  developed,  lower  large,  semicircular ;  no 
denticulate  fringe  to  the  lips.  Dorsal  II  7,  equally  distant  from 
the  nostrils  and  from  the  root  of  the  caudal ;  first  branched  ray 
longest,  I  length  of  head.  Anal  II  5;  first  branched  ray  longest, 
I  length  of  head.     Pectoral  |  length  of  head,  widely  separated 


160  MB.  G.  A.  BouLEifGEE  ON  [June  4, 

from  the  ventral,  which  is  situated  below  the  posterior  half  of  the 
dorsal.  Caudal  a  little  shorter  than  head,  with  deep  crescentic 
emargination.  Caudal  peduncle  1 5  as  long  as  deep.  Scales  38  |f  ; 
4  series  between  lateral  line  and  root  of  ventral.  Upper  parts  and 
fins  blackish  olive  ;  lips,  gular  and  pectoral  regions  yellowish  white, 
belly  brown. 

Total  length  110  millim. 

A  single  specimen. 

In  its  very  minute  barbels,  this  species  is  intermediate  between 
D.  Imnta  and  allies,  in  which  they  are  well  developed,  and  D.  im- 
herhis,  in  which  they  are  altogether  absent.  A  species  from  Syria, 
Transcaspia,  the  Tigris,  and  Persia,  D.  variabilis  Heckel,  to  which 
I  refer  specimens  from  Kushk  and  the  Helmand\  agrees  in  the  very 
small  size  of  the  posterior  barbels,  but  differs  in  the  total  absence 
of  the  anterior  and  also  in  the  more  backward  position  of  the 
dorsal,  which  is  equally  distant  from  the  occiput  and  the  root 
of  the  caudal,  the  position  of  the  eyes,  which  are  nearly  perfectly 
lateral  and  occupy  the  middle  of  the  length  of  the  head,  and  the 
longer  caudal  fin.  The  scales  number  33  to  37  in  the  lateral  line, 
4  or  5  between  the  latter  and  the  ventral  fin. 

In  the  i\byssinian  and  Erythrean  specimens  which  have  been 
previously  referred  to  B.  lamta ",  and  for  which  I  propose  the 
name  D.  blanfordi,  the  barbels  are  much  longer,  as  inZ*.  kmita,  the 
eye  is  perfectly  lateral  and  a  little  anterior  to  the  middle  of  the 
head,  the  interorbital  width  is  more  than  half  the  length  of  the 
head,  the  dorsal  is  equally  distant  from  the  eye  and  the  root  of 
the  caudal,  or  a  little  nearer  the  latter,  which  is  longer  than  the 
head,  the  scales  number  33-35  |J,  3  or  4  between  the  lateral  line 
and  ventral  fin. 

A  third  African  species  has  been  described  by  Vinciguerra  ^  from 
Shoan  specimens,  under  the  name  of  D.  cMarinii.  It  has  two  pairs 
of  well- developed  barbels,  a  larger  eye  (its  diameter  contained 
only  3|-  times  in  the  length  of  the  head),  a  little  anterior  to  the 
middle  of  the  head,  and  smaller  scales  (L.  lat.  42). 

I  have  recently  received  from  Mr.  Loat  several  small  specimens, 
measuring  from  38  to  45  millim.,  obtained  on  the  Nile  in  a  pond 
in  the  cataract  country  about  3  miles  north  of  Kermeh,  which 
approach  D.  cJiiarinii  in  the  size  of  the  eye  (3^  diameters  in  length 
of  head),  the  length  and  number  of  the  barbels,  and  the  position 
of  the  dorsal,  but  which  may  be  distinguished  from  it  by  the 
larger  scales,  numbering  37  or  38  in  the  lateral  line  and  3  between 
the  latcer  and  the  ventral.  For  this  new  species  I  propose  the 
name  D.  vinciguerrce. 

^  Recorded  by  Giinther,  Tr.  Linu.  Soc.  (2)  v.  1889,  p.  107,  under  the  name 
of  B.  lamta.  Recently  described  as  B.  rossicus  by  Nikolsti,  Ann.  Mus.  St. 
Petersb.  v.  1900,  p.  239. 

-  Blanford,  Zool.  Abyss,  p.  460;  Vinciguerra,  Ann.  Mus.  Genova,  xviii.  1883, 
p.  695,  fig. 

3  L.  c.  p.  696,  fig. 


1901.]  nSHES  FROM  LAKE  VICTOEIA.  161 

5.  Claeias  lazeka  C.  et  V. 

6.  SmroDONTis  aeeo-fischbei  Hilgend. 

Hilgendorf,  Sitzb.  Ges.  nat.  Fr.  Beii.  1888,  p.  77;  Pfeffer, 
Thierw.  O.-Afr.,  Fische,  p.  37  (1896). 

The  following  description  is  taken  from  the  single  specimen 
sent  by  Sir  Harry  Johnston  : — 

Body  compressed,  its  depth  equal  to  the  length  of  the  head 
and  contained  3f  times  in  the  total  length.  Head  little  longer 
than  broad,  granulate  above,  the  granulate  area  extending  on  the 
snout  to  half-way  between  nostrils  and  eyes ;  frontal  fonta- 
nelle  large ;  snout  rounded,  a  little  shorter  than  postocular  part 
of  head ;  interorbital  region  slightly  convex,  its  width  half  length 
of  head  ;  eye  supero-lateral,  its  diameter  5  times  in  length  of  head, 
twice  in  interorbital  width ;  occipital  region  neither  keeled  nor 
teetiform,  simply  convex.  Lips  moderately  developed  ;  maxillary 
barbel  simple,  a  httle  longer  than  the  head,  extending  to  anterior 
third  of  pectoral  spine  ;  mandibular  barbels  inserted  on  a  straight 
transverse  line,  the  outer  f  length  of  head  and  with  slender  simple 
branches,  the  inner  ^  length  of  head  and  with  shorter  but  ramified 
branches.  Prasmaxillaiw  teeth  small  and  numerous,  forming  a  broad 
band ;  anterior  mandibular  teeth  small,  curved,  f  the  diameter  of 
the  eye,  44  in  number.  Gill-cleft  not  extending  inferiorly  beyond 
the  base  of  the  pectoral  fin.  Nuchal  shield  convex,  not  keeled, 
rugose  and  pitted,  1^  as  long  as  broad,  ending  in  two  sharp  points, 
which  extend  a  little  beyond  the  base  of  the  dorsal  spine.  Humeral 
process  covered  with  granular  asperities,  about  fi  as  long  as 
broad,  sharply  pointed,  not  extending  qaite  so  far  back  as  the 
occipito-nuchal  shield.  Skin  villose  on  the  sides  of  the  anterior 
part  of  the  body.  Dorsal  I  7  ;  spine  strong,  1|  as  long  as  the 
base  of  the  fin,  nearly  as  long  as  head,  striated  and  armed  behind 
with  11  retrorse  serree.  Adipose  dorsal  3^  times  as  long  as  deep, 
I5  as  long  as  its  distance  from  the  rayed  dorsal,  |  the  length  of 
the  head.  Anal  III  8,  Pectoral  spine  very  strong,  as  long  as 
that  of  the  dorsal,  striated,  with  31  to  33  strong  teeth  on  the 
anterior  border  and  11  much  stronger  still  and  retrorse  on  the 
posterior  border.  Ventral  not  reaching  anal.  Caudal  very  deeply 
notched,  crescentic.  Dark  brown  above  and  beneath,  with  some 
lighter,  yellowish-brown  marbliugs ;  fins  dark  grey,  with  transverse 
series  of  blackish  spots  having  a  tendency  to  form  cross-bars. 

Total  length  135  millim. 

7.  Paeatilapia  seebanus. 

Hemichromis  serranus,  Pfeffer,  Thierw.  O.-Afr.,  Fische,  p.  23 
(1896). 

Paratilapia  serranus,  Bouleng.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1898,  p.  143. 

Adult  specimens,  measuring  125  millim.,  agree  well  with 
Pfeffer's  description,  drawn  up  from  an  example  obtained  by 
Stuhhnann  at  Bukoba,  a  German  station  of  L.  Victoria  at  about 

Proc.  Zool,  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II,  No.  XI.  11 


162  BB.  E.  BEOOM  Olf  THE  STETJCTUEE  AND  [June  4, 

1°  21'  S.  lat,  except  for  the  depth  of  the  bod}^  which  is  4^  to  4|- 
times  in  the  total  length,  the  maxillary  not  extending  quite  to  below 
the  anterior  border  of  the  eye,  the  diameter  of  which  is  4|-  times 
in  the  length  of  the  head.  9  gill-rakers  on  lower  part  of  anterior 
arch.  D.  XV- XVI  9;  A.  Ill  8-9;  Sq.  30-32  ^;  Lat.  1.  20-21/ 
13-14.'  6  or  7  scales  between  the  first  dorsal  spine  and  the  lateral 
line. 

Smaller  specimens  (85-95  millim.)  differ  in  the  smaller  head, 
the  larger  eye  (3^4  times  in  length  of  head),  and  the  lower  jaw 
not  projecting  beyond  the  upper.  The  dark  longitudinal  bands 
are  very  indistinct  and  are  traversed  by  7  or  8  ill-defined  dark 
cross-bars. 

In  all  the  specimens  the  ventral  fins  are  of  a  bright  yellow. 


3.  On  the  Structure  and  Affinities  of  Udenodon. 
By   R.  Broom,  M.D.,  B.Sc' 

[Eeceivecl  May  21,  1901.] 

(Plates  XVI.-XVIII.)  ^ 

(Text-figures  10  &  11.) 

A  considerable  number  of  skulls  of  Udenodon  and  of  the  closely 
allied  genus  Dicynodon  have  long  been  known,  and  there  have  also 
been  found  many  other  bones  of  the  skeletons  ;  but  as  in  almost  all 
the  specimens  the  association  of  the  skull  and  other  bones  has 
been  quite  lost,  it  is  at  present  impossible  to  refer  limb-bones  to 
their  proper  species  of  which  the  skulls  are  the  types,  and  it  is 
only  with  some  doubt  that  they  can  be  referred  even  to  their 
proper  genei*a.  In  a  few  cases  some  bones  of  the  skeleton  have 
been  found  in  association  with  Dicynodon-sknWs,  but  in  the  case 
of  Udenodon  the  post-cranial  skeleton  is  quite  unknown. 

The  most  important  specimen  in  which  the  Dicynodont  skull  is 
in  association  with  a  considerable  portion  of  this  is  the  little  form 
which  has  been  described  by  Seeley  (1)  as  "  Keirognathus  cordylus." 
In  this  specimen  the  skull,  upper  vertebrae  and  ribs,  front  limbs, 
shoulder-girdle,  aud  sternum  are  shown,  but  all  in  a  very  bad 
state  of  preservation.  There  is  scarcely  a  doubt  that  the  skeleton  is 
that  of  a  young  Dicynodon,  and  it  is  specially  valuable  as  showing 
the  relations  of  the  shoulder-girdle,  sternum,  and  interclavicle. 
Seeley's  restoration  is  unsatisfactory. 

In  the  Lower  Karroo  beds  of  Pearston,  S.  Africa,  while  the 
remains  of  various  species  of  Bicynodon  are  met  with,  the  genus 
which  most  commonly  occurs  is  Udenodon  and  from  the  specimens 
which  I  have  recently  discovered  I  am  now  in  a  position  to  give 
an  almost  complete  account  of  its  skeleton. 

1  Communicated  by  Prof.  G.  B.  Howes,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  F.Z.S. 
-  *  For  an  explanation  of  the  Plates,  see  p.  190. 


p.  Z  .  S.  1901,  -vol. II. PI. XVI. 


B..B  del. 

MP.  Parker  litK. 


Pa-rlier  &'Westiiap. 


SKELETON     OF    UDETSTODOTST      GRACILIS. 


p.  Z  .  S.  1901,  -N7-olII.Pl.XVII. 


R.B  del. 

"MP- Parker  lltli 


Paurker  &  "West  imp. 

SKULL,    VERTEBRA,    &     HIND     LIMB      OF    XJDEKODON. 


p.  z .  s.  1901,  -v-oi  ii.Pi.xvni. 


R.B  iel. 

M.  p.  Packer  litK. 


P&rfer  (Jb'Westirarg. 


LIMB-BONES     &    STERNUM    OF  UDENODON. 


1901.]  APMifiTiES  or  UBEisroDoisr,  163 

When  an  endeavour  is  made  to  classify  the  specimens  found,  one 
is  beset  with  a  number  of  difficulties.  Almost  every  specimen 
exhibits  some  degree  of  crushing ;  and  when  two  skulls  of  the  same 
species  have  been  crushed  in  dilferent  directions,  the  appearances 
would  readily  make  one  believe  that  he  was  dealing  with  two 
species.  One  skull  of  Udenodon  baini  in  my  possession  has  the 
maxilla  of  one  side  so  crushed  as  to  give  an  appearance  very  like 
that  in  the  specimen  described  by  Owen  (2)  as  "  Udenodon 
strigiceps."  Another  difficulty  is  due  to  our  ignorance  of  the 
extent  to  which  differences  in  specimens  may  be  due  to  the  sex 
and  age.  The  identification  of  any  specimen  therefore  must  in 
the  meantime  be  subject  to  some  doubt. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  specimens  which  I  have  found 
and  on  which  my  researches  are  based : — 

1.  An  almost  complete  skull  of  a  small  form,  which  I  regard  as 

new,  and  for  which  I  propose  the  name  of  Udenodon 
gracilis  (PI.  XVII.  figs.  2  &  3). 

2.  An  almost  perfect  skeleton  of  apparently  the  same  species. 

The  skull  unfortunately  has  been  so  much  weathered  that 
it  is  impossible  to  decide  the  species  with  certainty 
(PI.  XVI.). 

3.  A  lower  jaw  of  possibly  the  same  species. 

4.  A  fairly  good  skeleton  of  Udenodon  baini. 

5.  A  second  very  imperfect  skeleton  of  presumably  the  same 

species,  but  with  the  head  missing. 

6.  A  moderately  complete  skull  of  Udenodon  baini,  but   much 

crushed  on  one  side. 

7.  A  second  imperfect  and   much  crushed  skull  of  the  same 

species. 

8.  A  third  imperfect  skull,  also  probably  of  U.  baini. 

9.  A   moderately  complete  but  somewhat  crushed   skull  of  a 

young  animal,  probably  U.  megalops.  From  a  much  higher 
stratum  than  the  other  specimens. 

10.  An  imperfect  skull  of  a  young  animal,  apparantly  U.  greyi. 

11.  The  posterior  portion  of  a  skull  referred  to  Udenodon,  but 

possibly  belonging  to  a  Dicynodon. 

12.  The  mandible  and  front  part  of  snout  of  a  small  Udenodon. 

13.  Imperfect  middle  region  of  a  small  Udenodon-^'kxAl. 

14.  A  number  of  detached  portions  of  mandibles,  maxillae,  humeri, 

vertebrae,  and  other  bones  referred  to  Udenodon. 

Of  these  specimens  all  have  been  discovered  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Pearston,  S.  Africa,  with  the  exception  of  specimen  10, 
which  is  from  the  Bedford  district  and  was  kindly  presented  to 
me  by  Mr.  D.  D.  Prazer,  Junr. 

Before  beginning  an  account  of  the  general  structure  of 
Udenodon,  I  think  it  will  be  well  to  give  a  brief  description  of 
specimens  1  and  2. 

The  small  skull  which  I  take  as  the  type  of  Udenodon  gracilis 
(PI.  XVII.    fig.  2)  is  somewhat  crushed   on  the  right  side,  and 

11* 


164  DB.  E,.  BROOM  ON  THE  STRUCTUBE  AND  [June  4, 

on  the  same  side  the  temporal  arch  and  the  lower  jaw  are  missing, 
but  otherwise  the  skull  is  almost  perfect.  The  skull  is  more 
elongated  than  is  usual  in  Udenodon,  and  differs  from  most 
species  in  having  the  inter  orbital  region  very  considerably 
wider  than  the  parietal  region.  The  eyes  are  moderately 
small  and  directed  more  outwards  than  upwards.  The  nostrils 
(n.)  are  placed  far  forwards  and  rather  small.  The  nasal  bones 
are  prominent  immediately  behind  the  nostrils.  The  caniniform 
ridges  are  flat  and  slender  and  directed  well  forwards.  The 
suborbital  arch  is  moderately  round  and  rather  feeble.  The 
frontal  region  is  broad  and  moderately  fiat,  and  is  characterized 
by  a  rather  prominent  median  ridge  (r.f.).  Posteriorly,  the 
frontals  are  considerably  wider  than  in  front.  The  postfrontals, 
where  they  join  the  frontals  are  flat  and  broad  and  to  a  considerable 
extent  roof  over  the  orbits.  Externally  they  are  rather  slender. 
A  distinct  ridge  runs  from  the  posterior  border  of  the  postorbital 
portion  of  the  postfrontal  bone  inwards,  then  backwards  along  the 
posterior  part  of  the  postfrontal.  The  parietal  region  is  about 
two-thirds  the  width  of  the  frontal  region,  and  is  characterized 
by  the  presence  of  two  well-marked  postfrontal  ridges  {r.jp.f.), 
with  an  intervening  depressed  parietal  portion.  The  squamosals 
are  large,  and  the  anterior  portions  which  form  the  temporal  arches 
are  developed  considerably,  horizontally  outwards. 

The  second  specimen  (PI.  XVI.  fig.  1)  referred  to  is  an  almost 
perfect  skeleton  of  a  small  Udenodon,  and  it  is  especially  valuable 
in  that  the  bones  are  scarcely  at  all  displaced.  The  specimen  was 
found  in  an  impure  and  fairly  hard  shale.  The  skull  had  evidently 
been  long  exposed,  and  is  so  badly  weathered  that  very  little  now 
remains  of  the  bones  of  the  upper  side  of  the  head.  The  post- 
orbital  arches  are  quite  lost,  though  evidences  of  their  positions 
are  given  by  the  underlying  matrix.  The  squamosal,  so  far  as  it  is 
displayed,  agrees  very  closely  with  that  in  Udenodon  gracilis,  and 
nothing  in  the  other  parts  of  the  head  seems  to  oppose  this 
determination. 

When  the  slab  in  which  the  skeleton  lay  was  split,  it  w-as 
found  that  this  had  been  so  arranged  that  the  remains  were 
almost  equally  divided  between  the  two  sides.  In  the  larger  of 
the  two  portions,  which  may  be  looked  upon  as  the  main  slab,  are 
preserved  the  almosr.  perfect  left  fore-limb,  the  impressions  of  a 
number  of  vertebrse,  a  large  number  of  ribs  and  impressions  of  ribs, 
the  sacrum  and  caudal  region,  the  left  ilium  {il.),  and  the  left  hind- 
limb,  which  unfortunately  is  twisted  and  has  not  been  fully 
displayed,  and  the  right  ischium  (is.)  and  pubis  {ph.).  In  the 
counterpart  slab  is  seen  the  head,  the  right  fore-limb,  almost  all 
the  vertebrae  and  ribs,  and  the  right  ilium  with  the  right  hind-limb 
extended  and  almost  perfectly  displayed.  In  the  drawing  (Plate 
XVI.)  the  bones  and  impressions  on  the  main  slab  are  with  the 
skull  figured  and  shaded  in  true  relative  position,  while  the  bones 
of  the  counterslab  are  in  outline  in  proper  relationship  with  those 
of  the  main  slab. 


1901.] 


AFETSriTIES  OF  UDENODON. 


165 


In  the  follo^\^ng  account  of  the  structure  of  Udenodon,  that 
part  dealing  with,  the  skull  is  founded  mainly  on  the  skulls  I  have 
obtained  at  Pearston,  while  the  account  of  the  post-cranial 
skeleton  is  mainly  based  on  the  little  skeleton  of  Udenodon 
gracilis. 

Shull. 

The  Dicynodont  skull  has  been  described  by  Owen  (2),  Cope  (3), 
Huxley  (4),  and  others,  but  the  fullest  description  is  that  given  by 
Seeley  (5).  Even  Seeley's  account,  however,  leaves  many  points 
in  doubt,  and  a  considerable  number  of  his  determinations  are 
very  questionable.  I  have  therefore  thought  it  well  to  give  an 
independent  description  of  the  skull,  dealing  but  briefly  with  those 
elements  whose  structure  is  well  known,  and  moi'e  fully  with  the 
points  open  to  dispute. 

Text-fig.  10. 


Text-fig.  11. 


A  composite  figure  of  the  skull  of  Udenodon  (text-fig.  10)  showing  details  from 
the  left  side,  for  comparison  with  the  skull  of  a  primitive  Theriodont, 
letidosuchus  primmvus  (text-fig.  11). 

a.,  angulare ;  ar.,  articulare ;  d.,  dentary ;  fr.,  frontal ;  pi.,  jugal ;  fc.,  lachi-ymal ; 
mx.,  maxilla;  na.,  nasal;  /;«.,  parietal;  ■p.mx.,  premaxilla ;  ^o/.,  post- 
frontal  ;  pr.f.,  prefrontal ;  c[.,  quadrate  ;  sq.,  squamosal ;  s.a.,  suraugulare. 


166  DB.  E.  BBOOM  ON  THE  STRtTCTUEE  AKD  [Juiie  4, 

In  Udenodon  (text-fig.  10,  p.  167)  the  whole  beak  has  had  a  horny 
covering,  which  in  some  species  at  least  covers  not  only  the 
alveolar  margin,  but  almost  the  whole  of  the  facial  surface  of  the 
maxilla  {mx.) ;  and  in  probably  in  all  the  species  the  hoi'ny  layer 
was  specially  developed  over  the  caniniform  development  of  the 
maxilla. 

The  premaxilla  in  Udenodon  and  Bicynodon  is  better  deve- 
loped than  in  the  majority  of  reptiles,  having  not  only  a  M'ell- 
developed  facial  portion  passing  up  between  the  two  nostrils,  but 
also  a  large  palatal  portion.  The  two  premaxillae,  as  in  the  bird, 
must  have  veiy  early  united  into  a  single  bone  (cf.  PI.  XVII. 
fig.  2),  as  in  even  comparatively  young  specimens  there  is  no  trace 
of  a  suture  between  the  two  elements.  As  I  have  elsewhere 
shown  (6),  the  premaxilla  forms  almost  the  whole  of  the  bony 
palate,  including  by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  median  ridge,  which 
has  almost  invariably  been  regarded  as  the  vomer.  In  the  paper 
referred  to,  a  section  through  the  posterior  part  of  the  hard 
palate  of  Udenodon  truncatus  is  figured,  and  it  is  there  shown  that 
though  the  maxillae  have  internal  plates  which  form  a  sort  of 
secondary  palate,  these  are  almost  completely  covered  by  the 
great  palatal  development  of  the  premaxilla.  From  the  palatal 
portion  of  the  premaxilla  there  passes  up  internally  a  prominent 
median  ridge  which  runs  from  the  facial  portion  of  the  premaxilla 
backwards  to  articulate  with  the  vomer,  and  to  a  considerable 
extent  divides  the  nasal  cavities. 

The  maxilla  differs  in  shape  greatly  in  different  genera,  and  it 
is  highly  probable  that  there  is  considerable  difference  in  shape  in 
the  two  sexes  of  the  same  genus.  In  all,  however,  there  is  a 
more  or  less  well-marked  caniniform  development.  In  some 
species  a  prominent  external  descending  ridge  gives  the  tusk-like 
development  a  triangular  shape ;  in  others  the  descending  process 
is  almost  flat.  The  maxilla  resembles  that  of  man  in  having  a 
large  antrum  maxillare.  From  the  region  of  the  antrum,  which 
may  be  regarded  as  the  centre  of  the  bone,  the  maxilla  is 
developed  upwards,  forming  the  greater  part  of  the  side  of  the 
snout  (c/.  text-fig.  10,  p.  165)  and  bounded  by  the  nostril  and  the 
nasal  (na.),  the  prefrontal  {jpr.f.)  and  the  lachrymal  {Ic.)  inwards, 
forming  part  of  the  secondary  palate  ;  and  backwards,  meeting  the 
jugal,  are  the  palatine  and  the  pterygoid  bones.  The  caniniform 
ridge  is  continued  back  into  the  ridge  formed  by  the  anterior  bar 
of  the  pterygoid  and  forms  the  border  of  the  palate. 

I  can  find  no  evidence  of  any  ossified  turbinal  bones. 

The  nasals  {na.)  are  moderate-sized  bones  irregularly  ti'iangular 
in  shape.  They  are  joined  to  each  other  by  a  fairly  long  median 
suture.  Their  anterior  sides  are  formed  by  the  premaxilla  {p.mx.), 
the  nostrils,  and  the  maxillas.  The  posterior  and  outer  side  of 
each  nasal  is  bounded  by  the  frontal  (/V.),  the  prefrontal  (pr.f.), 
and  maxillary  (ni.v.). 

The  lachrymal  (Ic.)  is  quite  mammalian  in  structure.  It  forms 
a  considerable  part  of  the  anterior  wall  of  the  orbit — fitting  in 


1901.]  AFFINITIES  OF  UDENODON.  167 

between  the  prefrontal  above  and  the  jugal  (ju.)  below.  It  has  a 
large  lachrymal  canal  opening  within  the  orbit. 

The  prefrontal  {pr.f.)  is  a  somewhat  quadrate  bone — three  sides 
being  formed  by  the  orbit,  the  frontal,  and  nasal  respectively,  and 
the  fourth  side  by  the  lachrymal  and  maxilla.  It  forms  a  con- 
siderable portion  of  the  anterior  and  upper  wall  of  the  orbit. 

The  f rentals  (fr.)  lie  between  the  orbits  and  are  usually  well 
developed.  In  Udenodon  greyi  they  are  narrow ;  in  U.  gracilis 
almost  exactly  as  broad  as  long.  They  usually  form  the  borders 
of  the  upper  sides  of  the  orbits.  Each  frontal  articulates  with 
the  nasal  and  prefrontal  in  front,  and  with  the  parietal  and  post- 
frontal  behind. 

The  postfrontal  (jjo./.)  forms,  as  in  Dicynodon  and  many  Therio- 
donts,an  outer  limb  which  forms  the  postorbital  arch,  and  a  posterior 
which  runs  backwards  by  the  side  of  the  parietal.  The  postorbital 
arch  varies  considerably  in  different  species,  but  is  usually  rather 
broad  above,  forming  a  sort  of  roof  to  part  of  the  orbit.  In  the 
middle  it  is  generally  narrow  and  round ;  while  inferiorly  it 
broadens  out  and  articulates  with  the  squamosal  and  the  jugal. 
From  the  upper  end  of  the  postorbital  portion  the  posterior  part 
runs  abruptly  backwards,  forming  the  greater  part  of  the  inuer 
wall  of  the  temporal  fossa,  and  to  a  great  extent  hiding  the 
parietal.  Posteriorly  it  curves  outwards  a  little  and  meets  the 
squamosal  (cf.  text-fig.  10,  p.  165). 

The  parietals  early  unite  to  form  a  single  bone,  which  though 
of  moderate  size  is  very  largely  hidden  by  the  postfrontals.  Near 
the  centre  of  the  bone  is  a  fairly  large  pai'ietal  foramen. 
Posteriorly  the  parietal  articidates  in  the  middle  with  the  inter- 
parietal, and  laterally  with  the  squamosals  (sq.). 

The  jugal  is  rather  a  small  bone  (ju.)  Avhich  forms  the  greater 
part  of  the  infraorbital  arch.  Anteriorly  it  forms  a  considerable 
pai't  of  the  wall  of  the  orbit  at  its  anterior  and  lower  side,  meeting 
the  lachrymal  and  being  clasped  by  the  maxilla.  Internally,  the 
anterior  part  meets  the  palatine.  The  squamosal  (sq.),  which  lies 
on  the  outer  side  of  the  jugal  in  its  middle  and  posterior  regions, 
to  a  large  extent  hides  it  from  view.  Where  the  jugal  meets  the 
postfrontal  it  is  fairly  deep  in  some  species,  but  in  others  only 
slightly  increased  in  depth.  Posteriorly  it  flattens  out  and  lies  on 
the  inner  side  of  the  squamosal,  forming  with  it  the  temporal 
arch. 

The  squamosal  is  by  far  the  largest  bone  in  the  skull  (cf.  sq.,  text- 
fig.  10,  p.  165).  It  comprises  a  large  broad  posterior  portion  which 
descends  from  its  union  with  the  parietal  and  postfrontal,  along 
the  outer  border  of  the  supra-  and  exoccipitals,  to  give  articulation 
to  the  quadrate,  and  an  anterior  branch,  which  springs  from  the 
upper  half  of  the  posterior  portion  and  passes  forwards  to  form 
with  the  jugal  the  temporal  arch. 

The  quadrate  (q.)  consists  of  a  broad  flat  part  which  lies  against 
the  front  of  the  descending  portion  of  the  squamosal,  and  a  large 
articular  head.     The  articular  face  of  the  quadrate  has  a  deep 


168  DK.  B.  BBOOM  OTST  THE  STEUCTUBE  AND  [June  4, 

antero-posterior  groove  running  across  it,  which  divides  it  into 
an  outer  semicircular  button-like  portion  and  an  inner  very 
prominent  antero-posterior  ridge.  Both  the  outer  and  inner 
portions  of  the  articular  face  have  an  antero-posterior  convexity 
o£  fairly  wide  radius. 

The  structure  of  the  palate  I  have  elsewhere  dealt  with  (6), 
and  I  have  little  further  so  add  to  my  previous  description.  The 
pterygoids,  as  in  the  other  Dicynodonts,  are  greatly  developed, 
meeting  each  other  in  the  middle  line  and  sending  processes 
forwards  to  the  maxillse  and  backwards  to  the  quadrates.  Between 
the  two  anterior  processes  lie  the  palatines  and  the  vomer.  The 
vomer  is  quite  mammalian  in  structure,  and  is  present  as  a 
median  plate,  extending  from  the  fork  formed  by  the  anterior 
branches  of  the  pterygoids  forwards  to  articulate  with  the  palatal 
median  and  internal  median  ridges  of  the  premaxilla.  Superiorly 
the  vomer  articulates  with  the  sphenoid,  the  mesethmoid,  and 
the  ethmoid  cartilage.  Towards  the  posterior  and  upper  part 
it  gives  off:  a  pair  of  small  lateral  wings  which  articulate  with 
the  palatines,  and  Avith  them  form  the  roofs  of  the  nasal  passages. 
The  palatines  pass  outwards  and  downwards  from  the  articu- 
lations with  the  vomer,  by  the  side  of  the  anterior  branches  of  the 
pterygoids.  Each  palatine  then  sends  a  process  forwards  and 
inwards  to  form  a  sort  of  rudimentary  secondary  palate,  and  a 
second  process  outwards  above  the  anterior  lobe  of  the  pterygoid 
to  meet  the  jugal. 

Where  the  two  pterygoids  meet  in  the  middle  hue  they  rest  on, 
and  are  articulated  to,  the  basisphenoid.  This  latter  bone  shows 
on  the  under  surface  of  the  skull  to  a  considerable  extent,  sending 
two  plates  backwards  to  clasp  the  large  paroccipital.  processes. 
From  the  region  where  the  pterygoids  meet,  the  basisphenoid  sends 
a  comparatively  narrow  median  plate  upwards  and  forwards 
resting  on  the  vomer,  and  probably  in  adult  specimens  articulating 
with  the  mesethmoid.  This  plate  may  be  the  presphenoid,  but  I 
have  not  seen  any  specimens  in  which  it  is  distinct  from  the  basi- 
sphenoid. The  mesethmoid  is  a  median  plate  which  forms  the 
greater  part  of  the  interorbital  septum.  Above  it  is  clasped  by 
the  orbital  plates  of  the  frontals,  and  below  it  rests  on  the 
vomer. 

Immediately  behind  the  point  where  the  pterygoids  meet,  there 
passes  upwards  from  each  pterygoid  a  slender  columella  cranii. 
In  forms  with  a  deep  narrow  skull,  e.  g.  U.  greyi,  the  columella  is  long 
and  slender  :  in  those  species  where  the  skull  is  broad  and  rather 
flat,  the  columella  is  comparatively  short.  In  all  forms,  however, 
it  is  very  slender.     It  appears  to  articulate  with  the  parietal  above. 

The  peri  otic  bones  appear  to  form  the  lateral  walls  of  the  brain- 
case  in  a  manner  very  similar  to  that  seen  in  lizards  ;  but  I  have 
not  seen  any  specimens  in  which  their  exact  limits  could  with 
certainty  be  determined. 

The  occiput  has  long  been  well  known  in  a  number  of  Dicy- 
nodonts,  especially  Ptychosiagum.     A  small  occiput  is  figured  by 


1901.]  ArriNiTTES  or  UDENODOisr.  169 

Lydekker  in  the  Britisb  Museum  Catalogue  of  Fossil  Reptiles, 
which  is  probably  that  ot  a  species  of  Udenodon.  The  supra-  and 
exoccipitals  are  bordered  by  the  interparietal  and  the  squamosals, 
while  the  lower  corners  of  the  large  exoccipital  processes  also 
articulate  with  the  quadrates. 

Between  the  quadrate  and  the  descending  process  formed  by 
the  exoccipital  and  basioccipital,  there  lies  a  remarkable  little 
dumbbell-shaped  bone,  which  with  one  end  fits  into  a  hollow  of 
the  occipital  process  and  with  the  other  supports  the  quadrate. 
As  it  is  but  loosely  articulated,  it  is  lost  from  the  majority  of 
Dicynodon  and  Udenodon  skulls  discovered.  This  bone  differs  so 
markedly  from  any  bone  found  in  the  posterior  region  of  the  skull 
in  known  Eeptiles  or  Mammals,  that  one  hesitates  in  giving  an 
interpretation.  As,  however,  it  forms  with  the  notch  in  the 
lower  border  of  the  exoccipital  an  oval  aperture,  and  as  the 
columella  auris  lies  in  this  same  notch  of  the  exoccipital,  it  seems 
to  me  most  probable  that  it  is  the  homologue  of  the  mammalian 
tympanic. 

Lower  Jaw. 

The  lower  jaw  is  almost  typically  reptilian  in  structure  {cf.  text- 
fig.  10,  p.  165).  In  front,  the  two  large  toothless  dentaries  (d.) 
are  anchylosed  together  as  in  the  tortoise.  Each  dentai'y  is  con- 
siderably deeper  than  in  the  tortoise,  and  differs  in  forming  a 
single  edge  above,  instead  of  two  ridges  as  in  the  Chelonian.  In 
U.  yreyi  the  outer  surface  of  the  dentary  is  moderately  flat ;  but 
in  U.  gracilis  there  passes  outwards  from  the  posterior  part  of 
the  bone  a  very  prominent  horizontal  ridge.  On  passing  back- 
wards the  dentary  divides  into  an  upper  and  a  lower  lobe,  which 
meeting  respectively  the  suraugular  {sa.)  and  the  angular  (a.) 
encloses  with  these  a  fair-sized  oval  vacuity.  The  angular 
is  a  rather  large  flat  element  which  articulates  with  the  dentary 
in  front,  the  surangular  above,  the  splenial  below,  and  the  articular 
(ar.)  behind.  The  surangular  is  a  fairly  strong  bone  which  fits 
into  a  deep  cavity  in  the  posterior  end  of  the  upper  part  of  the 
dentary.  The  splenial  extends  along  almost  the  whole  length  of 
the  jaw,  from  the  articular  behind  to  the  symphysis  in  front. 
Posteriorly  it  is  fairly  stout,  but  on  passing  forwards  it  becomes 
a  rather  thin  plate.  The  articular  is  a  large  thick  bone,  but,  as  in 
Ohelonians,  short. 

I  am  unable  to  give  any  account  of  the  hyoid  apparatus,  as 
though  there  are  evidences  of  hyoid  bones,  they  are  disconnected 
and  their  interpretation  is  quite  uncertain. 

Vertehroe. 

In  the  little  skeleton  of  Udenodon  gracilis  (PL  XVI.)  most  of 
the  vertebrae  are  preserved,  but  none  are  well  displayed.  The  atlas 
and  axis  are  hidden  by  matrix,  but  from  the  3rd  cervical  (4th  ?) 
there  are  indications  of  almost  all  the  other  vertebrae.  The  skeleton 
does  not  show  where  the  division  lies  between  the  cervical  and 


170  DB.  R,  BROOM  ON  THE  STRUCTURE  AKD       [June  4, 

the  thoracic  series ;  and  in  Udenodon,  as  in  most  other  Thero- 
morphous  reptiles,  there  is  no  division  of  the  body  vertebrae  into 
thoracics  and  lumbars.  Assuming  that  the  first  cervical  vertebra 
displayed  is  the  3rd  cervical,  then  it  is  moderately  certain  that  in 
U.  gracilis  there  are  27  presacral  vertebrae. 

The  vertebrae  which  I  take  to  be  3rd  and  4th  cervicals,  so  far  as 
displayed,  agree  fairly  closely  with  the  3rd  and  4th  cervicals  of 
Tropidostoma  dunni  Seeley  (5)  [  =  according  to  Lydekker  (7) 
Ptychosiagum  microtrema  Seeley].  The  bodies  of  the  vertebrae 
have  well-marked  lateral  processes  arising  from  the  anterior  and 
outer  angles  of  the  ventral  surfaces,  for  articulation  with  the 
cervical  ribs. 

In  the  skeleton  of  Udenodon  gracilis,  though  most  of  the 
vertebrae  of  the  thoraco-lumbar  series  are  shown,  unfortunately 
only  the  bodies  are  displayed  ;  but  in  the  imperfect  skeleton  of 
U.  haini  (spec.  4)  a  number  of  presacral  vertebree  are  well 
preserved. 

As  has  long  been  known  in  other  Dicynodonts,  the  vertebrae 
consist  of  deeply  cupped  bodies  to  which  are  articulated  arches 
closely  resembling  the  arches  in  mammals.  In  the  dorsal  series 
(c/.  Plate  XVII.  fig.  4)  the  bodies  are  considerably  elongated 
and  moderately  constricted  in  the  middle.  On  the  body  just 
below  the  neuro- central  suture  in  front  is  the  articular  surface 
for  the  head  of  the  rib.  The  pedicle  is  stout,  and  a  ridge  runs  up 
obliquely  from  near  the  front  of  the  neuro-central  suture  to  the 
transverse  process.  The  transverse  processes  {tr.)  are  short  and 
strong,  directed  outwards  and  slightly  upwards,  and  lie  well  above 
the  level  of  the  top  of  the  neural  canal.  The  spine  {sp.)  is  quite 
short,  and  situated  well  backwards  over  the  posterior  zygapo- 
physes.  Both  the  anterior  and  posterior  zygapophyses  are 
situated  fairly  closely  together,  and  the  articular  surfaces  make 
approximately  a  right  angle  with  each  other.  A  large  opening  is 
formed  between  each  pair  of  vertebrae  for  the  exit  of  the  spinal 
nerves. 

The  ribs  in  the  thoracic  region  (c/.  Plate  XVI.)  are  long  and 
slender  ;  the  anterior  ones  being,  however,  slightly  stouter  than  the 
others.  The  upper  end  of  the  rib  is  expanded  so  as  to  form  a 
distinct  head  for  articulation  with  the  centrum  and  a  tubercle  for 
attachment  to  the  transverse  process.  As  the  border  of  the  rib 
between  the  head  and  the  tubercle  is  almost  straight,  and  the 
ridge  on  the  vertebra  between  the  articular  surface  and  the 
transverse  process  is  only  slightly  concave,  there  must  be  but 
little  of  a  foramen  left  between  the  rib  and  the  vertebra.  The 
ribs  in  the  lumbar  region  have  their  upper  ends  less  expanded 
and  may  possibly  have  been  articulated  to  the  transverse  processes 
alone. 

The  sacrum  is  very  badly  preserved  in  the  skeleton  of  U.  gracilis, 
but  appears  to  have  been  composed  of  5  vertebrae. 

The  tail  has  evidently  been  short,  but  it  is  impossible  to  say 
of  how  many  vertebrae  it  may   have  been  composed.     Those  that 


1901.]  APriNITIES  OF  UDBNODON.  171 

are  shown  in  the  little  skeleton  have  their  centra  about  half  the 
length  of  those  in  the  thoracic  series.  The  vertebrae  are  much 
crushed  and  fractured,  so  that  it  is  difficult  to  be  certain  of  the 
identification  of  the  fragments.  By  the  side  of  one  of  the  vertebrae 
is  a  well-developed  process,  which  may  be  a  spine,  but  which  I 
am  rather  inclined  to  believe  to  be  an  autogenous  transverse 
process. 

Shoulder-girdle  and  Sternum. 

In  the  little  skeleton  of  Udenodon  gracilis  the  shoulder-girdle, 
though  present,  is  almost  completely  hidden  by  matrix  and  could 
not  be  displayed  without  injury  to  other  parts.  In  the  skeleton  of 
U.  baini  (spec.  4,  PL  XVIIl.  fig.  10)  the  scapula  (sc),  precoracoid 
(p.co.  fig.  11)  and  coracoid  (co.)  are  well  preserved,  and  also  in  the 
very  imperfect  skeleton  (spec.  5),  while  in  specimen  5  the  sternum 
is  also  shown. 

The  scapula,  precoracoid  and  coracoid  agree  pretty  closely  with 
the  corresponding  bones  in  the  Dicynodont  shoulder-girdle  as 
figured  by  Owen  (2),  Seeley  (1),  and  Lydekker  (7).  The  scapula  is 
somewhat  stouter  than  that  figured  by  Lydekker,  but  on  the  whole 
closely  agrees  with  it.  The  upper  part  of  the  scapula  is  broad  and 
flat  and  only  moderately  curved  inwards.  The  anterior  border  is 
grooved  for  the  lodgment  of  the  cleithrum.  A  little  below  the 
middle  of  the  scapula  there  is  a  well-marked  acromion  process 
(ac,  PI.  XVIII.  fig.  10)  which  passes  forwards,  upwards,  and 
slightly  inwards  as  a  fan-like  expansion.  The  lower  end  of  the 
scapula  has  a  large  glenoid  surface  (gl.)  which  looks  downwards 
and  a  little  outwards,  and  an  anterior  flattened  continuation  which 
articulates  with  the  precoracoid. 

The  coracoid  (co.)  is  comparatively  small,  but  has  a  large  glenoid 
surface  (gl-)  which  looks  mainly  outwards,  and  which  is  separated 
from  the  outer  surface  of  the  bone  by  a  very  prominent  bony  border. 

The  precoracoid  (p.co.)  is  a  moderately  flat  bone,  but  slightly 
larger  than  the  coracoid.  On  its  upper  border  is  a  deep  notch  (fo.) 
which  closed  by  the  lower  border  of  the  scapula  becomes  a  large 
oval  foramen.  The  precoracoid  articulates  behind  by  a  straight 
suture  with  the  coracoid,  and  above  with  the  scapula.  It  appears 
to  furnish  a  small  portion  of  the  glenoid  cavity. 

I  have  failed  to  identify  the  interclavicle  or  cleithrum  in  any  of 
the  specimens  in  my  possession,  but  in  the  skeleton  of  U.  gracilis 
one  of  the  clavicles  is  fairly  complete  (cZ.,  PI.  XVI.  &  PI.  XVIII. 
fig.  8).  It  is  curved  very  much  like  the  human  clavicle.  It 
appears  to  have  articulated  with  its  neighbour  in  the  middle  line, 
and  to  have  rested  ou  the  anterior  part  of  the  interclavicle.  The 
inner  half  of  the  bone  is  flattened  antero-posteriorly,  and  the  outer 
vertically. 

The  sternum,  or  perhaps  more  correctly  prsesternum  (PI. 
XVIII.  fig.  9),  is  a  moderately  large  four-sided  median  plate,  with 
the  angles  pointing  forwards,  backwards,  aud  to  the  sides.     The 


172  DE.  B,  BROOM  ON  THE  STEFCTUBE  AND       [June  4, 

anterior  angle  is  notched,  probably  for  the  lodgment  of  the  inter- 
clavicle;  the  outer  angles  are  rounded  and  the  posterior  angle 
truncated  as  if  to  give  attachment  to  a  cartilaginous  meso-  or 
xiphisteruum.  For  its  lower  two-thirds  there  is  a  well-marked 
median  ridge  for  the  attachment  of  the  pectoral  muscles.  The 
bone  is  a  little  longer  than  broad. 

Humerus. 

In  the  little  skeleton  of  Udenodon  gracilis  (PI.  XVI.)  one  of  the 
humeri  {Im.)  is  perfectly  preserved  and  beautifully  displayed ;  the 
other  though  less  perfect  has  the  opposite  side  showing.  In  speci- 
men 4  one  humerus  is  fairly  well  preserved,  and  of  the  other  the 
lower  half  is  almost  perfect ;  while  in  specimen  5  one  humerus  is 
shown,  but  in  bad  condition.  The  difference  between  the  humeri 
in  U.  gracilis  and  U.  baini  is  very  striking,  and  much  greater  than 
one  could  have  expected  to  find  in  two  species  apparently  so  closely 
allied. 

In  Udenodon  gracilis  (PL  XVI.),  the  humerus,  while  constructed 
on  the  well-known  Dicynodont  type,  is  characterized  by  a  number 
of  peculiarities.  The  delto-pectoral  crest  (c.d.)  is  greatly  developed, 
its  border  curving  forwards  and  downwards  from  the  articular 
surface  and  ending,  as  in  '■'■Platypodosaurus  rohustus,'"  in  a  somewhat 
hooked  process.  The  ento-tuberosity  is  developed  to  a  greater 
extent  than  is  met  with  in  the  humerus  of  any  S.  African  reptile 
hitherto  discovered,  and  forms  a  long  flattened  tapering  process 
•which  ends  in  a  rather  sharp  point.  Near  the  middle  of  the  bone  on 
its  inner  side  is  developed  a  very  prominent  tricipital  ridge  resem- 
bling more  that  seen  in  Echidna  than  the  I'ounded  prominence  on  the 
humerus  of  '■'Plah/podosaurus."  The  articular  surface  of  the  head 
of  the  bone  resembles  greatly  that  in  Ornithorhynchus  and  Echidna 
in  being  considerably  developed  transversely,  while  it  is  but  very 
narrow.  As  in  the  Monotremes,  a  sharp  ridge  runs  down  from 
the  articular  head  to  the  external  condyle ;  and  this  is  very 
peculiarly  developed,  in  that  while  in  the  humeri  hitherto  dis- 
covered though  it  may  be  very  prominent  it  is  generally  slender,  it 
is  here  a  markedly  rounded  boss  (ex.).  The  internal  condyle  is 
not  very  large.  The  entepicondylar  foramen  is  only  of  moderate 
size,  and  is  situated  a  little  more  distally  than  is  usually  the  case 
in  Dicynodonts.  The  ridge  of  bone  which  forms  the  bridge 
over  the  foramen  runs  up  to  the  base  of  the  delto-pectoral  crest. 

In  Udenodon  baini  the  humerus  varies  much  less  from  the 
normal  dicynodont  type.  The  delto-pectoral  crest  is  not  developed 
downwards  to  form  a  hooked  process  in  front ;  the  tricipital  ridge 
appears  to  have  been  small ;  while  the  external  condyle  is  not  more 
greatly  developed  than  is  the  case  in  Ornithorhynchus. 

Radius  and  Ulna, 

The  radius  and  ulna  are  very  mammal-like  in  form  (c/.  Plate 
XVI.). 

The  radius  (rd.)  is  considerably  shorter  than  the  humerus.     Its 


1901.J  AFFINITIES  OF  UDENODON.  173 

upper  half  is  moderately  rounded,  and  from  the  head  to  a  little 
below  the  middle  of  the  bone  it  steadily  decreases  in  thickness,  so 
that  at  the  middle  the  diameter  is  only  about  one-half  that  of  the 
head.  In  its  lower  third  the  bode  becomes  flattened  out  to  give  a 
broad  articulation  to  the  radiale  (*•«.).  The  broad  end  of  the  bone 
has  a  deep  depression  on  both  its  upper  and  under  sides.  Its 
articular  surface  looks  downwards  and  slightly  outwards. 

The  ulna  (ul.)  is  very  nearly  twice  as  long  as  the  radius,  and 
considerably  longer  than  the  humerus ;  its  great  length  being  due 
to  the  greatly  developed  olecranon  process  (oL;  cf.  also  Plate  XVIII. 
fig.  7).  The  upper  half  of  the  bone  is  very  strongly  developed,  and 
the  olecranon  extends  about  as  far  beyond  the  sigmoid  articulation 
as  it  does  in  such  typical  lowly  mammals  as  the  Wombat  and  the 
Porcupine.  The  point  of  the  olecranon  is  directed  slightly  out- 
wards, but  it  is  not  dilated  like  that  of  the  Monotremes.  On  the 
outer  side  of  the  ulna  a  short  prominent  ridge  is  seen  bordei'ing 
the  sigmoid  articulation.  On  the  inner  side  the  upper  part  of 
the  ulna  is  deeply  excavated  after  the  manner  seen  in  that  of 
Echidna,  but  to  a  much  greater  extent,  as  the  border  of  the  bone 
forms  a  much  more  prominent  ridge.  The  lower  half  of  the  ulna  is 
much  flattened.  Like  the  radius,  the  lower  end  is  slightly  expanded ; 
while  the  articular  surface  looks  slightly  towards  the  radius. 

Carj)us  (Plate  XVI.). 

In  the  skeleton  of  Udenodon  gracilis  the  carpus  is  almost  per- 
fectly preserved,  and  the  various  bones  composing  it  have  scarcely 
been  at  all  disturbed  in  position.  In  the  proximal  row  are  four 
bones — radiale  (ra.)  interrtiedium  {i.\  ulnare  (un.),  and  pisiform 
(pi.) ;  in  the  distal  row  are  five  carpals ;  while  in  the  middle  is  a 
single  centrale  (c). 

The  radiale  or  scaphoid  (ra.)  is  a  broad  and  considerably  flattened 
bone  which  occupies  the  greater  part  of  the  articular  end  of  the 
radius.  Its  dorsal  surface  shows  a  considerable  depression 
towards  its  outer  end.  It  articulates  with  the  radius,  with  the  1st 
carpale,  the  centrale  and  the  intermedium. 

The  intermedium  or  lunar  (i.)  lies  between  the  end  of  the  radius 
and  the  ulna  and  ulnare.  On  the  upper  side  it  has  a  fairly  large 
surface,  but  on  the  under  it  is  ^apparent  as  a  slender  plate  fitting 
in  between  the  radius  atid  the  ulnare. 

The  ulnare  or  cuneiform  (un.)  is  considerably  shorter  in  its 
transverse  diameter  than  the  radiale,  but  of  much  greater  length 
antero-posteriorly.  It  articulates  with  the  ulna,  the  intermedium, 
the  4th  and  5th  carpalia,  the  pisiform,  and  probably  with  the  cen- 
trale. Bordering  the  side  by  which  it  articulates  with  the  ulna 
there  is  a  prominent  little  oblique  ridge,  and  at  the  distal  and 
inner  corner  of  the  bone  is  a  little  rounded  eminence. 

The  pisiform  (-pi.)  is  a  little  bone  which  articulates  with  the 
outer  side  of  the  ulnare,  and  curves  outwards  and  upwards,  forming 
part  of  the  articulation  for  the  ulna. 


174  DE.  B.  BROOM  ON  THE  STEUCTUEE  AND       [June  4, 

The  centrale  (c.)  is  a  rounded,  moderate-sized  element,  which 
occupies  the  centre  of  the  carpus.  It  articulates  with  the  radiale, 
intermedium,  and  probably  with  ulnareof  the  proximal  carpal  bones, 
and  with  the  1st,  3rd,  and  4th  carpalia  of  the  distal  series.  It  is 
possible  that  a  small  second  central  element  may  have  lain  between 
the  centrale  and  the  ulnare,  but  I  regard  this  as  improbable. 

The  1st  carpale  is  a  short  flattened  bone  which  iits  in  between 
the  radiale  and  the  2nd  carpale.  On  its  outer  end  it  gives  an 
articulation  to  the  pollex.  Its  inner  end  articulates  with  the  3rd 
carpale  and  the  centrale. 

The  2nd  carpale  is  a  very  small  bone  which  articulates  with  the  1st 
and  3rd  carpalia,  and  supports  the  metacarpal  of  the  2nd  digit, 
and  possibly  shares  with  the  1st  carpale  the  support  of  the  1st 
metacarpal. 

The  3rd  carpale  is  a  fair-sized  element  which  fits  in  between  the 
2nd  and  1st  carpalia,  the  centrale,  and  the  4th  carpale,  and  gives 
articulation  to  the  3rd  metacarpal. 

The  4tli  carpale  is  a  large  quadrangular  element.  Distally  it 
gives  articulation  to  the  4th  metacarpal  and  to  a  slight  extent  to 
the  3rd  and  5th  metacarpals.  Proximally  it  articulates  with  the 
centrale  and  the  ulnare,  and  fits  in  between  the  3rd  and  5th  carpalia. 

The  5th  carpale  is  very  small,  and  is  so  closely  articulated  to  the 
4th  carpale  as  to  render  it  not  improbable  that  the  two  elements  may 
be  anchylosed  as  age  advances.  In  the  little  skeleton,  which  is 
probably  immature  but  not  very  young,  the  two  elements  are  quite 
distinct.  The  little  5th  carpale  articulates  also  with  the  ulnare, 
and  gives  articulation  to  the  5th  metacarpal. 

Metacarpals  and  Phalanges. 

In  the  raanus  there  are  five  well-formed  digits,  but  I  fail  to 
detect  any  trace  of  a  praepoUex.  The  three  median  digits  are 
somewhat  stronger  than  the  other  two. 

Of  the  pollex  only  the  metacarpal  and  part  of  first  phalanx  are 
preserved.  The  metacarpal  is  a  small  rectangular  bone  about  as 
broad  as  long.     The  1st  phalanx  is  probably  very  similar. 

In  the  second  digit,  as  in  the  first,  only  the  metacarpal  and  a 
portion  of  the  1st  phalanx  are  preserved.  The  metacarpal  is  a  fair- 
sized  element  appreciably  longer  than  broad.  In  the  middle  it  is 
somewhat  constricted,  and  at  its  distal  end  considerably  expanded. 
The  1st  phalanx  was  probably  considerably  smaller  than  the 
metacarpal. 

The  third  digit  is  complete  except  the  ungual  phalanx.  The 
metacarpal  is  very  similar  to  that  of  the  2nd  digit,  but  somewhat 
larger.  Like  the  latter,  it  is  constricted  in  the  middle  and 
expanded  distally.  The  1st  phalanx  is  a  quadrangular  bone 
only  slightly  longer  than  broad,  and  slightly  constricted  in  the 
middle.  It  is  about  one-half  smaller  than  the  metocarpal.  The 
2nd  phalanx  is  very  similar  in  shape  to  the  1st,  but  still  smaller. 

The  fourth  digit  is  almost  perfect.  The  metacarpal  is  about 
equal  in  size  to  that  of  the  3rd  digit,  but  is  less  constricted  in  the 


1901.]  AFFINITIES  OF  UDENODON.  175 

middle.  The  1st  phalanx  is  a  quadrangular  bone  slightly  broader 
than  long  and  only  slightly  constricted  in  the  middle.  The  2nd 
phalanx  is  a  small  bone  very  distinctly  broader  than  it  is  long. 
It  gives  articulation  to  a  large  claw.  The  terminal  or  ungual 
phalanx  is  narrow,  slightly  curved,  and  almost  as  long  as  the  meta- 
carpal and  the  other  two  phalanges  together. 

The  fifth  digit  has  a  small  metacarpal,  about  as  broad  as  long, 
and  but  slightly  narrowed  in  the  middle.  The  1st  and  2nd 
phalanges  are  both  small  quadrangular  bones,  the  1st  being 
considerably  smaller  than  the  metacarpal,  and  the  2nd  than  the  1st. 
The  ungual  phalanx  is  almost  as  large  as  that  of  the  fourth 
digit,  and  like  it  but  slightly  curved. 

In  Udenodon  baini  the  metacarpals  and  phalanges  appear  to  be 
very  like  those  in  U.  gracilis,  but  the  ungual  phalanges  are  much 
shorter  and  broader,  and  the  whole  digits  appear  proportionally 
stronger. 

Pelvis. 

In  the  skeleton  of  Udenodon  gracilis  (Plate  XYI.  and  Plate 
XVII.  fig.  6)  the  almost  perfect  ilium  (il.)  is  displayed.  On  the 
right  side  the  ischium  (is.)  and  pubis  (ph.),  with  a  portion  of  the 
ilium ,  are  shown  attached  to  the  main  slab,  while  the  greater 
portion  of  the  right  ilium  remains  adherent  to  the  counter  slab. 

The  ilium  resembles  considerably  the  ilium  of  Ptychosiagum 
orientale  figured  by  Lydekker  (7)  in  being  directed  upwards  and 
forwards,  and  in  being  greatly  expanded  antero-posteriorly.  As 
the  acetabulum  (ac.)  is  fairly  large,  the  lower  end  of  the  ilium 
which  articulates  with  the  pubis  and  ischium  is  broad.  On  passing 
upwards  it  becomes  somewhat  constricted  into  a  short  neck,  from 
which  it  again  rapidly  broadens  into  a  large  fan-like  expansion. 
The  anterior  part  of  the  blade  of  the  ilium  lies  much  in  advance  of 
the  axis  formed  by  the  neck  and  the  acetabulum,  the  anterior  border 
of  the  bone  forming  a  graceful  gentle  curve  forwards.  The  posterior 
part  of  the  blade  is  of  much  less  size,  and  the  posterior  border 
curves  almost  abruptly  backwards  from  the  neck  and  at  right  angles 
to  its  axis.  The  iliac  blades  are  moderately  flat,  being  only  slightly 
concave  antero-posteriorly  on  their  outer  side  and  with  some 
muscular  ridges. 

The  pubis  (pb.)  is  peculiarly  twisted,  so  that  while  the  upper  part 
looks  outward  the  lower  looks  mainly  downward.  The  pubis  forms 
a  little  more  than  a  quarter  of  the  acetabulum,  and  bounds  the 
articular  cavity  by  a  prominent  ridge.  The  outward  facing  portion 
of  the  pubis  is  triangular  in  shape.  In  front  of  the  acetabulum 
is  a  little  prominence — apparently  the  pectineal  tubercle ;  while  at 
the  lower  and  anterior  angle  of  the  triangular  portion  is  another 
small  tubercle,  which  in  position  corresponds  with  the  tubercle 
which  in  Orniihorhynchus  assists  in  the  articulation  of  the  marsupial 
bone.  A  ridge  runs  obliquely  from  this  lower  tubercle  towards  the 
lower  border  of  the  acetabulum,  and  from  it  the  pubis  passes  at 
first  directly  inwards  and  then  downwards  and  inwards.  The 
exact  size  of  the  obturator  foramen  (f.ob.)  is  not  clearly  shown 


176  DE.  E.  BEOOM  ON  THE  STEUCTTJEE  AND  [June  4, 

in  this  skeleton,  but  it  is  situated  immediately  below  the  oblique 
ridge  not  far  from  the  lower  border  of  the  acetabulum.  The  lower 
part  of  the  pubis  is  moderately  flat,  and  does  not  extend  farther 
forward  than  the  level  of  the  lower  tubercle.  The  anterior  border 
between  the  lower  tubercle  and  the  symphysis  is  straight,  as  if  for 
the  articulation  of  a  cartilaginous  epipubic  element.  There  is  a 
long  articulation  between  the  pubis  and  the  ischium  below  the 
obturator  foramen. 

The  ischium  (is.)  in  Udenodon  gracilis  is  proportionally  very 
considerably  smaller  than  in  the  Dicynodoyi  pelvis  figured  by 
Lydekker,  and  looks  much  less  downwards  than  in  that  specimen. 
Prom  the  point  where  the  ischium  meets  the  ilium  the  posterior 
border  curves  downwards  and  then  backwards,  ending  abruptly  at  the 
ischial  tuberosity.  From  the  tuberosity  the  lower  border  curves 
gently  round  to  meet  the  pubis.  The  lower  part  of  the  ischium  is 
flat  except  in  being  slightly  concave  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
obturator  foramen.  Eound  the  posterior  border  of  the  acetabulum 
the  ischium  forms  a  prominent  ridge,  but  the  ridge  formed  by  the 
ischium  is  not  continuous  with  that  formed  by  the  pubis,  a  gap 
occurring  at  the  ischio-pubic  suture.  From  the  acetabular  border 
a  prominent  thickening  or  ridge  runs  backwards  to  the  upper  end 
of  the  ischial  tuberosity. 

There  is  no  evidence  of  any  marsupial  bones,  and  from  the  con- 
dition of  the  skeleton  this  may  almost  be  taken  as  conclusive  proof 
that  such  bones  did  not  exist  in  Udenodon.  There  is  evidence, 
however,  in  favour  of  there  having  been  a  cartilaginous  epipubis. 

In  Udenodon  haini  the  ilium  is  very  similar  to  that  in  U.  gracilis, 
but  the  ischium  is  proportionally  considerably  larger  though  its 
general  characters  are  A^ery  similar.  The  obturator  foramen  if. oh.) 
is  oval  with  the  long  axis  directed  antero-posteriorly  and  situated 
close  under  the  border  of  the  acetabulum.  The  long  axis  of  the 
foramen  measures  about  half  the  diameter  of  the  neck  of  the  ilium. 

Femur. 

In  Udenodon  gracilis  the  right  femur  has  its  posterior  side  well- 
displayed,  and  as  its  upper  half  has  been  broken  loose  its  anterior 
side  can  also  be  examined  with  the  exception  of  the  head. 

In  its  general  proportions  the  femur  (Plate  XVII.  fig.  5,  fm.) 
agrees  with  that  of  the  Monotremes,  though  in  its  characters  it 
differs  somewhat.  It  is  much  flattened  throughout  its  whole  length, 
and  considerably  broadened  out  both  at  its  upper  and  lower  ends. 
From  the  head  to  the  greater  trochanter  the  measurement  is  nearly 
three  times  as  great  as  that  across  the  middle  of  the  shaft.  From 
a  little  below  the  middle  of  the  bone,  the  outer  border  forms  an 
almost  straight  line  to  the  top  of  the  great  trochanter.  The  inner 
border  curves  very  markedly  inwards  to  the  head,  and  the  curve  is 
interrupted  by  the  presence  of  the  small  trochanter,  which  forms  a 
small  but  very  distinct  inwardly  directed  ridge.  On  the  anterior 
surface  of  the  bone  so  far  as  displayed  is  a  small  vertical  groove  a 


1901.]  AFFINITIES  OF  TJDEIfODON.  177 

little  to  the  outside  of  the  middle  line  ;  while  to  the  inside  of  the 
great  trochanter  is  a  distinct  but  shallow  concavity.  On  tbe  pos- 
terior side  of  the  bone  there  is  a  fairly  deep  concavity  below  the 
head  and  on  the  inner  side  of  the  small  trochanter.  On  the  outer 
edge  of  the  posterior  side  there  runs  down,  from  a  little  below  tbe 
great  trochanter  to  beyond  the  middle  of  the  shaft,  a  small  sharp 
backwardly  directed  ridge.  In  the  middle  of  the  shaft  a  section  is 
almost  oval,  showing  a  small  but  distinct  medullary  cavity.  The 
lower  end  of  the  femur  resembles  very  considerably  the  lower  part 
of  the  bone  in  Echidna  or  Ornitliorhynchus.  The  condyles  are  small 
and  rather  widely  apart,  and,  as  in  the  Monotremes,  the  whole  lower 
end  of  the  femur  is  much  flatter  than  in  the  Eutherians.  From  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  inner  condyle  an  oblique  ridge  runs  upwards 
and  outwards  towards  the  outer  side  of  the  middle  of  the  shaft, 
apparently  corresponding  to  the  oblique  ridge  on  the  back  of  the 
lower  end  of  the  femur  of  Echidna. 

In  the  skeleton  of  Udenodon  haini  (spec.  4)  both  femora  are 
shown  but  in  rather  bad  preservation,  having  been  much  crushed. 
The  chief  differences  in  this  species  are  in  the  bone  being  propor- 
tionally stronger,  in  the  greater  development  of  the  great  trochanter, 
and  in  tbe  small  trochanter  being  less  marked. 

Tihia  and  Fibula. 

In  the  skeleton  of  Udenodon  gracilis  (PI.  XVI.)  both  tibiae  and 
fibulae  are  shown,  but  those  of  the  left  leg  are  not  well  displayed, 
and  those  of  the  right  only  show  the  posterior  surface  and  have 
been  slightly  injured  in  clearing  off  the  matrix. 

The  tibia  (tb.  Plate  XVII.  fig.  5)  is  considerably  shorter  than  the 
femur,  and  resembles  closely  the  tibia  in  Echidna.  It  is  a  moder- 
ately straight  bone  with  a  large  flat  head,  a  shaft  tapering  down  to 
between  the  middle  and  lower  thirds,  and  a  distal  end  moderately 
dilated  and  with  an  oblique  articular  surface.  It  has  a  distinct 
though  small  medullary  cavity. 

The  fibula  (fb.)  is  a  longer  though  more  slender  bone.  As  in 
Monotremes  and  most  Marsupials  the  head  is  large,  giving  an 
articulation  to  the  femur  and  having  a  portion  passing  up  beyond 
the  head  of  the  tibia  to  give  attachment  to  some  of  the  leg- 
muscles.  On  passing  downwards  the  fibula  is  directed  slightly 
upwards,  and  it  then  curves  inwards  so  as  to  form  a  wide  inter- 
osseous space.  At  its  lovver  end  the  bone  is  dilated  considerably, 
and  its  articular  surface  is  directed  slightly  inwards. 

In  Udenodon  baini  the  tibia,  like  the  femur,  is  proportionally 
a  much  stronger  bone  than  in  U.  gracilis,  and  it  is  also  propor- 
tionally shorter.  The  head  is  very  large,  and  from  it  there  runs 
down  the  front  of  the  bone  a  very  prominent  crest.  The  fibula, 
as  if  to  compensate  for  the  greater  strength  of  the  tibia,  is  propor- 
tionally more  slender  than  in  the  small  species.  It  gives  an 
articulation  to  the  femur,  but  the  head  is  much  smaller  and  is 
scarcely  extended  beyond  the  level  of  the  head  of  the  tibia.     It  is 

Pboc,  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  XII.  12 


178  BR.  E,  BEOOM  OK  THE  STEUCTITEE  AND  [June  4, 

more  curved  than  in  U.  gracilis,  and  there  is  thus  formed  a  larger 
interosseous  space. 

There  does  not  seem  to  have  been  an  ossified  patella  in  Udenodon. 

Tarsus. 

The  tarsus  of  the  right  side  (PI.  XVI.)  has  its  under  surface 
well  shown,  and  though  a  dorsal  view  would  have  been  more 
satisfactory,  a  good  idea  is  obtained  of  the  structure  of  the  joint 
even  though  a  little  doubt  may  remain  on  one  or  two  points.  The 
tarsus  of  the  left  side  is  so  twisted  that  it  is  difficult  to  be  sure  of 
some  of  the  elements. 

Articulating  with  the  tibia  and  fibula  respectively  (PL  XYII. 
fig.  5)  are  two  large  elements^ — manifestly  the  tibiale  (tl.)  and  the 
fibulare  ifl.),  with  a  small  bone  lying  between,  doubtless  the  inter- 
medium (■».).  The  distal  row  of  the  tarsus  is  formed  by  five 
tarsalia  ;  while  in  the  centre,  between  the  distal  row  and  the 
tibiale  and  fibulare,  is  a  ceutrale  (c),  small  as  displayed  on  the  under 
surface,  but  probably  of  much  larger  size  on  the  upper. 

The  tibiale,  or  astragalus,  as  displayed,  is  a  fair-sized  somewhat 
pentagonal  bone  with  the  upper  and  outer  angle  sharp  and  pro- 
duced. By  its  proximal  and  probably  its  inner  face  it  articulates 
with  the  tibia.  On  its  outer  face  the  little  intermedium  comes 
between  it  and  the  fibulare,  but  it  is  probable  that  an  articulation 
between  the  two  large  elements  takes  place  above  and  distally  to 
the  intermedium.  On  the  distal  border  of  the  tibiale  lies  the  small 
centrale.  It  is  probable  that  the  tibiale  does  not  articulate  with 
any  other  element.  As  the  tarsus  is  displayed  in  the  specimen, 
there  appears  to  be  no  element  between  the  1st  tar  sale  and  the 
tibiale,  and  one  might  infer  that  the  tarsale  had  articulated  with 
the  tibiale,  and  that  these  elements  are  slightly  displaced ;  but  it 
seems  much  more  probable  that  what  appears  to  be  a  very  small 
centrale  is  merely  a  projection,  showing  on  the  under  side,  from 
a  moderately  large  centrale  which  fits  in  between  the  1st  tarsale 
and  the  tibiale,  as  does  the  navicular  in  mammals. 

The  intermedium  (i.)  is  a  very  small  element,  at  least  so  far  as 
displayed,  fitting  in  between  the  tibiale  and  the  fibulare,  and 
articulating  with  these  two  elements  and  with  the  fibula.  It  is 
possible  that  the  element  may  not  be  a  true  intermedium,  but  a 
small  sesamoid  bone  ;  its  being  deeply  implanted,  however,  between 
the  other  tarsal  elements,  and  its  occupying  the  exact  position 
where  an  intermedium  would  be  looked  for,  leads  me  to  believe 
that  I  have  rightly  interpreted  it  as  that. 

The  fibidare  is  a  large,  elongated,  four-sided  element,  nearly  as 
large  as  all  the  other  tarsal  elements  together.  Its  proximal  side, 
by  which  it  articulates  with  the  fibula,  is  the  shortest  of  the 
four.  The  inner  side,  which  is  half  as  long  again  as  the  proximal, 
articulates  with  the  intermedium,  the  tibiale,  and  the  centrale. 
The  distal  end  of  the  element,  which  is  a  little  shorter  than  the 
inner  side,  but  much  broader  than  the  proximal  end,  articulates 
with  the  fourth  and  fifth  tarsalia  and  with  the  fifth  metatarsal. 


1901.]  ArFINITIBS  OF  UDENODON.  179 

The  centrale,  as  seen  iii  the  specimen,  would  appear  to  be  a 
small  element  fitted  in  between  the  tibiale,  the  fibulare,  and  the 
third  tarsale,  but  it  seems  probable  that  the  dorsal  view  of  the 
tarsus  would  show  it  to  be  a  much  larger  element.  This  is  rendered 
highly  probable  by  the  fact  that  there  appears  to  be  an  unoccupied 
gap  between  the  first  tarsale  and  the  tibiale.  This  must  either 
have  been  occupied  by  the  centrale  or  the  1st  tarsale  must  have 
articulated  with  the  tibiale,  and  in  the  specimen  has  been  displaced. 
The  positions  occupied  by  the  other  tarsal  elements  lead  me  to 
favour  the  former  alternative. 

The  1st  tarsale  (ts.  1,  Plate  XVIL  fig.  5)  is  a  large  element  much 
resembling  a  metatarsal  in  shape.  Its  proximal  end  is  expanded, 
and,  assuming  that  it  is  in  an  undisturbed  position  in  the  specimen, 
the  outer  side  of  this  end  articulates  with  the  2nd  tarsale.  The 
proximal  end  must  either  articulate  with  the  tibiale  direct,  or  a 
portion  of  the  centrale  was  interposed. 

The  2nd  tarsale  is  a  very  small  element,  articulating  laterally 
with  the  1st  and  3rd  tarsalia,  and  most  probably  with  the  centrale 
proximally.     It  gives  support  to  the  2nd  digit. 

The  3rd  tarsale  is  about  twice  as  large  as  the  2nd.  It  articu- 
lates with  the  2nd  and  4th  tarsalia  and  with  the  centrale,  and 
givps  support  to  the  3rd  toe. 

The  4th  and  5th  tarsaha  (ts.  4,  5)  are  so  closely  united  that 
there  is  some  doubt  as  to  whether  the  element  present  may  not  be 
entirely  the  4th  tarsale.  The  element  is  a  somewhat  oval-shaped 
bone  with  the  distal  side  slightly  concave.  It  fits  in  between  the 
fibulare  and  the  3rd  tarsale,  and  possibly  articulates  with  the 
centrale.  It  gives  support  to  the  3rd,  4th,  and  5th  metatarsals. 
Near  its  outer  end  there  is  an  indication  of  a  transverse  suture, 
which  seems  to  point  to  there  being  a  small  5th  tarsale  closely 
united  to,  if  not  anchylosed  with,  the  4th.  In  dealing,  however, 
with  so  small  a  structure,  where  the  bones  so  closely  resemble  the 
matrix  in  colour  that  it  is  difficult  at  times  to  decide  what  is  bone 
and  what  matrix,  one  cannot  place  much  reliance  on  an  indication 
so  minute. 

The  hallux  has  a  short  quadrangular  metatarsal  (mt.  1)  and  a 
phalanx  (ph.)  almost  exactly  similar  in  shape  and  size,  and  a  short 
ungual  phalanx  less  than  twice  the  length  of  the  1st  phalanx. 

The  2nd,  3rd,  4th,  and  5th  toes  are  so  similar  in  all  respects 
that  a  description  of  any  one  would  suit,  Avith  very  slight  modifica- 
tions, any  of  the  othei's.  In  all  four  the  metatarsals  are  elongated 
bones  with  rounded  proximal  ends,  flattened  distal  ends,  and  with 
their  shafts  constricted  in  the  middle.  The  first  phalanx  in  all 
four  toes  is  a  quadrangular  bone  slightlv  longer  than  broad.  In 
the  fourth  toe  the  phalanx  is  somewhat  stouter  than  in  the  others. 
The  second  phalanx  is  a  little  shorter  than  the  first,  and  very 
similar  in  all  four  toes.  The  ungual  or  terminal  phalanx  has  in 
all  five  toes  been  provided  with  a  short  claw,  only  slightly  curved. 

Though  the  fore  and  hind  limbs  are  fairly  equal  in  length,  the 
pes  is  very  much  smaller  than  the  manus.     All  the  digits  are  much 

12* 


180  DE.  E.  BEOOM  OF  THE  STETJCTTJEE  A?fD  [June  4, 

more  feeble,  and  the  claws  have  been  only  about  one-third  the 

size  of  those  in  the  manus, 

"  Platypodosaueus  eobustus,  Owen." 

In  1880  and  1881  Owen  (8,  9)  described  in  two  papers  parts  of 
the  skeleton  of  a  large  Anomodont  reptile  to  which  he  gave  the 
name  of  Platypodosaurus  robusius.  The  remains  comprised  a 
number  of  vertebrae,  a  scapula,  a  humerus,  the  sternum,  the  greater 
part  of  the  pelvis  with  the  sacrum,  a  portion  of  one  femur,  and 
some  phalanges.  Unfortunately  the  head  was  missing.  Owen 
recognized  a  number  of  affinities  between  the  bones  and  those  of 
Dicynodon,  but  was  chiefly  impressed  by  the  many  Mammal-like 
characters  displayed,  and  particularly  by  the  striking  resemblances 
many  of  the  bones  showed  to  those  corresponding  in  the  Mono- 
tremes ;  and  he  suggests  that  the  Monotremes  may  be  the  de- 
scendants of  reptiles  closely  resembling  Platypodosaurus. 

Lydekker  (7),  in  the  '  British  Museum  Catalogue  of  Fossil 
Reptiles,'  places  Platypodosaurus  among  the  Dicynodontia  as  a 
doubtful  species,  and  expresses  his  opinion  that  from  the  general 
Dicynodont  character  of  the  specimens,  the  remains  "■  are  referable 
either  to  Udenodon  or  Eudothiodon" 

As  nothing  has  hitherto  been  known  for  certain  of  any  of  ,the 
bones  of  either  Udenodon  or  Eudothiodon  except  the  skull,  no 
advance  beyond  Lydekker's  position  has  been  possible.  Now, 
however,  that  the  limb-bones  of  at  least  two  species  of  Udenodon 
are  known,  it  is  possible  to  come  nearer  a  solution  of  the  Platyjoo- 
dosaurns-'pYohlem. 

The  chief  distinctive  features  of  the  Platypodosaurus  specimens 
are  the  great  development  in  the  humerus  of  the  delto-pectoral 
crest  which  forms  a  downward  projection,  and  the  presence  of  a 
marked  tricipital  prominence.  In  Udenodon  gracilis  both  of  these 
characters  are  found,  and  the  general  proportions  of  the  humerus 
are  strikingly  similar  to  those  in  Platypodosaurus.  The  sternum 
of  Platypodosaurus  does  not  differ  greatly  from  that  of  Udenodon 
baini.  The  scapula  agrees  so  closely  with  that  of  U.  baini  that 
had  that  of  the  latter  been  found  alone  it  would  almost  certainly 
have  been  referred  to  a  young  specimen  of  Platypodosaurus, 
The  femur  of  Platypodosaurus,  so  far  as  is  known,  differs  somewhat 
from  thatt;  of  U.  gracilis,  especially  in  the  greater  development 
of  the  great  trochanter,  and  in  the  less  development  of  the  small 
trochanter ;  but  it  agrees  closely  with  the  femur  of  U.  baini. 
The  pelvis  of  the  larger  anomodont,  so  far  as  it  is  preserved, 
agrees  very  closely  with  that  of  U.  gracilis  in  its  general 
proportions,  and,  if  allowance  be  made  for  imperfections,  probably 
also  in  its  contours.  The  vertebrae  differ  very  considerably 
from  those  of  U.  baini  which  I  have  figured.  This  is  probably 
due  to  their  belonging  to  different  regions  of  the  column  in  the 
two  species. 

From  the  close  agreement  between  the  bones  of  Platypodosaurus 
and  those  of   Udenodon  gracilis  and  U.  baini,  there  seems   to  be 


1901.]  AFFINITIES  or  riDENODOJS'.  181 

very  little  doubt  that  the  Platypodosaihrus  robustus  remains  are  the 
bones  of  a  large  species  of  Udenodon.  The  large  skull  figured  by 
Owen  (3)  as  Udenodon  magnus  bears  almost  the  same  proportion  to 
the  limb-bones  of  "  Platypodosaurus  robustus "  that  the  skall  of 
Udenodon  gracilis  does  to  its  Kmb-bones.  It  seems,  therefore,  very 
probable  that  the  bones  described  as  Platiipodosaurus  robustus  are 
parts  of  the  post-cranial  skeleton  of  Udenodon  magnus,  Owen. 
Lydekker  (7),  in  his  British  Museum  Catalogue,  holds  that 
Udenodon  magnus  is  a  synonym  of  Udenodon  jyrognatlms  Owen. 
It  is  impossible  for  one  away  from  the  original  specimens  to  offer 
an  opinion  on  the  subject,  and  though  the  figures  seem  to  show 
a  number  of  distinctive  characters,  Lydekker's  work  among  the 
Anomodonts  has  been  so  carefully  and  conscientiously  done,  that 
any  opinion  expressed  by  him  must  always  cany  very  great 
weight. 

Affinities  of  Udenodon. 

The  genus  most  nearly  allied  to  Udenodon  is  Dicynodon ;  in 
fact  so  great  is  the  resemblance  between  the  two  genera  that  it 
has  been  suggested  that  Udenodon  was  the  female  of  Dicynodon. 
The  discovery  of  the  limb-bones  shows  that  the  two  genera  are 
distinct  though  very  closely  related ;  and  there  seems  to  be  very 
little  doubt  that  Udenodon  is  merely  a  slightly  modified  Dicynodon 
in  which  tlie  tusks  have  ceased  to  develop. 

When  the  bones  of  Udenodon  or  Dicynodon  are  compared  with 
those  of  other  Vertebrates,  we  find  that  the  group  has  many  marked 
affinities  with  the  Theriodonts  and  the  Mammals  ;  some  affinities, 
but  less  marked,  with  the  primitive  reptilian  types  such  as  Paria- 
saurus,  and  even  with  the  E;hynchocephalians,  Plesiosaurs,  and 
Chelonians ;  but  that  the  relationships  with  the  more  highly 
specialized  reptiles,  such  as  the  Crocodiles,  Dinosaurs,  and  Ptero- 
dactyles,  are  rather  I'emote. 

In  Udenodon  the  anterior  half  of  the  skull  is  so  greatly  modified 
in  connection  with  the  toothless  beak  that  the  affinities  are 
masked.  There  is  little  doubt,  however,  that  the  beak  is  derived 
from  that  of  a  Theriodont  type,  hitermediate  stages  being  found  in 
Cryptocynodon  and  Dicynodon. 

In  the  structure  of  the  posterior  part  of  the  skull  Udenodon 
agrees  closely  with  the  Theriodonts  and  Mammals ;  and  differs 
markedly  from  all  the  regular  Reptilian  types. 

In  the  majority  of  typical  reptiles  the  temporal  region  of  the 
skull  is  protected  by  two  bony  arches — a  supra-lateral  arch  formed 
by  the  postf rental  or  postorbital  and  the  squamosal  or  supra- 
temporal,  and  an  infra-lateral  formed  by  the  jugal  and  quadrato- 
jugal.  This  arrangement,  or  a  modification  of  it,  occurs  in  the 
Ehynchocephalians,  Pelycosaurians,  Crocodilians,  Dinosaurs,  and 
other  groups.  The  more  primitive  lizards  differ  in  having  lost 
the  lower  arch.  In  the  Dicynodonts,  as  in  the  Theriodonts  and 
Mammals,  there  is  but  a  single  arch  formed  by  the  jugal  and 
squamosal ;  and   some  difference  of  opinion  has  been  held  as  to 


182  DB.  R.  BROOM  ON  THE  STEIJCTURE  AND  [June  4, 

whether  this  single  arch  is  the  homologue  of  the  upper  or  o£  the 
lower  arch  in  the  typical  reptiles.  As,  however,  the  single  arch  in 
the  Dicynodonts  differs  in  structure  from  either  of  the  normal  rep- 
tilian arches,  and  as  it  is  moderately  certain  that  the  reptiles  with 
the  two  arches  have  been  derived  from  the  ancestral  forms  which 
had  the  temporal  region  completely  roofed,  by  quite  a  different 
line  from  that  by  which  the  Dicynodonts  have  arisen,  the  single 
arch  in  the  latter  cannot  be  regarded  as  homologous  with  either 
of  the  arches  in  the  more  typical  reptile.  In  the  branch  which 
gave  rise  to  the  majority  of  Eeptilian  orders  the  temporal  roof 
became  transformed  on  either  side  into  a  couple  of  arches  by 
an  upper  fenestra  formed  between  the  parietal,  squamosal, 
postorbital,  and  postfrontal,  and  a  lower  fenestra  between  the 
jugal,  quadrato-jugal,  supratemporaP,  and  postorbital.  In  the 
other  great  Eeptilian  branch  which  gave  rise  to  the  Anomodonts, 
Theriodonts,  and  Mammals,  a  single  fenestra  only  has  been  formed 
in  the  temporal  roof,  corresponding  to  the  upper  fenestra  of  the 
branch  from  which  the  Ehynchocephalians  and  allied  forms  have 
sprung.  After  the  formation  of  the  fenestra,  or  possibly  before, 
the  skull  in  the  anomodont  line  became  much  simplified  by  the 
reduction  and  loss  of  a  number  of  elements  and  the  corresponding 
increase  in  size  of  others.  The  squamosal  increased  apparently 
early  iu  relative  size,  and  with  its  increase  the  supratemporal  and 
the  quadrato-jugal  became  first  reduced  and  then  lost.  In  a 
number  of  different  lines  of  descent  we  find  a  similar  process 
has  gone  on.  Thus,  in  Sphenodon  the  squamosal  by  its  increase 
has  led  to  the  complete  loss  of  the  supratemporal  and  the  great 
reduction  of  the  quadrato-jugal ;  in  Aetosaurus  the  increased  de- 
velopment of  the  squamosal  has  led  to  the  loss  of  both  the  supra- 
temporal and  the  quadrato-jugal  ;  and  in  the  Plesiosauria,  which 
are  possibly  an  offshoot  from  the  Anomodont  stem,  we  find  a  very 
large  squamosal  with  complete  loss  of  the  supratemporal  and 
quadrato-jugal.  The  temporal  region  of  Udenodon  only  differs 
from  that  in  the  Plesiosaur  in  that,  whereas  the  latter  has  both  a 
postfrontal  and  a  postorbital,  one  of  those  elements  is  lost  in 
the  former ;  in  my  opinion  it  is  the  postorbital  which  is  lost  in 
the  Anomodont. 

The  only  essential  difference  between  the  structure  of  the 
postero-lateral  region  of  the  skull  in  the  Mammals  and  that  in 
the  Anomodonts  and  Theriodonts  is  that  the  mammalian  skull 
has  become  further  simplified  by  the  loss  of  the  postfrontal  and 
the  almost  complete  loss  of  the  quadrate.  A  number  of  years  ago 
I  advanced  (10)  the  view  that   the   reptilian   quadrate   had  its 

^  Concerning  the  two  bones  found  in  the  upper  and  posterior  temporal 
region,  opinions  have  differed  as  to  which  is  to  be  regarded  as  the  squamosal 
and  which  supratemporal.  The  opinion  to  which  I  have  been  led  is  that  it  is 
invariably  the  upper  and  inner  which  is  the  squamosal — an  opinion  which 
agrees  with  that  of  Baur,  but  differs  from  that  of  most  British  authorities, 
including  Parker.  When  only  the  one  element  is  found  it  appears  to  be 
always  the  squamosal. 


1901.]  APPimilES  OP  tTDENODOlf.  183 

homologue  in  the  mammal  in  the  interarticular  cartilage  of  the 
lower  jaw.  If  recent  advances  in  palaeontology  have  not  fully 
confirmed  this  view,  they  have  at  least  shown  that  practically  all 
the  alternative  theories  are  untenable. 

In  the  higher  Theriodonts,  e.  g.  Cynognaihiis,  the  zygomatic 
arch,  though  composed  of  the  same  elements  as  in  Udenodon, 
differs  very  greatly  in  the  relative  proportions  of  the  parts  ;  but 
in  the  lower  Theriodonts,  i.  e.  IctidosucJms  (11),  the  zygomatic 
arch  bears  much  resemblance  to  that  in  the  Anomodonts. 

The  palate  in  Dicijnodon  and  Udenodon  differs  considerably  from 
the  normal  reptilian  type,  and  agrees  essentially  with  that  in  the 
Theriodonts  and  Mammals. 

All  Jinown  Reptiles  have  palates  more  or  less  modifi.ed  from  a 
primitive  type  such  as  is  found  in  Parioticlius  or  Procolophon,  and 
which  consists  of  the  following  elements  : — an  anterior  pair  of 
bones  which  meet  in  the  middle  line,  and  which  are  usually 
regarded  as  "  vomers  " ;  a  pair  of  large  pterygoids,  which  have 
each  a  posterior  and  outer  branch  to  the  quadrate,  an  outer  and 
anterior  branch  joining  the  transpalatine,  and  an  anterior  and 
inner  branch  which  usually  meets  the  so-called  "vomer'";  a  pair 
of  palatmes  lying  on  the  outer  side  of  the  anterior  and  inner 
branches  of  the  pterygoids ;  a  pair  of  transpalatines ;  and  a 
median  element  passing  forwards  from  the  basisphenoid  between 
the  two  pterygoids,  and  usually  referred  to  as  the  "  parasphenoid." 
This  arrangement  we  find  with  only  slight  modifications  in  all 
the  early  groups,  including  types  so  dissimilar  as  Fareiasaurus, 
Procolophon,  Ichthyosaurus,  Flesiosaurus,  JDimetrodon,  and  Sphe- 
nodon. 

The  palates  of  the  Theriodonts  and  Anomodonts  are  very  con- 
siderably modified  derivatives  of  the  same  type.  Unfortunately 
in  none  of  the  primitive  Theriodonts  is  the  palate  at  all  well 
known.  We  know,  however,  that  a  secondary  palate  was  not 
formed  in  either  Gorgonops  or  Ictidosuchus,  nor  apparently  in 
j^lurosaurns.  In  Udenodon  we  have  an  imperfect  secondary 
palate,  and  in  the  higher  Theriodonts  a  secondary  palate  as  well- 
developed  as  that  in  mammals,  and  essentially  similar  to  that  in 
mammals.  As  the  general  structure  of  the  skeleton  of  Udenodon 
is  essentially  Theriodont,  and  as  the  palate  only  differs  from  that 
of  the  typical  Theriodont  in  the  specialization  of  the  beak  and  iu 
the  secondary  palate  being  imperfect,  one  is  justified  in  concluding 
that  the  Anomodonts  are  a  specialized  offshoot  from  the  earlier 
Theriodonts.  In  the  evolution  of  the  Theriodont  palate  from  the 
primitive  Reptilian  type,  the  changes  which  have  taken  place 
appear  to  have  been  the  following : — The  anterior  and  internal 
branch  of  the  pterygoid  has  become  greatly  reduced  and  finally 
lost,  and  its  place  and  function  to  a  large  extent  has  been  taken 
up  by  a  great  increase  in  the  so-called  "  parasphenoid  '' ;  while  the 
anterior  and  outer  branch  has  become  more  developed,  and  with 
its  increase  the  palatine  has  come  to  lie  rather  internal  than 
external  to  the  pterygoid.     With  the  development  of  a  secondary 


184  DE.  R.  BROOM  ON  THE  STEUCTUEE  AND  [  Juiie  4, 

palate  the  anterior  paired  element — the  so-called  "  vomer  " — being 
no  longer  required  as  a  bony  floor  for  the  nasal  cartilages,  has  become 
reduced,  and  is  only  retained  to  give  support  to  the  cartilages  of 
Jacobson's  organ.  This  is  the  condition  we  find  in  Gomphognathus 
(12).  The  "  parasphenoid,"  having  now  a  new  function — that 
of  forming  a  support  for  the  secondary  palate — becomes  greatly 
developed  as  a  median  plate,  which  is  unquestionably  the  homo- 
logue  of  the  mammalian  vomer.  From  this  it  follows  that  the 
element  called  Parasphenoid  in  the  Reptiles  generally  ought  to  be 
called  the  Vomer ;  while  the  anterior  paired  element,  usually 
regarded  as  the  "  vomer,"  but  which  is  the  homologue  of  the 
dumbbell-shaped  bone  in  OniitJiorJiynchus,  may  be  called  the 
"  anterior  vomer,"  or  by  the  name  I  have  elsewhere  (13)  proposed 
for  convenience,  the  Prevomer. 

In  Udenodon  the  true  vomer  is  greatly  developed,  but  the 
anterior  vomer  or  prevomer  is  lost — no  doubt  owing  to  the  great 
palatal  development  of  the  premaxillary.  The  vomer  in  the 
Anomodonts  agrees  with  the  mammalian  vomer  even  more  closely 
than  does  the  vomer  in  the  higher  Theriodonts. 

In  the  Chelonians,  probably  as  the  result  of  a  parallel  develop- 
ment, the  palate  bears  considerable  resemblance  to  that  in  the 
Anomodonts,  and  it  even  appears  that  the  median  vomer  is  a  true 
vomer,  as  in  Dicynodon  and  its  allies. 

The  lower  jaw  of  Udenodon  differs  greatly  in  appearance  from 
that  in  the  Theriodonts,  owing  to  its  being  toothless  and  to  the 
absence  of  a  well-developed  coronoid  process.  As  the  elements 
are  apparently  the  same,  the  difference  is  probably  due  largely  to  a 
degeneration  in  the  Anomodont  jaw,  similar  to  that  which  has 
taken  place  in  the  toothless  mandibles  of  such  mammals  as 
Echidna  or  the  Whales. 

The  vertebrae  appear  to  be  essentially  similar  in  structure  in  the 
Anomodont  and  in  the  Theriodont ;  but  in  the  Anomodont  the 
type  is  somewhat  more  primitive,  in  that  the  ribs  of  the  lower 
trunk  vertebras  are  not  specialized  as  they  are  in  the  higher 
Theriodont  at  least. 

The  shoulder-girdle  in  Udenodon  belongs  to  the  type  which  is 
found  to  persist  with  little  variation  from  the  lower  forms  such  as 
Pareiasaurus  up  to  the  Monotremes.  The  cartilaginous  elements 
consist  of  a  scapula,  a  coracoid,  and  a  distinct  precoracoid,  while 
the  membrane-bone  elements  are  a  clavicle,  a  supra-clavicle  or 
cleithrum,  and  a  median  interclavicle.  In  the  Anomodonts  the 
coracoid  and  the  precoracoid  are  extremely  like  those  in  the 
Theriodonts,  both  the  higher  and  the  lower  ;  but,  curiously  enough, 
the  scapula  agrees  with  that  in  the  higher  Theriodonts  such 
as  Cynognathus,  and  differs  from  that  in  the  lower  Therio- 
donts,^ e.  g.  Ictidosuclius,  in  having  a  moderately  well-developed 
acromion. 

The  humerus  closely  resembles  that  in  the  Theriodonts,  but 
whereas  in  the  latter,  as  in  the  typical  terrestrial  mammals,  the 
humerus  is  elongated,  in  the  Anomodonts,  as  in  the  Monotremes, 


1901.]  AiTINITlES  or  UDENODON.  185 

the  humervTS  is  short  and  broad.  As  pointed  out  by  Owen  in 
PJatypodosaurus,  the  humerus  bears  a  most  remarkable  resemblance 
to  that  in  Echidna.  There  is  little  doubt,  however,  that  the 
humeri  in  both  the  Mouotremes  and  the  Anomodonts  have  been 
derived  by  a  parallel  development  from  the  more  elongated 
Theriodont  type. 

The  radius  and  ulna  closely  resemble  these  bones  in  both  the 
Theriodonts  and  in  the  Mammals.  The  ulna  is  remarkable  by  its 
having  a  very  well-developed  olecranon,  somewhat  resembling  that 
which  Seeley  has  shown  to  occur  in  Theriodesmus,  but  developed 
to  a  much  greater  extent. 

The  carpus  is  strikingly  like  that  of  both  the  Theriodont  and 
the  Mammal.  In  Theriodesmus  it  is  moderately  certain  that  there 
are  four  bones  in  the  proximal  row  as  shown  by  von  Bardeleben 
(14),  and  not  three  as  according  to  Seeley's  restoration  (15). 
JFrom  the  condition  found  in  Udenodon  it  will  be  seen  that 
Seeley's  objection  to  placing  four  bones  in  the  proximal  row  is  of 
no  weight.  Bardeleben  figures  two  centralia,  but  as  these  two 
are  figured  by  Seeley  as  a  single  bone,  there  must  still  remain 
some  doubt  as  to  whether  Tlieriodesonus  has  one  or  two  centralia. 
The  carpus  of  Theriodesmus  resembles  that  of  Udeyiodon  in  the 
small  size  of  the  2nd  carpale,  but  differs  in  the  apparent  absence 
of  the  5th  carpale.  Theriodesmus  further  differs  from  Udenodon 
in  having  a  small  praepollex.  In  the  structure  of  its  carpus 
Udenodon  seems  to  be  more  primitive  than  the  Theriodont,  and 
shows  affinities  with  a  number  of  the  earlier  reptilian  types.  In 
Sjphenodon  the  carpus  is  very  similar,  but  differs  in  having  two 
centralia.  The  carpus  of  Lacerta  as  figured  by  Wiedersheim  is 
almost  similar  to  that  of  Udenodon,  only  differing  slightly  in  the 
relative  size  of  one  or  two  of  the  elements.  In  Proterosaurus 
the  carpus  is  again  formed  on  the  same  type,  though  apparently 
with  the  absence  of  the  pisiform ;  and  in  the  Chelonians  we  have 
another  slight  modification  of  type. 

In  many  mammals  we  find  the  carpus  vei"y  closely  agreeing 
with  that  of  Udenodon,  but  with  the  5th  carpale  invariably  lost. 
It  is  remarkable  that  in  the  lowest  mammalian  orders — the 
Monotremata,  the  Marsupialia,  and  the  Edentata — the  os  centrale 
is  absent.  It  is,  however,  retained  in  many  Eodents,  most 
Insectivores,  the  Seals,  in  the  Hyrax,  and  in  the  Primates.  Even 
in  Man  in  early  foetal  life  a  distinct  central  element  can  be 
seen. 

The  manus  agrees  with  that  of  the  mammal,  not  only  in  the 
number  of  digits,  but  in  the  number  of  phalanges  in  each. 

The  pelvis  belongs  to  that  type  with  expanded  ilium  and  small 
obturator  foramen,  which  can  be  seen  as  far  back  as  Myops 
among  the  Labyrinthodonts,  and  which  is  still  found  in  the 
mammals  of  to-day.  As  in  the  Pariasaurians,  the  ilium  lies 
mainly  in  front  of  the  acetabulum,  and  the  ischium  and  pubis  are 
well  developed.  The  obturator  foramen,  however,  is  considerably 
larger  than  in  these  primitive  forms.     In  Gynognathus  the  ilium 


186  DE.  R.  BEOOM  ON  THE  STEUCTUEE  AND  [June  4, 

is  even  more  greatly  expanded  antero-posteriorly  than  in  Udeno- 
don,  and  the  ischium  is  produced  backwards  to  a  greater  extent, 
while  the  obturator  foramen  is  considerably  larger.  The  pelves  in 
the  two  forms  are,  however,  manifestly  closely  related,  though  the 
Theriodont  pelvis  comes  nearer  to  the  Mammalian  type  than  does 
the  Anomodont ;  while  the  latter  retains  more  of  the  primitive 
characters. 

The  femur  does  not  greatly  resemble  the  femora  of  those  few 
Theriodonts  in  which  that  bone  is  known.  It  shows  hardly  any 
of  the  remarkable  features  of  the  femur  of  Ictidosuchus,  There 
is,  however,  a  distinct  depression  immediately  inside  the  great 
trochanter  corresponding  to  the  deep  pit  in  the  femur  of  that 
early  Theriodont.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  in  man}''  Therio- 
donts the  femur  was  as  little  specialized  as  in  Udenodon.  In 
Cynodraco  the  distal  end  of  the  femur  is  fairly  like  that  in  the 
Anomodont.  On  the  whole  it  must  be  admitted  that  the  Anomodont 
femur  resembles  the  Mammalian  type  more  than  that  of  any  other 
known  Reptilian  group. 

The  fibula  agrees  with  that  in  the  Monotremes  and  Marsupials, 
in  having  the  upper  end  expanded  and  passing  beyond  the  head 
of  the  tibia.     A  similar  condition  is  seen  in  Aristodesmus. 

The  tarsus  is  especially  interesting,  in  that  while  it  shows  close 
affinities  with  the  primitive  types,  it  also  foreshadows  the  tarsus 
of  the  mammal.  Assuming  that  my  interpretation  of  the 
elements  is  correct,  the  tarsus  would  show  some  resemblance  to 
that  in  the  Pelycosauria,  where,  according  to  Cope  (16),  a  distinct 
intermedium  and  centrale  are  present.  In  the  large  majority  of 
Eeptiles  the  intermedium  and  the  centrale  become  early  united 
with  the  tibiale.  In  the  mammal  it  would  appear  that  the  astra- 
gulus  is  the  tibiale,  the  calcaneum  the  fibulai-e,  the  navicular  the 
centrale,  and  that  the  intermedium  is  missing.  The  condition  of  the 
elements  in  Udenodon  would  seem  to  favour  this  view.  By  Gegen- 
baur,  Flower,  and  others  the  mammalian  astragalus  has  been  held 
to  represent  the  united  tibiale  and  intermedium  ;  while  according 
to  Emery  the  astragalus  represents  a  fusion  of  the  intermedium 
and  a  paracentrale.  When,  in  any  form,  a  single  cartilage  or  bone 
occupies  the  situation  held  by  two  elements  in  an  ancestral  type, 
many  morphologists  incline  to  regard  the  single  element  as  morpho- 
logically equivalent  to  the  two  ;  but  in  the  very  large  majority  of 
cases  there  is  good  reason  to  believe  that  the  single  element  is 
only  functionally  equivalent  to  the  two,  and  that  it  is  the  homo- 
logue  of  only  one,  the  other  being  completely  lost.  Thus,  if  we 
compare  the  human  carpus  with  that  of  the  Baboon,  we  might 
readily  conclude  that  the  scaphoid  or  radiale  in  Man  was  equivalent 
to  the  small  scaphoid  and  centrale  together  of  the  loM^er  form ; 
but  we  know  from  development  that  a  rudiment  of  the  centrale 
is  present  and  quite  distinct  in  man  in  early  foetal  life,  and  that 
as  development  advances  it  completely  disappears.  Very  many 
similar  instances  might  readily  be  given.     Of  course  this  rule  does 


1901.]  AFFINITIES  OF  TJDENODON.  187 

not  apply  to  those  cases  where  two  elements  distinct  in  early  life 
coalesce  or  anchylose  as  development  advances,  but  it  appears  to 
apply  to  membrane-bones  as  well  as  cai'tilage. 

In  Udenodon  the  small  size  of  the  intermedium  seems  to 
indicate  that  it  is  on  the  point  of  disappearing,  and  in  mammals 
it  is  apparently  quite  lost.  The  centrale,  though  as  displayed  it 
is  small,  occupies  the  position  of  the  navicular  in  the  mammal, 
which  has  generally  been  regarded  as  the  centrale  of  the 
tarsus. 

The  digits  and  the  phalanges  agree  in  number  with  those  of  the 
Mammalia. 

Conclusion, 

Prom  the  structure  of  the  skull  and  other  parts  of  the  skeleton, 
Udenodon  is  very  manifestly  closely  related  to  both  the  Theriodonts 
and  to  the  Mammals,  and  though  the  higher  Theriodonts  are  too 
specialized  to  have  been  the  ancestors  of  the  Anomodonts,  the 
lower  Theriodonts  may  very  well  have  been  the  ancestors  not  only 
of  the  Anomodonts  but  of  the  Mammals.  The  lower  Theriodonts 
may  have  sprung  from  forms  allied  to  Pareiasaurus  with  the 
temporal  region  completely  roofed  ;  and  it  seems  probable  that 
the  bones  forming  the  temporal  roof  have  been  reduced  in  number 
before  the  first  formation  of  the  fenestra.  From  the  same  line  by 
which  the  Theriodonts  have  arisen,  it  is  probable  that  the  Plesio- 
saurs  have  sprung  as  an  offshoot  arising  early  and  becoming 
greatly  specialized,  and  it  is  also  possible  that  the  Cheiouians  have 
branched  off  from  near  the  same  point. 

All  the  other  reptilian  groups  appear  to  have  arisen  by  a  different 
branch  or  branches  from  the  primitive  forms.  Prom  forms  with 
the  temporal  region  completely  roofed  as  in  ParioticJius,  it  is 
probable  that  a  group  arose  with  the  roof  fenestrated  at  first  in 
the  supralateral  region,  and  then  later  in  the  infralateral  region 
as  well,  and  giving  rise  to  a  group  of  which  PalceoJiatteria  may 
be  regarded  as  the  type.  Prom  this  group  it  is  highly  probable 
that  the  Pelycosauria  have  arisen  by  one  branch,  the  Crocodilia 
by  another,  the  Dinosauria,  and  probably  the  Ornithosauria,  by  a 
third ;  while  a  fourth  branch  has  given  rise  to  the  Ehyncho- 
cephalia  and  the  Squamata.  The  Ichthyosauria  appear  to  have 
either  sprung  directly  from  the  primitive  group,  or  to  have 
branched  off  very  early  from  the  PcdceoTiatteria  stem.  All  the 
orders  along  this  main  branch  have  the  palate  directly  derived 
from  a  Sphenodon-WkQ  type,  and  in  most  instances  the  modification 
from  the  type  is  sHght. 

What  appear  to  be  the  mutual  relationships  of  the  principal 
Orders  are  best  seea  when  an  endeavour  is  made  to  arrange  them 
phylogenetically,  thus  : — 


188 


DE.  R.  BEOOM  ON  THE  STEUCTUEE  AND 


[June  4, 


1901.]  ArriNiTiES  or  udenodon.  189 


List  of  Papees  eeeekred  to. 

1.  Sbeley,  H.  Gr. — "  On  associated  Bones  of  a  small  Anomodont 

Reptile,  Keiroynatlms  cordylus  (Seeley)."  Phil.  Trans,  vol. 
179  B.  (1888),  iJ.  487. 

2.  Owen,    E. — '  Catalogue   o£    Possil   Eeptilia    of    S.   Africa.' 

1876. 

3.  Cope,  E.  D. — "  On  the  Homologues  of   some  of  the  Cranial 

Bones  of  the  Eeptilia,  and  on  the  systematic  arrangement 
of  the  Class."    Proc.  Amer.  Assoc,  for  Adv.  of  Sci.  1870. 

4.  HuxLEr,  T.  H. — "  On  some  Amphibian  and  Reptilian  Remains 

from  S.  Africa  and  Australia."  Quart.  Journ.  GeoL  Soc. 
vol.  XV.  1859. 

5.  Seeley,  H.  Gr. — "  Researches  on  the  Structure,  Organization, 

and  Classification  of  the  Fossil  Reptilia. — VI.  On  the 
Anomodont  Reptilia  and  their  Allies."  Phil.  Trans,  vol. 
180B.  (1889),  p.  215. 

6.  Broom,  R. — •'  On  the  Structure   of  the  Palate  in  Dicynoclon 

and  its  Alhes."  Trans.  S.  African  Phil.  Soc.  vol.  xi.  part  iii. 
1901. 

7.  Ltdekkbr,   R. — "  Catalogue    of    the    Fossil    Reptilia    and 

Amphibia  in  the  British  Museum,"  Part  IV.    1890. 

8.  Owen,  R. — "Description  of  parts   of   the   Skeleton   of   an 

Anomodont  Reptile  {Platypodosaurus  rohustus  Ovv.)  from 
the  Trias  of  Graaff  Reinet,  S.  Africa."  Quart.  Journ. 
Geol.  Soc.  1880. 

9.  Owen,    R. — "  Description   of    parts   of  the   Skeleton  of    an 

Anomodont  Reptile  {Platijpodosaurus  rohustus  Ow.). 
Part  II.  The  Pelvis."    Quarts  Journ.  Oeol.  Soc.  1881. 

10.  Broom,  R. — "  On  the  fate  of  the    Quadrate  in  Mammals." 

Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.,  Nov.  1890. 

11.  Broom,  R. — "  On  Ictidosuchus  primcevus."   Trans.  S.  Afr.  Phil. 

Soc.  vol.  xi.  part  iii.  1901. 

12.  Broom,  R. — "On  the  occurrence  of  an  apparently  distinct 

Prevomer  in  GompJiognathus."  Journ.  Anat.  &  Phys. 
vol.  xxxi.  1897. 

13.  Broom,  R. — "  On  the  Homology  of  the  Palatine  Process  of 

the  Mammalian  Premaxillary."  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  W. 
1895. 

14.  Bardblebbn,  K. — "  On   the  PreepoUex  and  Praehallux,  with 

observations  on  the  Carpus  of  Theriodesmus  phylarchtis." 
P.  Z.S.  1899,  p.  259. 

15.  Seeley,   H.    Gr. — "  Researches. — III.  On   the   parts   of    the 

Skeleton  of  a  Mammal  from  Triassic  rocks  of  Klipfontein, 
S.  Africa."     Phil.  Trans,  vol.  170  B.  (1888),  p.  141. 

16.  Cope,  E.  D. — "  The    relations  between  the   Theroraorphous 

Reptiles  and  the  Monotreme  Mammalia."  Proc.  Amer. 
Assoc,  for  Adv.  Sci.  vol.  xxxiii.  p.  471  (1885). 


190 


MB.  F.  B.  BEDDARD  ON  EAETHWORMS 


[June  4, 


Fig. 


Fig. 


EXPLANATION  OF  THE  PLATES. 
Plate  XVI. 

1.  Skeleton  of  a  small  Udenodon,  presumably  U.  gracilis.    The  parts  in 
outline  are  from  the  remains  on  the  counter  slab.     X  t%. 

Plate  XVII. 

2.  Ujaper  view  of  skull  of  Udenodon  gracilis.     Nat.  size. 

3.  Side  view  of  skull  of  Udenodon  gracilis.     Nat.  size. 

4.  Vertebra  (probably  lower  thoracic)  of  Udenodon  bainii.     Nat.  size. 

5.  Posterior  view  of  right  hind-limb  of  Udenodon  gracilis.     Nat.  size. 

6.  Inner  view  of  pelvic  bones  of  right  side  of  Udenodon  gracilis.     Nat. 

size. 

Plate  XVIII. 

Fig.     7.  Posterior   or   under  side  of  right  arm-bones  of    Udenodon  gracilis. 
Nat.  size. 

8.  Right  clavicle  of   Udenodon  gracilis.     Nat.  size. 

9.  Sternum  of  Anomodont — believed  to  be  Udenodon  baini.     Nat.  size. 

10.  Right  shoulder-girdle  of   Udenodon  baini.     Nat.  size. 

11.  Right  coracoid  and   precoracoid  of    Udenodon  baini,  from    within. 

Nat.  size. 

Reference  Letters. 


ac. 

acetabulum. 

n., 

anterior  nares. 

acr. 

acromion  process. 

na.. 

nasal  bone. 

c. 

centrale. 

ol., 

olecranon  process. 

c.d., 

deltoid  ridge. 

pb., 

pubis. 

c.e., 

external  condyle. 

ph., 

phalanges. 

cl, 

clavicle. 

pi. 

pisiform. 

CO., 

coracoid. 

p.co,, 

precoracoid. 

./. 

femur. 

ra. 

radiale. 

fb., 

fibula. 

rd.. 

radius. 

fl. 

fibulare. 

r.f., 

frontal  ridge. 

fr,i. 

femur. 

f-V-f., 

postfrontal  ridge. 

fo., 

precoracoid  foramen. 

So., 

scapula. 

f.ob.. 

obturatur  foramen. 

Sp., 

neural  spine. 

gi-^ 

glenoid  facet. 

tb.. 

tibia. 

hu., 

humerus. 

tl, 

tibiale. 

i., 

intermedium. 

tr., 

transverse  process. 

il. 

ilium. 

is., 

tarsalia  (1  &  4-5). 

is. 

ischium. 

id., 

ulna. 

mt. 

metatarsals. 

un.. 

ulnare. 

4.  On  some  Species  of  Earthworms  of  the  Genus  BenJiamia 
from  Tropical  Africa.     By  Frank  E.  Beddard,  F.R.S.  &c. 

[Received  May  20,  1901.] 

(Text-figures  12-19.) 

The  genus  Benliamia  was  originally  instituted  by  Dr.  Michaelsen^ 
and  withdrawn  from  Acanthodrilus,  in  which  it  had  been  formerly 
included.  Quite  recently^  the  same  authority  has  proposed  to  drop 
this  generic  name,  and  has  placed  the  species  which  belong  to  it  in 

^  JB.  Hamb.  wiss.  Anst.  vi.  p.  6. 

^  Oligochseta  in  '  Das  Tierreich,'  1900,  p.  334. 


1901.]  or  THE  GENUS  BENHAMIA.  191 

the  genus  Diehogaster  (originally  instituted  by  myself  ^),  which  has 
priority.  This  genus  Bicliogaster  was  also  extended  so  as  to  include 
Microdrilus,  Millsonia,  and  Balanta.  The  extended  genus  will 
contain  therefore  at  the  present  moment  no  less  than  70  species. 
If  it  can  he  avoided,  it  appears  to  me  to  be  imdesirable  to  divide 
families  into  such  large  genera.  I  do  not  for  a  moment  deny  that 
the  difference  between  the  several  types,  which  were  distinct 
enough  at  the  time  of  their  creation  as  genera,  are  through  further 
discovery  rendered  small.  Nevertheless  it  appears  to  me  to  be 
still  possible  to  retain  the  genus  Benhamia  (which  perhaps  must 
include  Trigaster)  for  those  Acanthodrilid  worms  in  which  the 
male  pores  are  quite  independent  at  their  orifice  from  the  spermi- 
ducal  glands,  and  which  in  all  cases  (save  only  in  Benhamia  viridis) 
open  on  to  a  segment  (the  xviiith)  lying  between  those  upon 
which  open  the  two  pairs  of  spermiducal  glands.  But  B.  viridis 
is  not  exceptional  in  the  fact  that  the  sperm-ducts  are  quite 
independent  at  their  orifice  of  the  spermiducal  glands,  Benhamia 
is,  at  least  mainly,  an  African  genus — tropical  African.  Some 
38  species  are  confined  to  that  continent,  and  two  others  have  been 
found  in  the  Malay  Archipelago  as  well,  while  a  third  has  been  met 
with  in  many  parts  of  the  world.  Four  are,  so  far  as  we  know  at 
present,  confined  to  the  Oriental  region,  while  9  (exclusive  of  the 
species  of  the  genus  Trigaster)  are  Central- American  and  West- 
Indian.  It  is  held,  and  as  I  think  rightly  held,  by  Michaelsen 
that  the  real  home  of  the  genus  is  tropical  Africa,  and  that 
there  is  a  great  possibility  that  the  species  not  found  within 
that  area  have  been  accidentally  transferred.  As  to  the  ease 
with  which  this  may  have  occurred  there  is  plenty  of  evidence 
which  I  need  not  recapitulate  here.  There  are,  as  it  appears 
to  me,  two  strong  pieces  of  evidence  in  favour  of  the  view  that 
it  has  occurred  in  the  case  of  this  particular  genus,  which  are 
these  : — firstly,  three  species  are  common  to  Africa  and  to  some 
other  part  or  parts  of  the  globe  :  secondly,  the  species  of  the  genus 
Benhamia  of  Western  Africa  are  different  from  those  of  Central 
and  Eastern  Africa,  Now  migration  across  the  continent  must 
■  surely  be  an  easier  matter  than  migration  so  far  as  the  Malay 
archipelago  ;  we  thus  are  forced  to  conclude  that  if  so  trifling  a 
barrier,  comparatively  speaking,  as  the  breadth  of  equatorial  Africa 
has  prevented  the  intermingling  of  western  and  eastern  species, 
the  enormous  tracts  of  land  and  sea  which  intervene  between 
Benhamia  holaui  in  Africa  and  the  same  species  in  other  parts  of 
the  world  must  have  been  traversed  by  some  other  means  than 
unaided  effort. 

(1)  Benhamia  moorii,  n.  sp. 

Mr.  Moore  has  very  kindly  placed  in  my  hands  two  specimens 
of  earthworms  collected  by  him  in  Africa.  One  of  these  is  well 
preserved,  and  is  a  large  and,  as  I  believe,  new  species  oi  Benhamia, 

^  Quart.  Jouvn.  Micr.  Sci.  xxis.  p.  251. 


192  MR.  p.  E.  BEDDARD  ON  EARTHWORMS  [Juiie  4, 

The  worm  was  found  upon  the  Kurungu  mountains  north  of  Lake 
Kivu. 

This  Benhamia  is  of  a  leaden  colour  with  a  distinct  tinge  of  pink. 
It  is  also,  on  account  of  its  darkly  pigmented  body,  beautifully 
iridescent.  It  measures  some  280  mm.  in  length,  and  is  thus  one 
of  the  larger  species  of  the  genus  ;  the  extreme  diameter  (behind 
the  clitellum)  is  15  mm. ;  it  is  thus  a  stoutly  built  M'orm.  Towards 
both  ends  of  the  body  it  tapers  somewhat.  As  will  be  seen  from 
the  drawing  exhibited  (text-fig.  12),  many  of  the  preclitellar  segments 
are  biannulate.  The  jJ'i^osto'mium  is  quite  small  and  entirely  re- 
tracted within  the  buccal  cavity.  It  is  continued  back  by  a  slender 
prolongation  a  short  distance  over  the  buccal  segment.  The  dorsal 
pores  of  this  worm  are  apparently  rather  remarkable  in  one  matter. 
They  commence  between  segments  v./vi.,  as  in  many  species  of 
the  genus.  Four  plainly  obvious  pores  follow  the  first  one,  which 
is  not  so  pronounced  as  they  are.  Then  there  is  a  gap  where  two 
pores  ought  to  be.  It  might  be  imagined  that  this  gap  was  appa- 
rent and  not  real,  due  simply  to  the  greater  contraction  of  the  body 
at  this  part.  On  dissection,  however,  the  pores  were  exceedingly 
plain.  And  I  observed  that  on  the  border-line  of  the  three  seg- 
ments, where  the  dorsal  pores  were  apparently  absent,  the  longi- 
tudinal muscle  which  acts  as  an  expansor  muscle  of  the  pore  was 
carried  right  across  the  place  where  the  pore  should  be,  instead  of 
ending  at  its  mai'gin  as  is  the  case  when  the  pore  is  present.  There 
seems  to  be  thus  no  doubt  as  to  the  real  absence  of  these  pores 
from  the  segments  mentioned,  a  curious  circumstance  which  I,,  do 
not  recollect  having  seen  referred  to  in  any  other  species.  Between 
segments  xii./xiii.  the  pores  recommence  and  continue  in  an  un- 
broken line  to  the  very  end  of  the  body.  On  the  clitellum  a  median 
groove  partly  obliterates  the  actual  pores ;  it  runs  from  pore  to  pore 
and  on  the  anterior  part  of  the  clitellum  is  continuous  for  some 
distance  ;  there  are  traces  of  it  also  elswhere  upon  the  clitellum. 
It  is  not  a  furrowing  of  the  integument,  but  a  slight  folding  which 
may  of  coitrse  be  due  to  contraction  ;  and  yet  this  is  not  certain, 
since  it  is  the  ventral  side  of  this  worm  which  was  most  contracted, 
a  circumstance  which  ought  to  have  resulted  in  a  tauter  condition 
of  the  opposite  side  of  the  body. 

The  setce,  as  is  universal  in  this  genus,  are  strictly  paired,  and  lie 
entirely  upon  the  ventral  surface  of  the  body. 

The  clitellum  is  fairly  extensive.  It  begins  Avith  the  xiiith  and 
ends  with  the  xxiiird  segment,  thus  occupying  eleven  segments. 
The  middle  region  of  the  clitellum,  including  segments  xiv.-xxi., 
is  more  compacted,  owing  to  a  reduction  in  the  depth  of  the  inter- 
segmental furrows.  The  ventral  surface  of  a  considerable  poz*tion 
of  this  is  deeply  depressed,  as  in  other  species  of  Benhamia,  and  thus 
forms  a  sucker-like  structure,  extending  from  about  the  fifteenth  to 
the  twentieth  segment.  This  area  surrounds  of  course  the  male 
pores.  The  arrangement  of  these  will  be  apparent  from  an  inspec- 
tion of  the  drawing  exhibited  (text-fig.  12).  The  species  shows  no 
ereat  differences  from  the  conditions  which  have  been  observed 


i 


1901.]  OP  THE  GENUS  BENHAMIA.  193 

Text-fig.  12. 


Ventral  view  of  the  anterior  segments  of  Benhamia  moorei.     X 
Peoc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  XII] .  13 


194  MR.  F.  E.  BEDDABD  ON  EARTHWORMS  [Jvine  4, 

and  described  in  other  species  of  Benhamia.     The  four  pores  of  the 
sjoermiducal  glands  lie  as  usual  upon  the  xviith  and  xixth  segments. 
Their  position  corresponds  to  that  of  the  ventralmost  setae  ;  from 
each  protrudes  a  single  penial  seta,  whose  structure  will  be  dealt 
with  immediately  in  connection  with  that  of  the  male  efferent 
apparatus.     A  nearly  circular  fold  of  integument  surrounds  each 
pore,  and  is  continuous  with  a  fold  which   demarcates  a  groove 
putting  the  two  pores  of  each  side  of  the  body  into  communication. 
This  seminal   gutter   has  a  curvature  which  is   not  usual  in  the 
genus.     As  a  rule  it  is  absolutely  straight,  or,  if  curved,  the  con- 
vexity of  the  curve  is  to  the  outside.     In  the  present  species  the 
curvature  is,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  figure,  in  the  reverse  directiou, 
the  concavity  of  the  curve  being  directed  outwards.     Between  the 
two  gutters  the  integument  is   traversed  by  a  regular  series  of 
grooves  which  subdivide  its  surface  as  I  have  shown  (text-fig.  12). 
I  presume  that  the  orifices  of  the  sperm-ducts  lie  in  the  groove  on 
each  side  of  the  body.     But  the  groove  was  so  deep  that  I  was 
unable  to  detect  them.     Moreover  I  am  unable  to  assert  definitely 
whether  or  not  the  ventral  pair  of  setae  are  present  upon  the  sviiith 
segment.     It   was  thought  for  a  time  that  the  absence  of  these 
sete  was  distinctive  of  the  genus  Benhamia  (sensu  stricto)  ;  but,  as 
Michaelsen  has  found  that  this  is  not  always  the  case,  the  character 
must  be  dropped  :  still  it   remains   true  that  in   the  majority  of 
species  which  have  been  carefully  examined  these  setae  are  really 
absent.     On  the  clitellum  generally  of  this  worm,  large  though  it 
is,  the  setae  are  not  at  all  conspicuous.     Just  behind  each  of  the 
anterior  penial  setae  and  just  before  each  of  the  posterior  penial  setae 
there  is,  to  the  side,  an  isolated  and  smallish  tract  of  integument 
which  I   regard  as   a  genital  ])a]iilla.     The  two  pairs  of  genital 
papillae  would  thus  appear  to  be  situated  on  the  border  lines  of 
segments  xvii./xvhi.  and  xviii./xix.     Although  the  appearance  of 
the  integument  which    forms  these  structures  does    not    differ 
markedly  from  the  appearance  of  the  surrounding  integument,  yet 
the  groove  which  surrounds  them  seems  to  mark  them  out  as  some- 
thing distinct ;  and  they  are,  as  I  think,  to  be  looked  upon  as 
genital  papillae,  which  are  sometimes,   though   not  very  generally, 
present  in  the  species  of  this  genus.     I  could  not  find  either  the 
pores  of  the  oviducts  or  those  of  the  spermathec;e.     As  to  the 
latter,  a  dissection  assured  me  that  they  are  ventral  in  position  and 
correspond  fairly  closely  to  the  position  of  the  pores  of  the  spermi- 
ducal  glands. 

Internal  Anatomy. 

When  the  worm  was  cut  open,  the  relative  thickness  of  various 
regions  of  the  integument  was  found  to  vary  considerably. 
Anteriorly  to  the  clitellum  the  body-wall  was  much  thinner  than  in 
the  clitellar  region  and  behind  it  I  may  remark  that  a  difference 
of  colour  distinguished  the  two  layers  of  the  clitellar  epithelium. 

Intersegmental  Sejita. — The  considerable  deficiency  of  septa  in  the 
anterior  region  of  the  body  may  perhaps  account  for  the  thinness 


1901.]  OP  THE  GEISTS  BENHAMIA.  195 

of  the  integument  already  referred  to.  It  is  very  unusual  to  find 
so  few — and  those  such  thin — septadividing  the  anterior  segments. 
Their  arrangement,  moreover,  is  very  puzzling  when  taken  in  re- 
lation with  the  exteriial  segmentation  and  with  the  location  of 
organs  internally.  The  first  recognizable  septum  is  fairly  thick 
and  separates  segments  v.  and  vi.  Its  insertion  on  the  body-wall 
corresponds  quite  accurately  to  the  external  furrow  separating 
those  segments.  There  is  then  an  appai'ent  gap  of  considerable 
extent  in  which  there  are  no  septa  at  all,  though  the  oesophagus 
and  the  gizzai'ds  are  bcmnd  to  the  parietes  byafew  muscular  threads. 
The  next  actual  septiun  is  very  thin ;  it  is  inserted  behind  the  last 
of  the  two  gizzards  on  to  the  alimentary  canal,  but  to  the  body- 
wall  at  about  the  middle  of  the  ixtli  segment,  as  mapped  by  the 
dorsal  pores  which  are  quite  conspicuous  from  the  inside  of  the 
body.  It  might  therefore  be  held  that  the  few  muscular  strands, 
already  referred  to,  represented  the  otherwise  missing  septa  vi./vii. 
and  vii./viii.,  and  perhaps  viii,/ix.  Obvious  though  this  determi- 
nation seems  on  a  dissection,  it  is  apparently  not  correct.  If  we 
count  the  septa  from  a  fixed  point  such  as  the  segment  lodging, 
aud  containing  the  external  orifice  of,  the  anterior  spermiducal 
gland,  we  find  that  up  to  as  far  forwards  as  the  xivth  segment 
there  is  a  correspondence  between  the  insertion  of  the  septa  and 
the  segments  which  they  deuiarcate.  Between  the  septum  which 
defines  the  fifteenth  segment  anteriorly  and  the  second  recogniz- 
able septum  just  described,  I  find  six  septa  crowded  together.  It 
seems  to  follow  therefore  that  that  septum,  in  spite  of  the  place  of 
its  attachment  to  the  body-wall,  is  really  septum  vii./viii.  and  that 
the  only  really  missing  septum  is  vi./vii. 

As  this  latter  septum  would  if  present  lie  between  the  two 
gizzards,  it  is  not  surprising  to  find  itabsent,  a  state  of  affairs  which 
is  very  characteristic  of  the  gizzard  segments  of  Pericluvta  (syn. 
Amyntas  and  Phevetima). 

None  of  the  septa  as  already  mentioned  are  particularly  thick  ; 
those  dividing  segments  xii./xvii.  are  the  most  developed. 

Alimentary  Canal. — The  pharynx  occupies  the  first  five  segments 
of  the  body.  The  two  gizzards  are  separated  by  a  very  short  tract 
of  thin-walled  oesophagus.  The  anterior  of  the  two  gizzards  is 
really  preceded  by  a  third  rather  rudimentary  gizzard,  for  the  walls 
of  the  end  of  the  oesophagus  are  nearly  as  thick  as  those  of 
the  gizzard  and  are  divided  from  it  by  a  brief  thin-walled  region. 
Erom  what  has  been  said  with  regard  to  the  septa  of  this  part  of 
the  body,  it  should  be  clear  that  the  two  fully  developed  gizzards 
lie  in  segments  vi.  and  vii.,  a  quite  reasonable  determination  of 
their  situation.  Segments  v.  and  vi.,  however,  are  more  usually 
occupied  by  the  gizzards  in  this  genus.  The  calciferous  glands  are 
in  segments  xv.,  xvi.,  and  xvii.  The  first  pair  differ  from  the  rest  in 
being  whiter  in  colour.  Each  gland  is  somewhat  kidney-shaped 
but  with  a  number  of  transverse  depressions  dividing  it  into  lobules. 
The  glands  open  separately  into  the  oesophagus,  by  wide  and  easily 
visible  ducts. 

13* 


196  MR.  "F.  E.  BEDDABD  ON  EAETHWORMS        [June  4, 

Generative  organs. — The  testes  1  did  not  detect.  The  ovaries  were 
very  small,  though  easily  recognizable  in  their  usual  segment 
(the  xiiith).  There  are  two  pairs  of  funnels,  which  seem  at  first 
sight  to  be  situated  farther  forward  than  is  the  rule ;  they  lie  in 
fact  beneath,  and  are  quite  concealed  by,  the  lai'ge  gizzards.  The 
shifting  of  the  septa,  however,  already  referred  to,  accounts  for 
this  appearance  ;  and  I  have  little  doubt  but  that  the  funnels  lie  in 
segments  x.  and  xi.  They  are  large,  much  folded,  and  of  an  opaque 
white  colour  as  is  usual  with  the  funnels  of  the  terrestrial  Oligo- 
chEeta.  The  si)erm-sacs  are  apparently  but  slightly  developed,  that 
is  if  I  am  right  in  my  identification  of  these  structures.  In 
segment  xii.  and  attached  just  behind  the  posterior  pair  of  funnels 
to  the  septum  near  to  the  ventral  body-wall,  is  a  pair  of  small 
pear-shaped  bodies  which  I  took  at  first  for  testes^  so  small  are 
they,  and  of  so  unusual  a  form  for  sperm-sacs.  Nevertheless  I 
imagine  that  they  must  be  sperm-sacs,  though  I  could  make  out 
nothing  decisive  in  their  structure  when  teased  in  glycerine.  A 
second  pair  of  apparently  similar  sacs  lie  above  them  and  protrude 
into  their  segment  through  an  obviously  natural  foramen  in  the 
septum.  A  series  of  sections  enable  me  to  state  definitely  that 
these  are  sperm-sacs.  The  sjjermiducal  glands  are  large  and  much 
coiled,  so  that  they  occupy  only  two  or  three  segments.  They 
appear,  however,  above  the  gut  in  this  region.  The  muscular  duct 
in  which  they  end  is  thinnish  and  of  some  extent. 

This  Benliamia  has  the  usual  tw^o  pairs  o£  sjyermatheco',  which  are 
large  and  completely  hidden  by  the  gizzards ;  their  external  orifices 
are,  however,  between  segments  vii./viii.  and  viii./ix.  Each  sac 
(text-fig.  13,  p.  197)  consists  of  a  thin-walled  receptacle  of  somewhat 
irregular  form  owing  to  its  being  not  very  full  of  secreted  matter, 
and  to  unequal  pressure  by  the  other  viscera  in  the  preserved  worm. 
Leading  from  this  pouch  is  the  thick-walled  and  more  muscular 
duct,  which  is  quite  of  equal  length  to  the  pouch.  Attached  to 
the  duct  nearer  to  its  external  opening  than  to  the  pouch  is  a  single 
diverticulum,  which  is  composed  of  a  rosette  of  flattened  seminal 
chambers  which  are  chalk-white  from  the  enclosed  semen. 

Penial  Setce. — It  is  rather  extraordinary  that  the  very  fragile 
penial  setse  were  absolutely  intact.  Protruding  from  each  of  the 
four  spermiducal  gland-apertures  was  a  single  long  penial  seta 
of  a  brown  horn-colour,  and  some  four  or  five  millimetres  long. 
That  they  were  protected  by  the  deep  depression  in  which  the 
male  orifices  lie  is  possibly  the  cause  of  their  preservation  ;  for  I 
found  them  very  brittle.  These  four  setae  stand  up  perfectly 
straight  without  a  bend,  except  at  the  very  tip,  which  is  hooked. 
It  is  a  curious  fact  that  they  were  symmetrically  disposed ;  each 
pair  stood  as  it  were  back  to  back,  with  the  hooks  directed  outward. 
I  do  not  think  that  this  regularity  in  the  position  of  the  penial 
setsD  has  been  commented  upon  before. 

The  appearance  of  these  setse  under  the  microscope  (see  text- 
fig.  16,  p.  205)  is  characteristic.  Very  nearly  the  whole  of  that 
part  of  the  seta  which  is  exposed  at  the  surface  of  the  body  is  marked 


1901.]  OF  THE  GEIfUS  BENHAMIA,  197 

by  complete  rings  of  a  different  texture,  or  at  least  appearance,  to 
the  interspaces.  It  can  be  readily  seen  that  these  rings  are  not 
superficial  markings  upon  the  seta,  as  they  have  been — perhaps 
wrongly — stated  to  be  in  the  case  of  similar  seta  in  other  worms. 
They  are,  as  was  correctly  stated  by  Michaelsen  in  another  species 
of  earthworm,  caused  by  some  differentiation  of  the  material  of  the 

Text-fig.  13. 


Spermatheca  of  Benhamia  moorei.     X  3. 

seta  below  the  outermost  layer.  Towards  the  hooked  end  of  the  seta 
these  riugs  get  to  be  closer  together  and  at  the  same  time  of  less 
diameter.  In  addition  to  these  markings  the  extremity  of  theseta 
is  pitted— this  time  quite  superficially— with  minute  excavations. 
The  tip  is  strongly  hooked,  and  before  this  the  seta  regularly  but 
rapidly  decreases  in  calibre,  not  suddenly  as  Michaelsen  has  figured 
and  described  in  Benhamia  itiolensis. 

fSjiermatojiJiore.—I  found  a  spermatophore  in  this  species  ;  but  I 
do  not  give  a  full  account  of  it,  and  as  the  existence  of  spermato- 
phores  in  this  genus  is  not  my  discovery,  I  do  not  give  a  special 
section  to  an  elaborate  description  of  it.  It  is  curious  how  rarely 
spermatophores  have  been  met  with  in  the  enormous  number  of 
species  (some  550)  belonging  to  the  family  Megascohcidae  (from 
which  I  exclude  the  Eudrilidse).  Indeed  I  am  only  acquainted 
with  their  description  in  two  forms  belonging  to  the  same  genus 
as  the  subject  of  the  present  communication.  Dr.  Michaelsen  has  in 
fact  figured  and  briefly  noticed  a  spermatophore  in  Benhamia  monti- 
cola  and  B.  itiolensis  \  The  spermatophore  of  the  species  described 
here  is  apparently  slightly  different  in  form.  I  may  remark  first  of 
all  that  it  lay  entirely  in  the  muscular  duct  of  the  spermatheca,  and 

1  Regenwurmer  in  Deutsch-Ost-Afrika,  p.  28,  pi.  i.  fig-  4. 


1  98  ME.  -p.  E,  BBDDARD  ON  EABTHWOBMS        [June  4, 

that  it  is  too  large  to  have  been  moulded  in  the  narrow  muscular 
part  of  the  sperraiducal  gland.  The  end  turned  towards  the 
spermatheca  was  oval  in  form,  and  this  region  gradually  narrowed 
and  then  terminated  abruptly  in  a  large  roughly  rounded  mass,  of 
greater  diameter  than  the  oval  end  of  the  spermatophore.  The 
structure  was  very  hard,  and  a  little  brittle,  and  of  the  usual  chitin 
yellow.  When  viewed  with  the  naked  eye,  or  with  a  lens,  the 
distal  end  of  the  spermatophore  was  white  from  the  enclosed 
sperm.  The  finer  middle  region  was  of  a  golden  yellow,  since  the 
canal  here  within  the  spermatophore  was  narrow.  The  walls  are 
thick,  especially  of  course  those  of  the  rather  irregularly  shaped 
terminal  sAvelling.  Whether  there  is  a  terminal  pore  I  do  not  know. 
1  conclude  with  a  brief  definition  of  this  new  species,  which  I 
propose  to  name  after  Mr.  Moore : — 

Benhamia  moorei,  u.  sp. 

Length  280  mm.f  diameter  10-15  mm.  Prostomium  very  small, 
prolonged  for  a  short  ivay  on  to  the  buccal  segment.  Dorsal  pores 
commence  v./vi.  Clitellum  xiii.-xxii.  MalS pores  on  deep  depression ; 
seminal  gutter  convex  imuards.  Tivo  pairs  of  genital  papillce  on 
xuii./xviii.  and  xviii.jxix.  Gizzards  in  vi.  and  vii.;  calciferous 
glands  in  xv.,  xvi.,  xv'ii.,  opening  separately  into  oesophagus.  No 
septa  very  thick  ;  septum  vi./vii.  tuaniing.  Dorsal  vessel  single  ;  last 
heart  in  xii.  Two  pairs  of  sperm-duct  funnels,  Spermiducal  glands 
large  and  coiled.  Fenial  setce  one  to  each  gland,  hooked  at  the  tip 
and  marked  throughout  the  greater  part  ivith  fine  rings  ;  at  the  very 
tip  very  slightly  pitted.  BpermatJieccB  with  long  muscular  duct  as 
long  as  thep>ouch.  Near  to  tlie  beginning  of  the  muscular  chict  a  rosette 
of  four  or  five  diverticula.     Spermatophores  pn'esent . 

Hal).  Kurungu  Mts.,  East  Central  Africa. 

(2)  Benhamia  johnstoni,  n.  sp. 

Sir  Harry  Johnston,  K.C.B.,  has  sent  to  the  Natural  History 
Museum  three  Earthworms  which  prove  to  be  all  of  the  same  species, 
and  are  closely  allied  to  B.  moorei  which  has  just  been  described. 
I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  Sir  Harry  Johnston  as  well  as  to 
Dr.  Lankester  for  allowing  me  the  opportunity  of  examining  these 
worms.  The  species,  which  I  propose  to  name  after  their 
collector,  is  in  many  respects  so  near  to  B.  moorei,  that  at  first  I 
thought  that  I  had  before  me  some  larger  examples  of  that  species. 
Nevertheless,  as  I  shall  show,  there  are  a  number  of  points  of 
structure  in  which  the  two  differ. 

B.  johnstoni  is  a  larger  worm,  though  its  actual  length  is  less 
than  that  of  B.  moorei ;  the  largest  of  the  three  specimens  was 
250  mm.  in  length,  but  quite  20  mm.  in  breadth,  indeed  a  milli- 
metre or  two  more  in  places.  It  is  thus  an  exceptionally  stout 
species.  The  colour  during  life  must  have  been  very  marked; 
even  in  the  preserved  worms  the  contrasts  of  colours  are 
striking.  The  general  colour  above  is  of  a  red-brown,  which 
pales  into  a  yellowish  upon  the    ventral    surface.      The   dorsal 


1901.]  or  THE  GENUS  BENHAMlA,  199 

pores  are  surrouuded  by  a  small  pale  area  and  the  elitelliim  is 
yellowish. 

The  jii'ostomium  is  larger  than  that  of  B.  moorei ;  it  is  retracted 
within  the  buccal  cavity,  and  is  divided  off  from  the  buccal 
segment  by  a  complete  groove  which  dips  faintly  into  the  segment. 
The  arrangement  of  the  prostomium  is  that  denominated  "  pro- 
epilobisch  "  by  Dr.  Michaelsen.  It  is  convenient  to  have  terms 
for  the  varying  condition  of  the  prostomium  which  is  so  frequently 
of  use  in  the  discrimination  of  species  or  genera,  as  in  the  present 
instance.  But  it  would  be  as  well  perliaps  to  convert  Michaelsen's 
terms  into  more  purely  Grreek  compounds.  I  would  suggest  that 
the  terms  should  be  epicheilous,  &c.  The  dorsal  iwres  have  au 
interesting  arrangement  in  this  species.  In  one  of  the  three 
examples  no  pores  were  missing  from  the  intersegmental  groove 
v./vi.  onwards.  In  another,  one  was  not  visible  externally  and 
internally,  the  muscles,  which  are  present  in  every  case,  running 
from  margin  to  margin  of  the  successive  pores,  were  exceedingly 
feeble  at  tliis  point.  In  the  third  example,  which  I  did  not  open, 
there  was  no  doubt  of  the  fact  that  the  dorsal  pores  between 
segments  x./xi.  and  xi./xii.  were  absent ;  for  in  that  worm  the  other 
pores  happened  to  be  particularly  conspicuously  distended.  There 
is  thus  in  the  present  species  a  series  of  stages  which  culminates 
in  the  loss  of  the  two  dorsal  pores  immediately  preceding  the 
clitellum.  In  B.  moorei,  as  has  been  stated,  the  same  pores  are 
absent ;  but  it  may  be  of  course  that  other  examples  would  show 
some  trace  of  their  presence.  I  should  observe  that  the  muscles 
whose  function  it  is  to  distend  the  pores  are  exceptionally  well 
developed  in  this  species,  and  that  the  feeble  muscles  running  from 
the  places  which  should  be  occupied  by  the  missing  dorsal  pores 
ended  where  the  pores  should  be,  and  did  not,  as  in  B.  moorei, 
continue  their  course  over  this  spot  without  a  break. 

The  setce  have  the  usual  strictly  paired  and  ventral  position. 
The  individual  setse  are  very  plainly  ornamented,  as  is  the  case 
with  other  species ;  the  ornamentation  is  in  the  form  of  slight 
ridges  over  the  distal  entl  of  the  seta.  The  seta  as  a  whole  is 
rather  straight,  and  has  often  a  somewhat  peculiar  ending  in  its 
epidermic  sac,  which  is  illustrated  in  the  accompanying  drawing 
(text-fig.  14,  p.  200).  The  setae  cannot  be  considered  to  be  small 
except  proportionately,  the  worm  being  exceptionally  large. 

The  clitellum  is  largely  composed  of  segments  whose  mutual 
demarcations  have  been  to  a  great  extent  obliterated  ;  but  in  front 
of,  and  behind,  this  region  are  two  segments  which  belong  to  the 
clitellum,  though  they  are  not  so  thoroughly  amalgamated  with  the 
middle  segments  as  the  latter  are  with  each  other.  The  clitellum 
extends  from  segment  xii.  to  xxiii.  inclusive,  and  is  thus  longer  than 
that  of  B.  moorei.  The  ventral  surface  which  bears  the  several 
male  pores  is  deeply  depressed  as  shown  in  the  drawing  (text- 
fig.  15,  p.  200). 

The  figure  of  B.  moorei  shows  the  tesselated  appearance  of  the 
integument  in  the  region  of  the  male  pores  ;  this  appearance  is 


200 


ME.  r.  E.  BBDDAED  ON  EARTHWORMS        [Juoe  4, 


Text-fig.  14. 


Two  setiB  of  Benhamia  johnstoni  (highly  magnified). 


Test-fig.  15. 


Ventral  surface  of  clitellar  segments  of  Beiihcinita  johnstoni.     x  | 


1901.]  or  THE  GENUS  BBNHAMIA.  201 

exaggerated  in  the  present  species  (text-fig.  15,  p.  200),  the  condition 
of  the  integument  somewhat  obscuring  the  actual  orifices  of  the 
spermiducal  glands.  The  penial  setas  projected  from  the  latter 
precisely  as  in  B.  moorei.  The  groove  which  connects  the  two 
spermiducal  gland-pores  of  each  side  is  straighter  than  in  B.  moorei, 
and  in  the  two  not  fully  mature  examples  was  perfectly  straight. 
The  groove  itself  is  a  little  difficult  to  see  owing  to  the  numerous 
lines  which  divide  up  the  ventral  area  into  detached  tracts. 

The  internal  structure  of  this  worm  also  shows  a  few  small 
differences  from  both  B.  moorei  and  B.  itiolensis.  The  two  gizzards 
are  so  close  together  that  it  is  diificult  to  note  their  line  of  division. 
Moreover  strands  of  muscle  pass  over  this  line  of  division.  I  am 
disposed  to  believe  that  the  gizzards  lie  respectively  in  segments 
vii.  and  viii.  It  is  rather  hard  to  be  certain  upon  this  point ;  but 
in  any  case  I  counted  six  septa  in  front  of  that  which  divides 
segments  xiv./xv.  In  front  of  the  last  of  these  six  septa  lies  the 
posterior  of  the  two  gizzards.  It  cannot  therefore  be  behind  the 
viiith  segment,  though  it  is  possible  that  the  gizzard  really  lies  in 
vii.  as  in  B.  moorei.  The  calciferous  glands  are  in  segments  xv., 
xvi.,  xvii.  They  differ  slightly  from  those  of  B.  moorei,  in  that 
the  first  and  the  third  pairs  are  equal,  while  the  middle  pair  are 
rather  the  smallest.  1  observed  no  difference  of  colour  such  as 
distinguishes  the  first  pair  of  these  glands  in  B.  moorei.  The 
intestine  in  this  species  commences  in  segment  xix.  There  is 
apparently  no  difference  from  B.  moorei,  as  far  as  I  can  see,  in  this 
particular. 

The  organs  of  reproduction  are,  moreover,  much  the  same.  I  found, 
as  in  B.  moorei,  masses  of  sperm  in  segments  xi.,  xii.  I  could  find 
no  wall  to  these  masses,  which  seemed  to  be  merely  freely  floating 
and  agglomerated  heaps  of  developing  spermatozoa  freed  from  the 
testes.  I  have  adverted  to  the  very  small  size  of  the  sperm-sacs 
in  B.  moorei.  In  the  present  species  I  could  not  discover  them  at 
all ;  they  must  therefore  be  small  if  present.  It  is  remarkable  that 
in  mature  examples  of  both  species  the  sperm-sacs  are  so  small, 
and  that  both  concur  in  having  large  and  freely  floating  masses  of 
sperm.  In  B.  itiolensis,  Michaelsen  was  unable  to  record  the 
position  and  appearance  of  the  sperm-sacs ;  while  in  Benhamia 
viridis  and  Trigaster  lanhesteri  the  sperm-sacs,  dwindling  as  it 
appears  in  the  former  three  species,  have  entirely  disappeared. 
The  sjpermidiical  glands  are  very  large  and  massive.  Each  of  them 
occupies  two  segments,  the  connection  between  the  two  masses 
being  by  a  single  loop  of  the  tube  which  perforates  the  septum  ; 
thus  the  appearance  of  four  pairs  of  glands  is  produced.  The 
arrangement  is  obviously  not  quite  the  same  as  has  been  flgured 
by  Michaelsen  in  B.  itiolensis.  But  in  the  so-called  variety 
ccerulea,  the  same  arrangement  as  that  characteristic  of  B.johnstoni 
appears  to  occur.  The  jpenial  setce  of  the  present  species  are  quite 
different  in  form  from  those  of  B.  moorei,  as  will  be  seen  from  a 
comparison  of  the  accompanying  drawings  (text-fig.  16,  p.  205). 
The  general  form  and  the  remarkable  straightness  is  the  same  in 


202  MR.  F.  E.  BEDDAUD  ON  EARTHWORMS        [June  4, 

both,  as  is  the  series  of  transverse  bars  which  mark  the  setae  tlirough- 
out.  At  the  distal  end,  however,  there  are  phxin  differences.  In 
B.johnstoni  the  seta  swells  ovally  just  before  its  termination,  and 
on  the  ventral  side  of  this  there  is  a  sharply  marked  ridge ;  the 
actual  extremity  is  bent  almost  like  a  crozier,  the  end  lying  parallel 
with  the  main  shaft ;  the  very  tip  is  slightly  bifid.  It  is  clear  that 
this  does  not  agree  with  the  figure  given  by  Micbaelsen  of 
Benhamia  itiolensls.  Nor  does  his  description  of  the  penial  setee 
of  the  variety  coerulea  fit  itself  to  what  I  have  observed.  Of  the 
seta  in  B.  itiolensis  var.  coerulea,  he  remarks  that  it  has  a  much 
narrower  distal  extremity  (as  in  B.  johjistoni),  and  that  there  is  also 
an  oval  swelling  which  precedes  this  terminal  hook  (also  as  in 
B.  johnstoni) ;  but  the  tip  is  apparently  not  so  much  hooked  as  in 
B.johnstoni,  and  no  mention  is  Diade  of  the  bifid  extremity. 

The  two  species  Benhamia  johnstoni  and  B.  moorei  evidently 
come  near  to  B.  itiolensis  ^  But  they  both  differ  in  a  number  of 
recognizable  features  from  that  large  and  also  Eastern  African 
Benhamia.  To  begin  with,  B.  itiolensis  is  distinctly  larger,  it 
measures  380  mm.  Its  colour  seems  to  be  somewhat  different. 
The  anterior  segments  are  some  of  them  triannulata  instead  of 
biannulate,  as  is  the  case  with  the  species  described  in  the  present 
paper.  Nothing  is  said  by  Micbaelsen  of  the  missing  dorsal  pores  ; 
but  in  a  variety  of  the  type  named  by  him  var.  coerulea,  the 
pores  are  stated  not  to  begin  until  the  intersegment  xii./xiii.  The 
clitellum  of  B.  itiolensis  is  more  limited  than  in  its  allies  ;  but  the 
seminal  gutter  is  convex  inwards  as  in  those  two  species.  At  least 
that  is  not  the  case  with  the  type  itself,  but  with  the  form  coerulea. 
The  spermiducal  glands  of  B.  itiolensis  are  very  much  smaller 
than  those  of  B.  johnstoni  or  B.  moorei,  though  their  size  appears 
to  be  increased  in  the  var.  coerulea.  The  penial  sette  as  figured 
by  Micbaelsen  are  more  like  those  of  B.  johnstoni,  but  the  hooking 
of  the  extremity  is  more  marked  in  the  latter  form  ;  moreover,  no 
ornamentation  is  described.  In  var.  coerulea  the  extremity  of  the 
seta  is  more  hooked,  and  therefore  more  like  that  of  B.  johnstoni. 
Finally,  B.  itiolensis  has  no  free  diverticula  to  the  spermathecae,  a 
feature  which  is  so  obvious  in  the  species  described  by  myself  that 
Micbaelsen  would  hardly  have  overlooked  it  did  it  exist  in  his 
Benhamia  itiolensis.  The  differences  between  many  species  of  this 
genus  (which  requires  revision)  are  often  so  small,  that  a  very 
careful  and  detailed  statement  of  the  characters  is  necessary.  Tor 
this  reason  I  have  not  hesitated  to  deal  with  my  supposed  new 
species  at  considerable  length. 

It  may  be  convenient  to  contrast  the  characteristics  of  the  four 
species  in  a  tabular  fashion.  I  shall  consider  the  variety  coerulea  to 
rank  as  a  species  ;  its  differences  from  B.  itiolensis  are  quite  as  great 
as  those  which  divide  many  other  recognized  species  of  the  genus. 

1  Micliaelseu,  "  Beschreibung  der  von  Herrn  Dr.  Fr.  Stuhlmann  am  Victoria 
Nyanza  geasammelten  Terricolen,"  JB.  Hamb.  wiss.  Aust.  ix.  p.  3  ;  ibid.,  xvi. 
p.  116  ;  Regenwiirmer  in  DeutsebOst-Afrika,  iv.  p.  25;  Oligochteta  in 
Thierreicli,  1900,  p.  360. 


1901.] 


OE  THE  GENUS  BENHAMIA.. 


203 


B.  itiolensis.  B.  ccerulea.  B.  moorei.  B.  johnstoni. 

Prostomium ProepivheUous.  Epicheilous.  Epicheilous.  Procpicheilous. 

Anterior  segonents  .  Triannulate.  Bianniilate.  Bianmdate. 

Dorsal  pores    v.jvi.  xii./xiii.  v./vi.  v./vi. 

Clitellum xiv.-xxii.  (?)  xiii.-xxHi.  xil.-xxiii. 

Seminal  gutter    ...  Straight.  Convex  inwards.  Convex  inwards.     Convex  inwards. 

Gizzards (?)  viii.  ^  ix.  (?).  vi.,  vii.  vii.,  viii. 

Cakiferous  glands,  xv.  smallest.  xv.  smallest,  xv.  smallest.  xvL  smallest. 

Spermathecce   No  extern,  div.  No  extern,  div.  Extern,  div.  Extern,  div. 

Penial  setm Suddenly  Suddenly  Gradually  Suddenly 

diminish    into  diminish    into  diminish    into  diminish    into 

slightly  curved  slightly  curved  slightly  curved  very      curved 

hook.  hook.  hook.  hook. 

Erom  the  above  account  of  its  structure  I  can  abstract  the 
following  definition  of  the  species  which,  I  may  remark,  contains 
certain  statements  not  described  in  any  further  detail  in  the 
foregoing. 

Eenhamia  johnstoni,  n.  sp. 

Length  about  250  mm.  ;  diameter  15-20  mm.  Prostomium  rather 
large,  retracted  ivitliin  mouth-cavity,  not  prolonged  over  buccal  segment, 
hut  ivith  slight  median  'projection.  Dorsal  pores  commence  v.jvi. 
Clitellum  x'l.-xxiii.  Male  pores  on  deep  depression  ;  seminal  gutter 
slightly  convex  inwards.  Integument  surrounding  male  pores 
rnarhedly  tesselate.  Gizzards  in  vii.,  viii. ;  calciferous  glands  xv,, 
!xvi.,  xvii.,  opening  separately  .into  oesophagus ;  middle  pair  the 
smallest.  No  septa  very  thieve.  Dorsal  vessel  single  ;  last  hearts  in 
xii.  Spermiducal  glands  lie  in  two  masses  in  two  segments  each. 
Penial  setce,  one  to  each  gland,  slightly  swollen  before  strongly  hooked 
tip,  ivhich  is  bifid  at  extremity,  marlfed  throughout  with  fine  rings. 
Spermathecoi  with  strong  muscular  duct  longer  than  poiich,  into  the 
duct  opens  a  rosette  of  five  or  six  diverticula. 

Hab.  Huwenzori,  6500  ft. 

(3)  Benhamia  mollis,  n.  sp. 

In  the  above  table  of  the  specific  distinctions  between  the  species 
B.  johnstoni,  B.  moorei,  B.  itiolensis,  and  B.  coerulea,  I  have  not  in- 
cluded the  characters  of  a  second  species  of  Benhamia  placed  in 
my  hands  by  Mr.  Moore.  This  worm  is  of  a  very  dark  brown 
colour  and  is  very  soft.  I  naturally  put  down  this  softening  to 
inferior  preservation  ;  but  Mr.  Moore  informs  me  that  the  living 
worm  was  exceeding  soft  and  that  the  specimen  which  I  have  ex- 
amined is  in  reality  as  well  preserved  as  is  the  type  of  B.  moorei. 
I  have  not  compared  its  characters  in  a  tabular  form  with  those 


204  MB.  F.  E.  BEDDARD  ON  EARTHWORMS  [June  4, 

of  the  other  species  for  the  reason  that,  although  I  believe  it  to 
be  a  distinct  form,  it  is  not  easy  to  define  by  marked  characters 
as  can  be  made  use  of  in  such  a  table,  and  indeed  it  comes  very 
near  to  B.  jolinstoni. 

It  is,  however,  a  smaller  and  more  slender  species  than  is  the 
last  named.  My  example  measured  some  205  mm.  in  length  by  a 
diameter  of  about  7  mm.  There  is  the  same  curious  absence  of 
two  dorsal  pores  from  the  preclitellar  series  that  is  so  noticeable  in 
B.  moorei  and  B.  jolinstoni. 

The  genital  area  is  a  deep  excavation  ;  and  the  integument  in 
this  region  is  tesselated  in  appearance,  being  divided  up  into 
numerous  small  areas  b_y  grooves.  The  seminal  gutters  are  nearly 
straight,  only  slightly  bulging  inwards.  The  siugle  penial  seta,  as 
in  the  other  species,  projects  from  the  apertures  on  segments  xvii. 
and  xix.  The  ditellum  is  a  little  less  extensive,  and  seems  to 
occupy  only  segments  xiv.-xxii.  T  am  sure  that  the  ventral  setae  of 
segment  xviii.  are  wantiug,  and  this  adds  probability  to  their  appa- 
rent absence  in  the  other  two  species  of  which  the  present  memoir 
treats.  As  in  B.  jolinstoni,  the  middle  pair  of  calciferous  glands  are 
the  smallest  of  the  three  pairs.  The  glands  are  somewhat  flattened 
from  side  to  side,  more  so  than  in  B.  jolinstoni,  and  much  more  so 
than  in  B.  moorei.  The  intestine  begins  in  segment  xix.  The  two 
gizzards  are  certainly  in  vii.  and  viii. ;  the  same  segments  apparently 
are  occupied  by  the  gizzards  in  B.  jolinstoni.  The  last  heart  is  in 
xii.  The  sperm-sacs  in  this  species  were  more  in  evidence  than  in 
the  other  two  species  of  Benhamia  dealt  with  here.  They  lie  in 
segments  xi.,  xii.,  and  are  somewhat  elongated  transversely,  curving 
up  in  a  somewhat  horn-like  fashion.  The  penial  setoi  of  B.  mollis 
are  recognizable  as  different  from  those  of  the  other  two  species.  The 
setae  of  all  three  species  are  figured  in  the  accompanying  drawing 
(text-fig.  16,  p.  205).  It  will  be  noticed  that  their  structure  is  inter- 
mediate between  that  of  the  penialsetse  of  B.  moorei  and  B.jolm- 
stoni.  As  in  the  former,  the  distal  end  of  the  seta  is  not  very  strongly 
curved  ;  as  in  the  latter,  the  shaft  of  the  seta  is  swollen  before  the 
terminal  hook.  But  the  swelling  is  not  so  marked  a  feature  of 
the  setae  of  the  present  species.  Nor  is  the  difference  in  diameter 
between  the  hook  and  the  rest  of  the  seta  so  suddenly  changed. 
Moreover,  the  markings  upon  the  end  of  the  seta  which  appear  to 
be  of  the  nature  of  pits  are  much  more  pronounced  in  B.  mollis 
than  in  its  allies.  No  one,  after  inspecting  the  figures  referred  to, 
can  doubt  the  difference  of  the  penial  setae  in  the  three  species. 
The  spermiducal  glands  are,  as  in  B.  jolinstoni,  contained  each  in 
two  segments,  one  half  or  thereabouts  of  the  gland  lying  in  each 
segment.  The  junction  between  the  two  is  a  siugle  tube,  i.  e,  the 
gland  only  perforates  the  intersegmental  septum  once.  The  sper- 
matlieccB  are  most  like  those  of  B.  jolinstoni.  The  muscular  duct 
of  the  spermatheca  is  humped  on  one  side,  where  a  series  of  five 
or  six  inconspicuous  diverticula  debouch  into  the  duct.  The 
diverticula  are  less  separated  from  the  tube  into  which  they  open 
than  they  are  in  B.  moorei. 


1901.] 


or  THE  GENUS  BENHAMIA. 

Text-fig.  16. 


205 


m 


Penial  setsB  of  Benhamia,  (highly  magnified). 

A,  distal  extremity  of  that  of  B.  johnstoni ;  B,  seta  of  B.  moorei ; 

C,  distal  extremity  of  that  of  B.  mollis. 


206  ME.  F.  E.  BEDBAED  ON  EABTHWORMS  [June  4, 

It  must  be  admitted  that  the  principal  reason  for  separating 
this  species  from  B.joJinsfoni  is  the  chai'acter  of  the  penial  setae. 
It  is,  however,  a  smaller  species,  with  a  different  coloration.  As 
to  the  clitellum,  it  is  possible  that  other  specimens  would  show  an 
extension  equal  to  that  of  B.  jolinstoni. 

(4)  Benhamia  austeni,  n.  sp. 

I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Austen  for  kindly  col- 
lecting for  me  a  considerable  number  of  specimens  of  a  species  of 
Benhamia,  which  I  believe  to  be  new.  The  worm.s  were  collected 
about  forty  miles  from  Blantyre  in  Nyassa-land. 

The  species  is  not  a  large  one,  but  I  cannot  give  accurate 
measurements  of  length  as  the  worms  were  rather  softened,  I 
should  say  that  a  length  of  150  mm.  by  a  diameter  of  5  mm.  was 
a  fair  statement  of  their  dimensions. 

The  seke  have  the  usual  strictly  paired  and  ventral  arrangement. 
Those  of  the  three  or  four  anterior  segments  are  smaller  than  those 
which  follow  ;  they  gradually  increase  in  size,  and  the  larger  ones 
show  a  distinct  ornamentation  in  the  form  of  ridges  which  produce 
a  scale-like  appearence — a  form  of  ornamentation  found  in  other 
species  of  the  genus.  On  segments  vi.-ix.  or  so  the  set«  are 
especially  enlarged  ;  it  will  be  noted  that  these  segments  are  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  spermathecal  pores,  and  the  strong  pairs 
of  setae  on  the  segments  between  which  those  pouches  open  are 
particulai'ly  noteworthy.  It  is  only  the  ventral  setse  which  are 
thus  specially  enlarged.  Now  it  will  be  remembered  that  in 
Benhamia  liheriensis  ^  there  is  a  similar  enlargement  of  the  ventral 
pair  of  setae  of  segment  vii.  But  in  this  species  the  setae  when 
extracted  are  seen  to  be  quite  as  much  modified  as  are  the  genital 
setae  of  segments  xvii.  &  xix.  in  the  same  and  other  species  of 
Benhamia.  This  is  not  the  case  with  Benhamia  austeni ;  but  the 
enlargement  and  increase  of  the  ornamentation  upon  the  setae  is  a 
step  in  that  direction.  The  circumstances  are  exactly  paralleled 
by  the  slightly  modified  setae  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  male 
pores  in  certain  species  of  Perionyx^,  vi'hich  in  the  allied  genus 
Megascolex  become  the  much  more  modified  penial  setae. 

There  are  no  ventral  setae  upon  segment  xviii. 

The  dorsal  jiores  commence  between  segments  v./vi.  They 
appear  to  go  on  without  intermission  to  the  end  of  the  body.  No 
such  break  as  I  have  described  in  Benhamia  moorei  seems  to  exist. 

The  oviducal  pores  are  paired.  Each  pore  lies  on  the  fourteenth 
segment  to  the  inside  of,  and  quite  in  line  with,  the  ventralmost 
seta  ;  it  looks,  on  an  inspection  by  a  lens,  precisely  like  a  third 
seta  in  this  position,  by  reason  of  its  dark  appearance. 

It  is  important  to  note  the  position  of  the  oviducal  pores,  which 
vary  in  the  genus,  and  would  appear  to  offer  characters  of  specific 

^  Horst,  "  Descriptions  of  Earthworms  :  IX.  On  two  new  Henhamia-speciefi 
from  Libei'ia."     Notes  Leyd.  Mus.  xvii.  p.  21. 

-  Beddard,  "On  some  new  Species  of  Earthworms  from  various  Parts  of  the 
World."     P.  Z,  S.  1892,  p,  688. 


1901.J  OF  THE  GENUS  BENHAMIA,  207 

value  by  this  variation  in  position.  Foi'  example,  in  Benhamia 
crassa  the  pores  lie  in  front,  though  also  slightly  to  the  inside,  of 
the  ventralmost  seta. 

The  clitellum  extends  from  segments  xiii.-xx.  and'leaves  only  the 
area  which  is  occupied  by  the  male  pores  free.  The  latter  lie  upon 
the  segments  which  they  universally  occupy  in  this  genus.  The 
seminal  groove  which  connects  the  two  successive  pores  of  each 
side  of  the  body  is  quite  straight. 

The  internal  anatomy  is  like  that  of  the  genus,  and  only  shows 
some  slight  differences  from  other  species.  Tlie  sejyta  Avhich  divide 
segments  x./xiv.,  i.  e.  four  septa,  ai'e  specially  thickened. 

The  gizzards  occupy  segments  v.  &  vi.  The  calciferols  glands 
are  in  segments  xv.,  xvi.,  xvii.  The  glands  are  bean-shaped,  and 
the  upper  surface  is  traversed  by  a  few  longitudinal  furrows, 
which  divide  the  glands  into  segments. 

The  last  pair  of  hearts  are  in  the  twelfth  segment,  and  the  dorsal 
vessel  is  throughout  a  single  tube. 

The  S])erm-sacs  are  in  the  same  segments  as  those  of  the  last 
species  described,  i.  e.  xi.  &  xii.  They  are  large  and  racemose. 
There  is  no  doubt  that  this  species,  like  at  any  rate  some  others, 
has  sperm-reservoirs  also  which  enwrap  the  funnels  and  testes.  I 
cannot  attempt  an  accurate  description  of  them,  but  can  assert 
that  a  pair  project  forwards,  just  as  these  pouches  generally  do 
when  they  are  present,  into  the  xth  segment. 

The  spermiducal  glands  are  fairly  long  and  coiled  ;  I  occasionally 
observed  the  posterior  pair  to  be  the  smaller.  The  muscular  ter- 
minal duct  is  longish.  The  glands  lie  in  two  segments.  The  shape 
of  the  j^>eu?a?  setcn  of  this  species  is  quite  peculiar  for  the  genus, 
and  would  serve  at  once  to  distinguish  it,  if  there  were  no  other 
characteristics.  One  of  the  setae  is  shown  in  the  drawing  exhibited 
(text-fig.  17,  p.  208).  Its  shape  is,  as  will  be  seen,  straight  in  the 
shaft  like  tliat  of  the  other  East- African  species  already  dealt  with 
here.  The  end  imbedded  in  the  body-wall  is  curved  slightly  and 
thicker.  The  opposite  extremity  of  the  seta  is  also  curved  and  in 
the  same  direction  :  it  does  not  end  in  a  very  fine  point  but 
diminishes  gradually  and  not  very  much  in  width.  The  termination 
is  therefore  a  blunt  point.  It  is  the  ornamentation  of  the  genital 
seta  which  is  so  characteristic.  This  consists  of  two  rows  of 
spines  which  commence  about  half-way  down  the  seta  or  a  little 
less.  They  appear  to  be  much  like  the  penial  setse  of  Stidihnannia 
variabilis  ^  figured  by  Michaelsen.  In  two  setae  which  I  examined 
I  found  slight  differences  in  the  arrangement  of  these  spinelets  ; 
in  one  which  I  have  selected  for  figuring  the  two  rows  ran  to  the 
end  of  the  seta,  and  between  them  not  far  from  their  origin  are 
indications  of  a  third  row  consisting  of  two  separated  tracts  of 
spinelets.  In  another  example  this  middle  row  ran  to  the  end  of 
the  seta,  and  the  lateral  row  of  one  side  ceased  a  little  way  from 

'  "  Bescbreibung  der  von  Herrn  Dr.  Fr.  Stublraann  auf  Sansibar,  &c."  JB. 
Hamb.  wiss.  Anst.  ix.  1891,  pi.  ii.  fig.  12. 


208 


ME,  r.  E.  BEDDAED  ON  EAETHWORMS  [June  4, 


Text-fig.  17. 


it  a 


m 


Penjal  seta  of  Benhamia  austeni  (highly  magnified). 


1901.]  OF  THE   GENUS  BENHAMIA.  209 

its  commencemeut.  I  may  add  that  each  seta-sac  contained  only 
one  seta,  as  in  the  other  East-African  species. 

The  sjoermatliecxe  of  this  species  lie  in  segments  viii.  and  ix. 
Each  consists  of  a  tliin-walled  sac  and  of  a  dact.  Into  the  com- 
mencement of  the  latter  opens  a  single  diverticulnm.  The  thin- 
balled  sac  is  divided  by  a  constriction  into  two  nnequally  sized 
chambers,  of  which  the  upper  is  the  larger.  Its  diameter  exceeds 
that  of  the  duct.  The  smaller  division  is  of  about  the  same 
diameter  as  the  duct,  and  without  a  microscopical  examination 
might  therefore  be  confounded  with  the  duct.  The  great  thick- 
ness of  the  muscular  walls  of  the  latter  serve  to  distinguish  it 
easily.  Also  the  character  of  the  lining  epithelium.  The  duct  of 
the  spermatheca  is  of  about  the  same  length  as  the  pouch ;  its 
walls  are,  as  already  said,  very  muscular,  which  gives  to  them  a 
nacreous  appearance.  The  muscles  are  disposed  in  two  layers  of 
which  the  thicker  and  internal  layer  consists  of  circular  fibres. 
The  outer  thinner  layer  is  made  up  of  longitudinally  running  fibres. 
The  diverticulum  is  an  oval,  almost  spherical,  pouch,  which  is 
appended  to  the  spermatheca  by  a  short  and  slender  duct.  This 
opens  into  the  spermatheca  just  at  the  junction  of  the  thin-walled 
pouch  with  the  thick-walled  duct.  It  might  appear  from  my 
figure  of  the  spermatheca  oi  Benhamia  moorei  (text- fig.  13,  p.  197), 
that  this  species  differs  from  BenTiamia  austeni  by  the  fact  that  the 
diverticula  open  into  the  muscular  duct  itself,  and  at  some  little 
distance  from  the  union  of  the  duct  with  the  pouch  ;  this  is,  how- 
ever, not  the  case,  as  I  have  assured  myself  by  microscopic  sections 
of  the  spermatheca  of  B.  moorei.  In  that  Avorm  the  diverticula 
are  certainly  appended  to  the  muscular  duct  itself  ;  but  the  tubes 
which  put  them  into  coBimunication  with  the  interior  of  the 
spermatheca  run  upwards  {i.  e.  away  from  the  external  pore)  and 
open  into  the  commencement  of  the  thin-walled  portion  of  the 
spermatheca,  which,  however,  in  this  species  is  rather  thicker- 
walled  (in  correspondence  with  its  larger  size)  than  the  corres- 
ponding portion  of  the  spermatheca  of  Benhamla  austeni. 

I  may  extract  from  the  foregoing  the  following  definition  of 

Benhamia  austeni,  n.  sp. 

Length  about  150  mm.,  diameter  5  mm.  Dorsal  pores  commence 
v.jvi.  Glitellum  ociii.-xx.  Male  pores  on  a  deep  depression  con- 
nected hy  a  straight  seminal  gutter.  No  genital  papillce.  Gizzards 
in  v.,  vi.,  ;  calciferous  glands  in  xv.-xvii.  Septa  x.jxiv.  thickened. 
Dorsal  vessel  single ;  last  hearts  in  xii.  Two  pairs  of  sperm-duct 
funnels,  Sptermiducal  glands  large  and  coiled.  Denial  setce  tvith 
tivo  rows  of  spinelets,  one  to  each  sac.  Spermathecce  ivith  long 
muscular  duct  and  a  single  stalked  spherical  to  oval  diverticidum. 
Spermatophores  ^  present. 

Hah.  Near  Blantyre,  East  Africa. 

1  I  intend  to  describe  these  structures,  which  differ  from  those  of  Benhamia 
moorei,  later. 

Proo.  Zooj..  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  XIV.  14 


210  MR.  r.  E.  BEDDABD  ON  EABTHWORMS  [Juiie  4, 

I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Bu  dgett,  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  for 
a  number  of  specimens  of  Earthworms  from  McCarthy  Island  in 
the  Gambia,  which  he  collected  during  a  recent  visit.  The  speci- 
mens were  at  first  put  aside  under  the  impression  that  they  belonged 
to  a  species  recently  characterized  by  myself  as  Benliamia  budgetti^. 
A  further  examination  has,  however,  shown  that  they  are  not  of 
that  species,  but  represent  two  other  species  of  the  same  genus 
upon  which  I  propose  to  offer  some  notes.  The  preponderance 
of  the  known  species  of  this  genus  are  of  West-African  habitat, 
some  25  having  been  described  from  that  part  of  the  continent ; 
there  are  some  18  East  and  Central  African  forms. 

The  species  of  this  genus  are  not  at  all  easy  to  identify,  and 
there  is  a  group  of  West-African  forms  to  which  the  specimens 
described  in  the  present  paper  belong  which  are  all  characterized 
by  the  calciferous  pouches  usually  lying  in  the  xivth  to  the  xvith 
segments,  and  of  a  form  like  the  "quarter"  of  an  orange;  by 
spermathecse  unprovided  with  an  externally  visible  diverticulum, 
the  anterior  pair  being  often  the  smaller  ;  and  often  by  genital 
papillas  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  male  pores.  This  group  con- 
tains the  species  B.  buettikoferi,  B.  horsii,  B.  beddardi,  B.  stampjlii, 
B.  schlegelii,  B.  liberiensis,  and  B.  hudgetti.  To  the  first  of  the 
new  forms  described  here  I  shall  give  the  name  of 

(5)  Benhamia  gambiana,  sp.  n. 

I  have  examined  three  examples  all  of  which  were  sexually 
mature.  The  length  of  the  worms,  which  were  somewhat  softened 
in  condition,  was  about  170  mm. ;  the  diameter  not  more  than 
5  mm.  except  in  the  more  swollen  clitellar  region. 

The  prostomium  is  I'ather  broad  and  does  not  notch  the  buccal 
segment ;  it  belongs  to  the  type  termed  "  prolobisch  "  by  Dr. 
Michaelsen,  but  which  I  prefer  to  call  "procheilous." 

The  setce  are  in  closely  approximated  pairs,  and,  as  is  the  case 
in  this  genus,  lie  upon  the  ventral  surface  of  the  worm. 

The  clitellum  occupies  segments  xiii.-xx.,  and  is  not  developed 
upon  the  ventral  area  which  bears  the  genital  orifices  of  the  male 
system.  The  latter  part  was  to  be  distinguished  from  the  yellow 
clitellum  by  its  grey  colour. 

The  seminal  gutters  uniting  the  two  orifices  of  the  spermiducal 
glands  of  each  side  of  the  body  are  bracket-shaped,  the  main  portion 
of  each  being  perfectly  straight  and  only  bending  inwards  and 
that  at  right  angles  at  each  eud,  where  it  becomes  confluent  with 
the  aperture  of  the  spermiducal  gland.  This  species  has  a  number 
of  very  conspicuous  genital  pa2nllai  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
male  pores.  These  lie  intersegmeutally,  and  in  the  intersegments 
xv./xvi.,  xvi./xvii.,  xviii./xix.,  xis./xx.  One  pair  of  papillae  there- 
fore lie  within  the  genital  area.  A  remarkable  fact  about  these 
papillae  is  that  although  paired  their  mutual  distance  (of  each  pair) 
increases  gradually  in  successive  papillae   commencing  with  the 

1  VroQ.  Zool,  Soc.  1900,  p.  653. 


1901.]  OP  THE  GENUS  BENHAMIA.  211 

earliest.  Thus  those  of  xv./xvi.  are  quite  in  contact,  and  finally 
the  last  pair,  those  on  the  intersegment  xix./xx.,  ai-e  farther  apart 
than  are  the  ventralmost  setae  of  the  neighbouring  segments. 
Papillae  with  the  arrangement  just  described  were  only  found  in 
one  example;  in  another  the  intersegment  xv./xvi.  bore  but  a 
single  median  papilla  which  was  followed  by  only  two  pairs,  i.  e. 
intersegments  xvi./xvii.  and  xix/xx.  A  third  example  had  still 
fewer  papillae,  the  anterior  pair  or  single  papilla,  as  the  ease  may 
be,  having  disappeared.  In  this  specimen  there  are,  therefore, 
only  two  pairs  of  papillae. 

I  observed  that  the  ovichical  pores  lie  on  a  level  with  and  to  the 
inside  of  the  ventralmost  seta  of  each  side.  The  male  pores  and 
the  spermatlieccd  pores  correspond  in  position  to  the  ventral  pair 
of  setae. 

In  a  third  individual,  which  was  rather  more  contracted  in  the 
clitellar  region,  the  papillae  have  become  also  contracted  and  look 
like  half-closed  eyes  lying  between  segments  xv./xvi.,  xvi./xvii., 
and  xix./xx.  They  are  not  obvious,  and  might  be  missed  by  any- 
one who  had  not  seen  them  in  a  more  fully  expanded  worm. 

The  dorsal  pores  of  this  species,  as  of  B.  budgetti,  are  by  no 
means  plain.  They  appear  to  be  quite  absent  in  front  of  the 
clitellum,  and  behind  the  clitellum  I  could  only  see  them  hj 
examining  microscopically  pieces  of  stripped-oif  cuticle.  The 
condition  of  the  dorsal  pores  in  this  species  shows  how  careful 
one  should  be  in  stating  the  absence  of  these  structures.  The 
internal  anatomy  of  this  species  shows  very  few  characters  of 
difference  from  its  allies.  The  two  gizzards  are  separated  from 
each  other  by  a  considerable  tract  of  soft-walled  oesophagus  ; 
there  is  not  that  close  connection  between  the  two  gizzards  that 
obtains  in  some  other  species — for  instance  in  Benliamia  johnstoni. 
The  position  of  these  gizzards  is  perfectly  plain  in  one  specimen ; 
they  lie  in  the  vth  and  vith  segments.  In  others  it  appeared  to 
me  that  the  vith  and  viith  segments  were  those  occupied  by  the 
gizzards  ;  but  in  view  of  the  very  clear  appearances  shown  in  the 
individual  (that  with  a  contracted  clitellum)  where  they  were  to 
be  relegated  to  segments  v.  and  vi.,  I  imagine  that  the  thin 
septum  dividing  segments  vi.  and  vii.  had  escaped  my  attention. 
The  calciferous  glands  lie  in  segments  xiv.,  xv.,  xvi.,  as  in  many  of 
these  West- African  species  of  the  genus.  The  anterior  pair  were 
smooth  and  smaller  than  the  others,  whose  superior  surface  is 
broken  up  by  a  few  transverse  grooves  ;  the  shape  of  the  glands 
is  that  of  a  segment  of  an  orange,  the  top  being  flat.  I  have  not 
ascertained  whether  they  open  separately  into  the  oesophagus  or 
by  a  common  duct.  The  intestine  begins  in  segment  xix.  It  is 
noticeable  that  when  the  calciferous  glands  are  in  .segments  xv., 
xvi.,  xvii.,  the  commencement  of  the  intestine  is  at  least  sometimes 
not  thrown  a  segment  farther  back. 

The  dorsal  vessel  is  single,  and  the  last  hearts  lie  in  segment  xii. 
The  sperm-sacs  are  large  and  lie  in  segments  xi.  and  xii.  There 
are  also  two  pairs  of  sperm-duct  funnels  which  are  in  x.  and  xi, 

14* 


212 


MR.  F.  E.  BEDBARD  Olf  EARTHWORMS 


[June  4, 


The  spermiducal  glands  are  confined  each  to  its  segment  (the 
xviith  and  xixth).  These  glands  have  a  rather  short  muscular 
duct  which  is  not  half  the  diameter  of  the  glandular  tube.  The 
latter  is  only  bent  upou  itself  once  or  twice  ;  there  is  no  complicated 
coiliug  such  as  occurs  in  many  species.  The  anterior  spermiducal 
glands  are  rather  the  smaller.  'Ih.Q  penial  setce  are  about  1'25  mm. 
in  length.  Each  sac  contains  two  of  these  seta?  equally  developed. 
The  two  setae  are  of  precisely  the  same  form,  there  being  no 
differentiation  of  the  penial  setae  such  as  characterizes  many 
species.     Each  seta  is  gracefully  curved  in  an  elongated  S.     It 

Text-fig.  18. 

n         -  - 


Extremity  of  penial  seta  of  Benhamia  gamhiana  (highly  magnified). 

diminishes  in  breadth  at  the  free  end,  but  not  suddenly  or  markedly. 
Eor  a  little  distance  before  the  end  it  is  covered  with  fine  spine- 
lets.  The  actual  end  of  the  seta  seems  to  be  excavated  on  one 
surface,  as  is  shown  in  the  accompanying  drawing  (text-fig,  18)  ; 
the  outlines  of  this  terminal  excavation  are  plainly  to  be  seen. 
The  tip  of  the  seta  is  somewhat  expanded  in  a  way  reminiscent  of 
the  "  cap  ''  which  covers  the  penial  seta  of  Benhamia  horsti^.  This 
I'egion  has  a  granular  appearance. 

^  "  TJeber  eine  neue  Gattung  unci  vier  neuen  Arten  der  Unterfamilie  Ben- 
hamini,"  Mitth.  Naturh.  Museum,  Hamburg,  xv.  p.  11,  fig.  3. 


1901.]  or  THE  GENUS  BENHAMIA.  213 

The  two  pairs  of  sperynaihecce  occupy  the  usual  position  that 
characterize  this  genus.  The  anterior  pair  of  pouches  are  rather 
the  smaller.  Each  consists  of  a  roughly  spherical  pouch  which  is 
almost  sessile  upon  the  body-wall ;  external  diverticula  are  not 
visible.  But  a  microscopical  examination  shows  a  cavity  filled  with 
sperm  within  the  walls  of  the  organ. 

(6)  Benhamia  michaelseni,  n.  sp. 

Of  this  species,  also  new,  which  comes  from  the  same  locality 
as  the  last,  I  have  had  but  a  single  specimen  for  examination, 
which  proves,  however,  to  be  fully  mature.  It  measured  200  mm. 
in  length  by  5  mm.  in  diameter.  It  is  thus  of  much  the  same 
size  as  the  last,  and  has  B.  hudgetti,  B.  heddm-cU,  and  B.  liorsti 
among  its  nearest  allies. 

•  The  setcp^  w-hich  show  the  usual  paired  arrangement,  are  smaller 
upon  the  first  few  setigerous  segments  and  gradually  increase  in 
size  up  to  the  fifth  (setigerous)  segment.  A  distinct  ornamention 
can  often  be  traced  in  the  form  of  transverse  rings. 

The  genital  area  is  much  more  deeply  sunken  than  in  the  last 
species.  The  arrangement  of  the  genital  papillce  is  also  different. 
But  in  B.  michaelseni,  as  in  B.  gambiana,  the  seminal  gutter  i^ 
straight.  The  only  two  genital papilloi  that  I  could  find  are  situated 
respectively  on  the  border-lines  of  segments  xxi./xxii.  and  xxii./xxiii  ; 
each  papilla  is  small  and  round  and  perfectly  obvious  ;  it  lies 
exactly  in  the  middle  ventral  line  of  the  body.  In  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  male  pores  the  integument  is  swollen  here  and  there 
into  papilla-like  outgrowths  ;  but  I  do  not  put  these  down  under 
the  category  of  papillte,  since  they  are  not  so  plain  and  uu mistake- 
able  as  are  those  which  I  have  just  described.  Where  the  area 
surrounding  the  male  pores  is  depressed,  there  are  usually  such 
inequalities  in  the  surface  of  the  integument.  These  naturally 
produce,  as  they  do  in  the  present  species,  a  chequered  surface 
upon  the  cuticle  when  this  is  viewed  after  having  been  stripped  off 
from  the  body. 

In  its  internal  structure  this  species  does  not  offer  many 
differences  from  B.  gambiana  or  B.  budgetti,  except  in  the  sculp- 
turing of  the  penial  setae.  The  gizzards,  however,  seem  to  me  to 
be  in  vi.  and  vii.  instead  of  v.  and  vi.  The  calciferous  glands 
are  in  xiv.,  xv.,  and  xvi.,  and,  as  in  other  species,  the  first  pair  are 
smaller  and  of  a  smoother  contour  than  those  which  follow.  The 
large  sperm-sacs  are  in  xi.  and  xii.  There  are  two  pairs  of  funnels. 
The  spermiducal  glands  are  decidedly  larger  and  more  coiled  than 
in  B.  gambiana.  The  penial  setoe,  are  of  quite  a  different  pattern, 
as  may  be  seen  from  a  comparison  of  the  drawings  (text-figs.  16-19, 
pp.  205-214)  exhibited.  In  the  present  species,  as  in  the  last, 
each  sac  contains  two  setae  which  are  curved  in  form.  They  are 
nearly  twice  the  size  of  those  of  B.  gambiana  and  measure  2  mm. 
The  end  is  not  much  hooked  and  ends  in  a  rather  blunt  termination. 
A  large  part  of  the  distal  portion  of  these  setae  is  beset  with 


214 


MR.  P.  E.  BEDDARD  ON  EARTHWORMS        [June  4, 

Text-fig.  19. 


Penial  seta  of  Beiihamia  michaclseni  (highly  magnified).. 


1901.]  OP  THE  GENUS  BENHAMIA.  215 

numerous  fine  spiuelets  which  are  four  or  five  rows  in  the  optical 
diameter  of  the  seta.  The  arrangement,  however,  is  not  a  regular 
one.  These  spinelets  are  precisely  those  of  B.  gambiana,  but  a 
much  larger  part  of  the  seta  is  beset  with  them. 

The  sjpermatliecce,  again,  are  very  like  those  of  the  last  species. 
The  specimen  being,  however,  in  a  rather  better  state  of  pre- 
servation as  regards  these  organs,  their  form  could  be  more 
accurately  ascertained.  Each  pouch  is  roughly  globular  and  is 
nearly  sessile  upon  the  body-wall,  a  short  and  thick  duct  putting 
it  into  communication  with  the  exterior.  There  were  no  visible 
diverticula. 

It  will  be,  I  trust,  obvious  from  the  foregoing  descriptions  that 
the  two  species  with  which  I  am  concerned  in  the  present  com- 
munication are  distinct  from  any  of  those  Avhich  have  been 
previously  described  by  myself  or  others.  As,  however,  the  seven 
West-African  species  to  which  I  have  referred  on  p.  210  are  so 
extremely  like  each  other  and  like  B.  gambiana  and  B,  michaelseni, 
I  append  a  brief  series  of  statements  of  the  chief  characters  in 
which  they  diverge  from  those  treated  of  in  the  present  paper. 
I  have  not  been  anxious  to  emphasize  the  difl:erences  which  the 
seven  species  show  from  each  othei",  since  their  distinctness  will 
be  generally  allowed.  The  points  used  serve  to  discriminate 
B.  budgetti,  B.  gambiana,  and  B.  michaelseni  from  any  of  those. 

(1)  Benliamia  buttikoferi.   A    larger    and   thicker    worm.       230- 

320  mm.  by  10  mm.  Olitellum  xiii.-xix.  Last 
hearts  in  xiii.     Sperm-sacs  in  xii.  only. 

(2)  Benhamia  Jiorsti.  Of  similar  size,  but  seminal  gutter  strongly 

convex  outwards.  Papillse  more  numerous.  Penial 
setse  with  fine  spinelets  arranged  in  transverse 
rings  and  covered  by  a  cap-like  structure. 

(3)  Benhamia  beddardi.  Of  similar  size,  but  seminal  gutter  convex 

outwards.  Calciferous  glands  in  xv.-xvii.  No 
papillae.  Sexual  setse  on  vii.  and  viii.  Duct  of 
spermatheca  long. 

(4)  Benhamia  stamjJ'Jlii.  A  larger  worm,  330  mm.  by  diameter  of 

10  mm.     No  papillae, 

(5)  Benhamia  schlegeli.    Larger    worm,  350-750  mm. ;    diameter 

15  mm.  No  papillso,  Calciferous  glands  in  xv.- 
xvii.  Last  heai'ts  in  xiii.  Penial  setae  "like  an 
elephant's  tusk  "  in  form,  4  mm.  long. 

(6)  Benhamia  liberiensis.  Larger  worm,  350  mm.,  diameter  10  mm. 

Papillae  diiferent  in  arrangement.  Calciferous 
glands  in  xv.-xvii.     Penial  setae  dilated  at  end. 

(7)  Benhamia  budgetti.  Of  similar  size,  but  genital  papillae  different. 

Penial  setae  with  few  spinelets  distally. 

The  characters  of  these  seven  species  may  be  compared  with 
those  of  the  two  new  species  Benhamia  gambiana  and  Benhamia 
michaelseni. 


216  ME.  J.  G.  MiLLAis  ON  [June  4, 

(1)  Benhamia  gamhiana.  170  mm.  by  5  mm.     Clitellum  xiii.-xx. 

Seminal  gutters  straight.  Genital  papillae  in  pairs, 
intersegmental  xv./xvii.,  xviii./xx.  Calciferous 
glands  in  xiv.-xvi.  Last  hearts  in  xii.  Penial 
setae  1"25  mm.,  with  not  very  many  spinelets  at 
end  which  is  scooped  out  on  one  side. 

(2)  Benhamia  micliaelseni.    200  mm.   by  5  mm.     Seminal  gutter 

straight.  Grenital  papillae  unpaired,  intersegmental 
xxi./xxiii.  Calciferous  glands  in  xiv.-xvi.  Penial 
setae  with  very  numerous  spinelets  covering  a  large 
part  of  seta  ;  end  bluntish. 


5.  On  the  Second  Occurrence  of  Bechstein^s  Bat  [Vespertilio 
bechsteini)  in  Great  Britain.     By  J.  G.  Millais^  F.Z.S. 

[Eeceivecl  May  31,  1901.] 

(Text-figure  20.) 

On  the  10th  of  March,  1901,  whilst  exploring  a  chalk  cave  in 
the  neighbuorhood  of  Henley-on-Thames,  Mr.  Heatley  Noble  and 
I  captured  six  Bats.  There  were  2  Natterer's  Bats,  2  Daubenton's 
Bats,  1  Long-eared  Bat,  and  an  unknown  stranger,  tlie  identity  of 
which  we  were  quite  unable  to  determine. 

The  peculiar  features  of  this  last-named  creature  differed  so 
materially  from  every  other  British  Bat,  that  it  was  easy  to 
see  that  it  belonged  to  some  i-are  species  of  which  the  written  and 
figured  descriptions  were  inadequate.  After  carefully  examining 
Mr.  Harting's  and  Mr.  Hall's  excellent  collections  of  British  Bats, 
I  was  still  in  doubt  as  to  my  specimen,  though  I  thought,  from  Bell's 
description,  the  animal  must  be  V.  bediateini ;  and  it  was  only 
after  a  close  examination  by  Mr.  W.  De  Winton  (who  kindly  took 
it  to  the  British  Museum,  consulted  with  Mr.  Oldfield  Thomas, 
and  compared  it  with  others  there),  that  all  doubt  as  to  its  identity 
was  set  at  rest. 

A  few  words  of  description  of  this  rare  Bat  as  it  appeared 
in  hfe  may  be  of  interest  to  the  student  of  small  mammals.  In 
general  appearance  this  species  resembles  V.  nattereri :  in  colour  it 
is  identical,  and  the  tragus  and  formula  of  dentition  are  the  same ; 
but,  on  the  other  hand,  it  differs  in  possessing  an  entire  and  simple 
margin  of  the  interfemoral  raembrame,  and  in  the  fact  that  the 
adult  animal  is  of  greater  size  and  the  ears  much  larger  and  quite 
different  in  shape.  The  gape,  too,  is  unsualiy  wide,  extending  to 
the  base  of  the  ears,  and  the  wings  are  different  in  form. 

However,  by  far  the  most  striking  feature,  and  one  which 
even  the  most  superficial  observer  cannot  fail  to  notice,  is  the 
great  size  and  peculiar  shape  of  the  ears  of  V.  bechsteini.  These 
first  bend  outwards  at  an  angle  of  75  degrees,  and  then  turn 
upwards    to   the  perpendicular,    coming  to    a    rounded  point    as 


1901.J 


BECHSTEIN  S  BAT. 


217 


shown  in  the  iUustration  (text-fig.  20),  which  is  a  woodcut  made 
direct  from  a  photograph  taken  soon  after  death.  This  proves 
how  misleading  are  the  pictures  on  pp.  -iO,  41  of  'Bell,"  whose 
artist  evidently  drew  his  examples  from  dried  skins,  and  that 
naturalist  himself  describes  the  ears  as  "oval"'  which  they  certainly 
are  not. 

Text-fig.  20. 


Vesperiiliu  hcchsic iiii. 

The  Bat,  when  captured,  showed  itself  to  be  very  wide  awake ; 
it  resented  disturbance  in  the  usual  bat-fashion  by  biting  and 
uttering  a  series  of  querulous  screeches  not  unlike  that  emitted  by 
a  young  child. 

This  second  occurrence  of  Bechstein's  Bat  in  the  British  Islands 
should  now  set  at  rest  any  doubts  that  have  been  expressed  as  to 
its  claim  to  be  a  British  mammal ;  for  even  so  eminent  an  authority 
as  Mr.  Lydekker  has  expressed  his  opinion  that  the  species  has 
"  a  very  doubtful  claim  to  rank  in  our  fauna."  The  first  examples 
of  this  Bat  which  occurred  in  England  were  taken  many  years  ago 
in  the  New  Forest  by  Mr.  Millard,  and  are  now  in  the  British 
Museum. 


218  ME.  H.  B.  HOGa  ON  [Juue  4^ 

6.  On  Australian  and  New  Zealand  Spiders  of  the  Suborder 
Mygalomorph^  \     By  H.  R.  Hogg,  M.A..,  F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived  May  21,  1901.] 

(Test-figures  21-41.) 

The  suborder  now  dealt  with  is  synouymous  with  M.  Eugene 
Simon's  family  Aviculariidse  ^  Mr.  E.  I.  Pocock,  in  arranging 
the  Indian  genera  of  the  same  '\  raised  the  family  to  a  suborder, 
and  its  subfamilies  to  families,  which,  as  remanets  of  an  older 
era,  is  without  doubt  their  proper  position  relatively  to  most  of 
the  other  families  of  the  Aranese. 

1  will,  however,  in  the  present  paper,  for  the  sake  of  conveni- 
ence of  reference,  retain  M.  Simon's  nomenclature. 

Owing  to  the  imperfect  state  and  small  number  of  any  fossil 
remains,  the  line  of  descent  of  our  various  families  of  Arachnida 
has  as  yet  been  by  no  means  clearly  established. 

With  the  single  exception  of  the  genus  Liphistius  Schiodte,  a 
curious  remanet  in  South-eastern  Asia,  the  Mygalomorphte  are 
believed  to  contain  the  oldest  forms  of  all  known  Spiders, 

The  representatives  of  the  suborder  in  Australasia  are  especially 
interesting  from  the  fact  that,  being  of  a  simple  form,  they  are 
probably  indicative,  like  much  of  the  rest  of  the  fauna  of  the 
continent,  of  early  types. 

Of  the  seven  subfamihes  into  which  M.  Simon  divides  the 
Aviculariidse  of  the  world,  six  are  represented,  the  absentee 
Paratropidinse  comprising  two  species  only,  from  the  Upper 
Amazon  in  S.  America  and  the  Island  of  St.  Vincent  respectively. 

Those  we  have  to  deal  with  may  be  roughly  distinguished  as 
follows  : — 

A.  No  projecting  claw-tufts.     Three  tarsal  claws. 

a.  A  rastellum,  or  digging  apparatus,  consisting  of  hard 

teeth  on  the  frontal  portion  of  the  upper  mandibular 

joint*  (falx). 

a.  The  cephalic  part  of  the  cephalothorax  rising  abruptly 

from   the  thoracic   part  and   very  highly   arched. 

The  eyes  spread  out  across  nearly  the  whole  frontal 

region.    The  mandibles  projecting  horizontally  from 

the  front  of   and  as  large  as  the  whole    cephalic 

region AcTinopodin.E. 

^  I  have  not  included  Tasmanian  species  because,  many  as  are  the  gaps  to  be 
filled  in  ouv  knowledge  of  what  I  am  now  describing,  we  jjnow  still  less  of  the 
Tasmanian  region,  and  I  am  unhappily  not  in  a  position  to  supplement  that 
knowledge.  As  we  find  to  be  the  case  in  other  orders,  Tasmania  will  no  doubt 
contain  some  forms  which  have  disappeared  on  the  mainland.  Its  northern 
and  western  ranges  have  been  scarcely  investigated  at  all. 

2  Histoire  Naturelle  des  Araignees,  1892,  vol.  i,  p.  65. 

3  Fauna  of  British  India — Arachnida,  1900,  p.  157. 

■*  These  teeth,  though  of  somewhat  the  same  nature,  must  not  be  confounded 
with  those  on  the  margin  of  the  fsh.-shcath  underneath,  used  for  preventing 
the  escape  of  prey. 


1901.]  AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS.  219 

(S.  The  cephalic  part  still  arched,  but  not  so  highly.  The 
eyes  collected  in  a  more  or  less  compact  group 
slightly  raised  in  the  centre  of  the  cephalothoi-ax. 

Mandibles  less  formidable Ctenizin j:. 

b.  No  rastellum,  or  only  slight  hardened  bristles  on   the 
lower  front  part  of  the  fals. 
a.  The  mandibles  normally  long  and   reaching  out  in 

front  horizontally    Diplurin.e. 

j8.  The   mandibles    very    short,   convex  and  horizontal 

near  the  base  only,  thence  inclined  almost  vertically.     Migin.b. 
B.  Tufts  of  bristles  projecting  beyond  the  anterior  end  of  the 
tarsi ;  the  3rd,  or  lower,  claw  absent. 

a.  A  rastellum,  though  in  some  cases  not  strongly  developed 

(Idiommafa).       The    superior    spinnerets    short   and 

stout,  the  3rd  joint  almost  hemispherical    Barychelin.e. 

b.  No  rastellum.     The  superior  spinnerets  long ;    the  2nd 

and  3rd  joints  being  about  the  same  length  as  the  1st .     Aviculaeiin^e. 

Subfamily  Actinopodin^. 
This  is  represented  by  one  genus  only. 

Genus  Ekiodotst  Latreille. 

Eriodon  Latreille,  Diet.  Nouv.  d'Hist,  Nat.  appliquee  aux  Arts, 
torn.  xxiv.  1804,  p.  134. 

Missulena  C.  A.  Walckenaer,  Tableaux  des  Araneides,  1805,  p.  8. 

Fachiloscelis  H.  Lucas,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  vol.  iii.  1834  (ad 
part,  nigrijies,  rufipes),  pp.  362-4. 

Sphodros  Walck".  Ins.  Apt.  vol.  i.  1837,  p.  246. 

Eriodon  H.  Lucas,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  ser.  4,  vol.  v.  1865, 
p.  309,  pi.  8.  fig. 

Closterochilus  A.  Ausserer,  Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien,  vol.  xxi. 
1871,  p.  141. 

Theragretes  Auss.  ibid.  p.  142. 

Eriodon  Latr.,  Auss.  ibid.  p.  142. 

Eriodon  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  1873,  p.  454. 

Eriodon  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  1892,  p.  81. 

The  specimen  on  which  Latreille  founded  this  genus  was  probably 
the  first  spider  brought  from  Australia  to  Europe. 

The  genus  has  not  so  far  been  recorded  outside  the  continent  of 
Australia. 

The  males  are  generally  smaller  than  the  females,  and  often  of 
much  more  brilliant  colouring  about  the  head  and  falces. 

Eleven  species  have  been  described,  in  every  case  from  either  the 
male  only  or  female  only.  The  evidence  connecting  species  of 
opposite  sex  either  by  locality  or  similarity  of  some  featiu'e  is 
rather  slight,  but  I  think  they  can  be  reduced  to  eight  at  most. 

Synopsis  of  Species. 

1.  Eyes  all  small  and  of  about  the  same  size. 
Bodies  whole-coloured  black-brown  (in  fe- 
males at  least) 2. 

Eyes  of  clearly  very  unequal  size 3. 


220  MR.  H.  E.  HOGG  ON  [J line  4, 

2.  Eyes  sessile,  front  middle  very  minute,  at  least 

4  diameters  apart    E.formidabileGskmhr.   5. 

Side  eyes  protuberant,  front  middle  eyes  about 
1  diameter  apart  (sec.  Lucas)     E.  occatorium  Walck.    ^ . 

3.  Cephalothorax  and  mandibles  whole-coloured 

brown  or  black-brown  in   male   as   well   as 

female  4. 

Cephalic  part  or  mandibles  bright  scarlet  (in 
male  at  least)   5. 

4.  Front  middle  eyes  upriglit,  oval,  larger  than 

rear  side.     2nd  and  3rd  pairs  of  legs  of  equal 

length   E.  rugosum  KnsB.     J. 

Front  side  eyes  largest,  middle  eyes  small  and 

round.     3rd  pair  of  legs  longer  than  2nd  in 

female  (sec.  Cambr.)    E.  crasstmi  C&mhv.      $. 

Eyes    as    in    preceding.       Cephalic    part    of 

cephalothorax   deeply   pitted   in   male    (.sec. 

Cambr.)    (?  Same  as  above.)  E.  gramdosum  Cambr.  J . 

5.  Cephalic  part  dark  reddish  black.     No  spines 

on  lip  or  maxilla! E.  incertum  Gamhr.     (^ . 

Cephalic  part  bright  scarlet      6. 

6.  Spines  on  lip  and  maxilla^.     4th  pair  of  legs 

longest E.  insigne  Gamhr.     (^ . 

No  spines  on  lip  or  maxillje,     1st  pair  of  legs 
longest 7. 

7.  Front  middle  eyes   upright,  oval,  black  centre 

on  pale  yellow  iris,  or  (.sec.  Rainbow)  brown. 

Stigma  of  palp  in  male  about  twice  the  lengtli  [  ^j" ,  ?  ^  . 

of  bulb  E.  ruhrocapitatwm  Auss. 

Stigma   of    palp    "very    long"    {sec.    Simon). 
(?  Same  as  above) ' E.  semkoccineum  Siuion. 

Thoracic  part  of  cephalothorax  black,  cephalic  part 
bluish  black.  Abdomen  yellow  above,  or 
yellow  hairs  only,  black  beneath.  Characteris- 
tics doubtful  (.sec.  Simon)  .  .     ?  Same.     Male     E.  nigripcs  Lucas. 

and  Female     E.  rufiqns  Lucas. 

Eriodon  occatorium  Walck. 

Missulejia  occatoria  C.  A.  Walokenaer,  Tableau  des  Araueides, 
p.  8,  pi.  2.  tigs.  11-14  (1805) ;  id.  Ins.  Apt.  1837,  vol.  i.  p.  252. 

Eriodon  occatorium  Walck.,  Lucas,  Ann.  See.  Ent.  Fr.  ser.  4, 
vol.  V.  1865,  p.  309,  pi.  8. 

Eriodon  occatorium  Walck.,  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  1873, 
p.  457. 

The  original  specimen,  female,  from  which  Walckenaer  described 
this  type-species  {sec.  Lucas),  was  the  same  as  that  from  which 
Latreille  formed  the  genus,  the  previous  year,  having  been  brought 
from  New  Holland  by  M.  F.  Peron\  naturalist  to  Capt.  Baudin's 
expedition  with  the  French  ships  '  La  Geographe  '  and  '  La 
Naturaliste,'  iu  1802.  They  passed  several  months  refitting  in 
Port  Jackson,  so  probably  the  spider  was  from  New  South  Wales. 

In  colour  it  was  brown  all  over. 

Walckenaer  gives  two  drawings  of  the  eyes,  in  one  of  which 
the  front  middle  pair  are  quite  small,  about  three  diameters  apart ; 

^  Voyage  de  d(^couvertes  aux  Terres  Au&trales,  redige  par  M.  F.  Peron. 
Paris,  1807. 


190L] 


AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS. 


221 


iu  the  other,  somewhat  larger,  one  and  a  half  diameters  apart.  In 
the  former  also  the  rear  side-eyes  are  nearer  together  than  the 
front  side,  and  iu  the  other  drawing  both  distances  are  the  same. 
The  first  is  from  above,  the  second  from  in  front,  M.  H.  Lucas 
in  a  long  paper  ou  the  genus  (he.  cit.),  in  1865,  says  that  the  front 
middle  eyes  are  close  together ;  he  gives  a  drawing  in  which  they 
are  small  and  about  a  diameter  apart.  His  specimen  was  pur- 
chased by  the  Paris  Museum  in  1859,  and  came  from  'les  environs 
de  Melbourne ' ;  he  was  able  to  compare  it  w  ith  the  original  type- 
specimen,  then  60  years  old  ;  still  his  identification  should  be 
correct.  It  was  20  mm.  long — whether  including  mandibles  or 
not  does  not  appear.  It  is  to  be  hoped  some  fresh  specimens  may 
be  forthcoming  from  Melbourne  or  Sydney. 

In  the  British  Museum  are  two  specimens  from  Hunter  River, 
N.S.W.,  and  Western  Australia  labelled  E.  occatorium,  females 
also,  old  dried  specimens  ;  but  they  are  different  from  one  another, 
and  do  not  agree  with  M.  Lucas's  description. 

In  these  the  rear  row  of  eyes  is  shorter  than  the  front.  The 
two  front  middle  are  small,  about  three  diameters  apart,  but  stand 
on  larger  round,  slightly  raised  bases,  which  may  or  may  not 
have  been  originally  part  of  the  eyes,  but  in  the  dried  state  are 
now  clearly  separable  from  the  seeing  part.  This  probably 
accounts  for  the  discrepancies  above  mentioned.  The  side-eyes 
are  all  slightly  raised. 

The  colour  is  a  uniform  rich  dark  brown,  the  mandibles  black- 
brown,  and  the  cephalothorax  smooth  and  shiny. 

In  the  largest  there  are  11  teeth  on  the  inner  margin  of  the 
falx-sheath,  9  on  the  outer,  and  about  13  smaller  in  two  inter- 
mediate rows. 

On  the  superior  tarsal  claws  are  2  or  3  rather  long  pectinations 
about  the  middle  of  the  shaft  and  1  on  the  inferior.  There  are 
numerous  spines  on  lip  and  base  of  maxillae. 

The  measurements  of  the  largest  of  the  above  in  millimetres 
are  as  follows  : — 


Long. 

Broad. 

Cephalothorax     . . 

9 

^ 

Abdomen 

6 

6 

Mandibles 

7 

Trochanter 

5 

Patella 

Metatarsus 

Coxa. 

&  femur. 

&  tibia. 

&  tarsus. 

Legs    . . 

1.     4 

7 

6 

^ 

= 

22i 

2.     4 

7 

6 

5 

= 

22' 

3.     4 

7 

5i 

5^ 

■^ 

22 

4.     4 

8 

71 

6" 

= 

25i 

Palni 

..     3 

6 

5 

3 



17 

In  this  specimen  the  teeth  on  the  falx-sheath  are  numerous, 
pectinations  on  tarsal  claws  few,  posterior  legs  relatively  longer, 
and  spines  on  lip  and  maxillae  numerous. 

These  two  are  more  likely  the  female  (unknown)  of  E.  rubro- 
capitatum  Auss.  and  of  E.  crassum  Cambr.  respectively. 


222  MB.  H.  E.  HOGG  OK  [June  4, 

Eeiodon  formibabile  Cambr. 

Eriodon  formidahile  Eev.  0.  P.  Cambridge,  Journ.  Linn.  Soc, 
Zool.  vol.  X.  1868,  p.  266  ;  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  1873, 
p.  454. 

This  was  described  by  Mr.  Cambridge  from  an  old  dried  speci- 
men in  the  Hope  Museum  at  Oxford,  which  had  lost  its  palpi  and 
hind  legs.     He  gives  its  length  as  12^  lines  (or  26  mm.). 

There  is  a  mutilated  specimen  in  the  National  Museum  of 
Victoria,  Melbourne,  which  I  attribute  to  the  same. 

It  is  very  similar  to  E.  occatorium  both  in  colouring  (dark 
chocolate)  and  eyes.  The  front  middle  pair  are  very  minute,  about 
four  diameters  apart.  The  eyes,  which  are  all  small,  seem  more 
sessile,  the  front  and  rear  rows  about  equal  in  length,  and  the 
middle  eyes  of  rear  row  nearer  to  the  side-eyes  of  same  than 
to  the  front  middle.  Front  row  in  a  straight  line.  The  whole 
creature  is  larger  than  the  foregoing,  and  the  species  are  probably 
distinct. 

Mr.  Cambridge  says  his  specimen  had  six  spinnerets,  which,  if 
correct,  would  make  it  differ  from  the  rest  of  the  genus.  But  old  dry 
specimens  are  very  difficult  to  handle  and  apt  to  be  deceptive.  In 
the  female  I  examined  the  rear  half  of  the,  abdomen  was  destroyed. 

Locality.  Swan  Hill  (Eiver  Murray),  A^ictoria. 

Eriobok  ceassitm  Cambr. 

Eriodon  crassum  Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge,  Journ.  Linn.  Soc,  Zool. 
vol.  X.  1868,  p.  269 ;  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  1873,  p.  456. 

This  again  is  very  like  E.  occatorium  (sec.  Cambr.),  but  smaller, 
7g  lines.  The  front  side-eyes  twice  the  diameter  of  front  middle. 
Legs  4, 3,  2,  1.  Eemale  from  Swan  Eiver,  W.  Austr.  (Hope  Mus., 
Oxford). 

The  specimen  in  Brit.  Mus.  labelled  as  E.  occatorium'^,  men- 
tioned above,  has  the  1st,  2nd,  and  3rd  pairs  of  legs  all  about  equal 
length,  but,  coming  from  the  same  locality  and  in  other  respects 
agreeing  with  the  description  of  this  species,  I  think  it  must  be 
taken  to  be  the  same. 

Eeiobon  geanulosum  Cambr. 

Eriodon  gramdosum  Rev.  0.  P.  Cambridge,  Journ.  Linn.  Soc, 
Zool.  vol.  X.  1868,  p.  268  ;  L.  Koch.  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  1873, 
p.  455. 

Male.  Length  7  lines.  Swan  Eiver,  W.  Austr.  (Hope  Mus., 
Oxford),  sec.  Cambridge. 

Cephalothorax  black  above  and  below,  as  also  legs  and  palpi. 
Eyes,  as  drawn,  very  similar  to  those  of  E.  crassum.  Ealces  as  long 
as  cephalothorax,  strong  black  spines  at  upper  extremity.  Legs 
long,  4,  3,  2, 1 ,  with  black  hairs ;  black  spines  on  underside  of  meta- 
tarsi and  tibine.  Margin  of  cephalothorax  and  caput  rough  and 
granulose  (a  common  feature  in  males  of  this  genus).  Male  palp 
W'ith  a  double  bulb  and  stigma  of  about  the  same  length. 

This  reads  very  much  like  the  male  of  the  preceding. 


1901.] 


AUSTRALIAN  SPIDBES. 


223 


EmoDON  iNSiGNE  Cambr.     (Text-fig.  21,  figs,  a,  6.) 
Eriodon  hisigne  Eev.  O.  P.  Cambridge,  Ann.   Mag.   Nat.  Hist. 
ser.  4,  vol.  xix.  1877,  p.  29. 

Cephalic  part  of  ceplialothorax  and  mandibles  bright  scarlet ; 
thoracic  part  black.  Abdomen  black.  Thoracic  fovea  deep  and 
strongly  procarved.  Front  middle  eyes  largest,  oval,  upright, 
close  together.  Eear  middle  eyes  nearer  to  rear  side  than  to  front 
middle.  Scopula  on  tarsus  and  two-thirds  of  metatarsus  of  3rd  and 
4th  pairs  of  legs.  Superior  claws  lightly  pectinated,  5  or  6  on 
inner,  3  on  outer  ;   2  on  inferior.      S  teeth  on  inner  falx-edge, 

Text-fig.  21. 


Eriodon  rugosmn.     c.  Male  palp. 
E.  insigne.     a.  Ejes.    b.  Male  palp. 

4  on  lower  part  of  outer,  and  5  Very  small  intermediate  at  lower 
end.  Club-shaped  spines  on  lip  and  lower  inner  edge  of  maxillae. 
A  rather  large  protuberance  on  the  inner  fore  corner  of  maxilla. 
Trochantal  joint  of  maxillse  long  and  cylindrical.  Posterior 
sternal  sigillge  large  and  removed  from  margin.  Porehead  slightly 
granulated,  not  so  much  as  E.  incertum. 

I  have  several  of  these  males  from  Dimboola,  Victoria,  but  no 
females  that  I  can  attribute  as  cospecific  with  them. 

The  males  of  E.  insigne  Cambr.,  E.  incertum  Cambr,,  E.  riibro- 
capitatum  Auss.,  and  apparently  E.  semicoccineum  Simon,  are  all 
very  much  alike,  with  their  black  thoracic  part,  abdomen,  and  legs, 
and  scarlet  head  and  mandibles.  No  scarlet-coloured  females  have 
been  found  ;  probably  they  are  of  the  normal  black-brown  or 
chocolate  colour,  and  may  not  differ  even  so  much  as  the  males. 


224  MR.  H.  II.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

Of  the  four  species  known  to  me  I  have  figured  the  palps,  the 
bulb  and  stigma  of  which  will  be  seen  to  be  of  a  somewhat  similar 
type,  the  latter  nearly  straight,  from  once  and  a  half  to  twice  the 
length  of  the  bulb. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 
Long.        Broad. 
Cephalothorax     ....  4|  5 

Abdomen 4  3;^ 

Pat.  &       Metat. 
Coxa.     Tr.  &feui.      tib.  &tars. 

Legs    1.  2|  6  4i  4^  =  17| 

2.  2i  5  4  4~  =  15| 

3.  2k  5  4  41  =  16 
Or  4, 1,3,2.     4.  2i  6  4^  5  =  18 

Palpi 1|        2  &  4         5^  1  =       13| 

Eriodok  incertum  Cambr.     (Text-fig.  22.) 
Eriodon  incertum,  Eev.  0.  P.  Cambridge,  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist. 
ser.  4,  vol.  xix.  1877,  p.  30. 

Text-fig.  22. 


Eriodon  incertum.     a.  Ej'es.     h.  Male  palp. 


Described  from  a  male  from  Swan  Eiver. 

Cephalic  part  of  cephalothorax  dark  reddish  black  ;  mandibles 
bright  scarlet ;  thoracic  part  black.     Abdomen  black-brown. 

Thoracic  fovea  very  deep  and  procurved.  8  teeth  on  inner  falx- 
edse  ;   5  teeth  on  outer  falx-edge,  and  bunch  of  about  7  small 


1901.]  ATJSTRALIAN  SPIDEES.  225 

intermediate  at  lower  end,  away  from  fang.  There  are  no  spines 
on  lip  or  masillag. 

Eyes  :  the  front  middle  are  the  largest,  OA^al,  inclined  to  one 
another,  bases  half  their  short  diameter  apart.  Side-eyes  about 
equal  in  size,  in  length  equal  the  short  diameter  of  front  middle 
eyes.  The  cephalic  part  above  the  eyes  is  deeply  pitted  with 
numerous  coarse  indentations. 

The  rastellum  is  on  a  pad  on  the  inner  side  of  the  falx.  The 
sternal  sigillse  are  large,  away  from  margin,  and  the  same  as  in 
E.  insigne  and  E.  rubrocapitatum. 

A  thick  low  undivided  scopnla  on  tarsus  and  metatarsus  iii.  and 
iv.  reaches  nearly  to  the  base  of  the  latter.  There  are  5  pectinations 
on  superior  inner  tarsal  claw,  3  on  outer,  and  3  short  on  inferior. 

These  particulars  are  from  a  male  from  Perth  (H.  W.  J.  Turner) 
in  the  British  Museum. 

Measut'sinents  in  millimetres. 
Long.       Broad. 
Cephalothoras         5  6 

Abdomen     ..         5|-          5                Pat.  &  Metat. 

Coxa.      Tr.  (fefem.     tib.  &tars. 

Legs    1.         21           5f          5  4i       =       17f 

2.  21          5             41  4'       =       16 

3.  21          5             4"  4         =       151 
Or  1,4, 2, 3.     4.         21           5             4^  4|-       =       164 

Palpi If       2  &  4         5f  1         =       141 

Eeiodox  eugosum  Auss.     (Text-fig,  21  c,  p.  223.) 

Eriodon  rugosum  Auss.,  Verb,  der  k.k.  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien, 
Band  xxv.  1875,  p.  141,  Taf .  v.  figs.  5  &  6.     A  male  from  Australia. 

One  male,  Keyserling  Coll.,  British  Museum.  Total  length 
14  mm. 

The  front  side- eyes  are  largest  and  oval.  The  front  middle  are 
likewise  oval,  long  diameter  vertical,  slightly  smaller ;  their  short 
diameter  apart. 

The  whole  cephalothorax  and  mandibles  are  deep  black,  the  legs 
and  palpi  inclining  to  reddish  brown — the  colour  of  E.  occatorium, 
from  which  however  the  eyes  differ  entirely.  The  abdomen 
considerably  overhangs  the  cephalothorax. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 
Long.        Broad. 
Ceph.  (without  mandibles)   . .         7  7 

Abdomen   6^  5 

Mandibles 4 

Pat.  &     Metat. 
Coxa.     Tr.  &  fem.      tib.         &  tars. 
Legs    1.        21-  51  41  41       =       17 

2.  21.         5  4  4         =       15^ 

3.  21  5  4  4         =       151 
Or  4, 1,2,3.     4.         21          6            5             5         =       18^ 

Palpi 21  5  5  11       =       14 

Peoc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  XV,  15 


226 


ME.  H,  E.  HOGG  ON 


[June  4, 


Eeiobon  eubeooapitatum  Auss.     (Text-fig.  23.) 

Erom  the  specimen  in  Keyserling  Coll.,  Brit.  Mus.,  I  take  the 

following  pai'ticulars. 

Cephalic  part  of  cephalothorax  and  mandibles  rather  brownish 

red ;    thoracic  part  black.      Legs  and  palpi  lighter  brown  than 


Text-fig.  23. 


Efiod<yii  ruhrocapitatum.      a.  Eyes   of  male.      b.   Eyes    of   female    (labelled 
E.  occatormm),  probably  female  of  this,     c,  cl.  Left  and  right  male  palps. 

latter  (not  so  bright  as  E.  insigne),  but  the  specimen  is  old  and 
may  have  lost  its  colour  somewhat.  Thoracic  fovea  deep  and  pro- 
curved.  Sternal  sigillse  removed  from  margin ;  posterior  pair 
very  large ;  anterior  pair  small  and  on  sternum  below  lip-fold. 
Scopula  on  tarsus  and  lower  two-thirds  of  metatarsus  iii  and  iv. 
3  large  and  5  small  teeth  on  inner  edge  of  falx-sheatb,  2  large  and 


1901.]  AUSTBALIAN  SPIDEES.  227 

2  small  near  lower  part  of  outer  edge ;  intermediate  row  of  4  very 
small  at  lower  end  of  same.  About  5  or  6  pectinations  on  outer 
superior  tarsal  claws,  3  on  inferior ;  4  or  6  pectinations  on  inner 
superior  tarsal  claws.  No  club-shaped  spines  on  lip  or  maxillse. 
Pemale  below  has  spines  on  both.  The  front  middle  eyes  are 
small,  on  pale  yellow  prominences  (Mr.  Eainbow  says  brown). 
The  tibial  joint  of  palp  is  unusually  long  and  swollen  in  the 
middle.  The  trochantal  joint  of  same  is  also  unusually  long 
(as  in  E.  insigne  and  E.  incertum). 

Mr.  Eainbow,  of  Sydney,   describes  a  male    from    Menindie, 
N.S.W.,  which  is  the  same  as  this  one  labelled  Australia  only. 


Measurements  in  millimetres. 


Long. 

Broad. 

Cephalothorax 

. . 

5 

6 

Abdomen     . . . 

4 

4 

Pat.& 

Metat. 

Coxa. 

Tr.  &  fern. 

tib. 

&  tars. 

Legs    

1. 

2 

6 

5i 

5 

= 

18i 

2. 

2 

51 

5 

5 

= 

m 

3. 

2 

H 

4 

4 

= 

14i- 

4. 

2 

H 

5 

5 

= 

m 

Palpi 

H 

2&4i 

7 

1 

= 

16 

A  female  in  British  Museum,  with  eyes  the  same,  dark  centre  on 
pale  yellowish  brown,  measures  : — 


Lone. 

Broad. 

Cephalothorax 

71 

9 

Abdomen     . .  . 

. . . 

11^ 

10 

Mandibles    .  .  . 

5 

4  each. 

Pat.& 

Metat. 

Coxa. 

Tr.  &  fern. 

tib. 

&  tars. 

Legs    

1. 

3 

7 

5i 

H 

= 

20 

2. 

3 

6 

H 

H 

= 

19 

3. 

3 

7 

5i 

5 

= 

201 

4. 

H 

8 

H 

5i 

= 

231 

Palpi 

3 

5i 

5 

3 

= 

16i 

Eeiodon  nigripes  Lucas  (sec.  Simon). 

Pachyloscelis  nigripes  Lucas,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  vol.  iii.  1834, 
p.  364,  pi.  vii.  figs.  1  &  2. 

Sphodros  abboti  Walck.  Ins.  Apt.  vol.  i.  1837,  p.  243. 

Eriodon  nigripes  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  1892, 
p.  81  note. 

Described  as  from  Brazil.    M.  Simon,  however,  thinks  that  this  is 

15* 


228  MR.  H.  R.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

probably  a  mistake,  as  on  examination  of  Lucas's  type  of  the  above- 
named  species,  he  finds  it  to  be  a  male  Eriodon. 

He  further  ascertained  that  Spliodros  ahboti  Walck.  (loc.  cit.) 
was  described  from  the  same  specimen. 

The  cephalothorax  is  described  as  black,  the  cephalic  part  blue- 
black,  the  abdomen  yellow  above  and  black  underneath. 

M.  Lucas  at  the  same  time  described  a  female  as  P.  rvfipes 
(loc.  cit.),  which  from  the  colouring  (black  all  over,  bluish  head- 
part,  yellow  hairs  on  abdomen)  would  appear  to  be  the  female  of 
the  above. 

The  rear  middle  eyes  are  depicted  in  this  female  as  close  up  to 
the  rear  side,  while  in  the  male  they  are  about  half-way,  which 
may  doubtless  have  led  M.  Simon  to  reject  it  as  cospecific;  the 
drawings  given  of  details  of  other  parts,  however,  are  clearly  not 
to  be  taken  too  literally.  Of  course  there  is  the  doubt  as  to  its 
locality,  and  it  has  not  been  recognized  since. 

Eriodon  semicocoineum  Simon. 

Eriodon  semicoccineum  Simon,  Liste  der  Arachn.  der  Semon'sehen 
Sammlung  in  Australien  und  dem  Malay ischen  Archipel  (E.  Simon, 
1896). 

Black,  with  cephalic  part  and  mandibles  red ;  9  mm.  long.  Erom 
Burnett  River,  Queensland. 

From  M.  Simon's  description  (loc.  cit.)  it  is  not  clear  that  this 
differs  from  E.  rvhrocapitatiim  Auss.,  unless  the  "  very  long, 
straight,  thin "  palpal  stigma  mentioned  means  something  more 
than  about  twice  the  lenath  of  the  bulb. 


Subfamily  M  i  G  i  N  ^. 

This  subfamily  is  represented  only  by  the  genus  Migas  Jj.  Koch, 
which  is  confined  to  New  Zealand.  Unlike  the  other  members  of 
the  family,  the  mandibles  are  short,  convex,  kneed  at  the  base  and 
thence  almost  vertical.  The  thoracic  fovea  is  recurved,  and  the 
front  row  of  eyes  (sec.  Koch)  straight  or  (sec.  Goyen)  procurved. 
The  New  Zealand  species  are  unknown  to  me.  I  recorded  a  muti- 
lated specimen  from  Central  Australia  (Horn  Expedition,  Zool. 
vol.  ii.  p.  334)  as  probably  M.  paradoxus  L.  K. ;  but  on  recon- 
sidering my  notes  I  feel  sure  that  it  must  be  a  new  genus — to  be 
described  when  more  material  is  available. 


Genus  Migas  L.  Koch. 

Migas  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  1873,  p.  467  ;    E,  Simon. 
Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  1892,  p.  84. 
Type,  M.  paradoxus  L.  Koch. 


1901.]  AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS.  229 

MiGAS  PARADOXUS  L.  Koch  (loc.  cit.). 

Front  row  o£  eyes  straight ;  a  remarkable  double  row  of  spines 
on  raetatarstis  iv. 

Female  from  Auckland. 

MiGAS  DiSTiNCTUS  Cambr. 

(Female.)  Eey.  O.  P.  Cambridge,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Lond.  1879, 
p.  783. 

(Male.)  P.  Goyen,  Proc.  New  Zealand  Inst.  vol.  xix.  1886, 
p.  210. 

(Sec.  Goyen).  Both,  rows  of  eyes  procurved.  No  spines  on  lip 
or  maxillse.     Length  9  mm. 

Locality.  At  the  back  of  the  sea-beach  between  Duuedin  and 
Oamaru,  Otago. 

MiGAS  SANDAGERI  Goyeu. 

Migas  sandageri  Goven,  Proc.  N.  Z.  Inst.  vol.  xxiii.  1890, 
p.  123. 

(Sec.  Goyen.)  Both  rows  of  eyes  procurved.  Lip  and  maxillae 
studded  with  spines.     Length  9  mm. 

Weaves  a  nest  on  trunks  of  trees. 

Locality.  Mokohinou  Islands. 

Subfamily  Ctets'Iziis'^. 

Three  claws  and  a  rastellum.  Eyes  on  a  more  or  less  raised 
prominence  in  the  centre  of  the  frontal  area. 

Of  the  six  groups  into  which  M.  Simon  divides  this  subfamily 
we  have  only  three  into  which  any  of  our  genera  can  fall. 
IdiojjecB — in  which  the  front  side-eyes  are  brought  so  far  forward 
as  to  be  separated  from  the  others  ;  Cyrlaucheniece  and  Nemesiece, 
which  M.  Simon  separates  on  the  procurvedness  or  straightness 
of  the  thoracic  fovea,  and  these  so  overlap  the  borders  that  no 
satisfactory  dividing  line  between  the  groups  can  be  drawn. 

Synopsis  of  Genera. 

1.  Eear    middle    eyes  at   least   two    of  their    longer 

diameters  distant  from  the  rear  side-eyes  2. 

Eear  middle   eyes    not    more   than    their    longer 
diameter  from  the  rear  side-eyes 3. 

2.  Abdomen  coriaceous,  wrinkled,  short  spines  on  bact. 

Anterior  lateral  eyes  brought  forward  to  margin 
of  clypeus  (as  in  Icliops)  and  not  more  than  their 

diameter  apart  .....,>...     Idiosoma  Auss. 

Abdomen  clothed  with  rather  thick  and  long  hair  ...       4. 

4.  Rear  row  of  eyes  procurved ;  long  spines  on  the 

upper  side  of  the  abdomen  Atiidiops  Pocock. 

Eear  row  of  eyes  recurved    5. 

5.  Cephalothorax  only  very  slightly  longer  than  broad  Eucyrtops  Pocock. 
Cephalothorax  one  third  longer  than  broad    Aganippe  Cambr. 


230 


ME.  H.  R.  HOGG  ON 


[June  4, 


Lip  broader  than  long.     Thoracic  fovea  deep  and 

strongly   procurved.       Posterior  sternal   sigillse 

large  and  removed    from   margin.     Long    thin 

spines  on  upper  and  under  side  of  abdomen      . . .     Maoriana,  nov.  gen. 
Lip   nearly    square.      Thoracic   fovea    straight  or 

only  slightly  divergent  therefi-om.    Sternal  sigill^ 

moderate  in  size  and  marginal Arhanitis  L.  Koch. 


Greuus  Idiosoma  Ausserer. 

IcUosoma  Ausserer,  Verh.  z.-b.  Ges.  Wien,  1871,  p.  150. 

Acanthodon  Guerin,  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  1892, 
p.  91. 

Idiosoma  Auss.,  E.  I.  Pocock,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  6, 
vol.  xix.  1897,  p.  109. 

Attached  by  M.  Simon  to  the  genus  Acanthodon  and  group 
Idiopece,  to  which  the  position  of  its  front  side-eyes  entitles  it. 
The  rear  side-eyes  are,  however,  at  least  twice  the  diameter  of  the 
front  middle  instead  of  nearly  equal,  and  the  lip  broader  than 
long,  instead  of  equally  so.  No  spines  on  lip,  instead  of  a  row  of 
a  few  large  ones.  I  think,  therefore,  that  Mr.  Pocock  is  right  in 
restoring  Ausserer's  genus. 

Type,  /.  sigillatum. 

Idiosoma  sigillatum  Cambr. 

Idiosoma  sigillatum  Cambr.,  E.  1.  Pocock,  loc.  cit. 
Idiops  sigillatus  Cambr.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1870,  p.  105,  pi.  viii. 
fig.  2. 

This,  the  only  species  of  the  genus,  was  described  originally 
from  a  male  from  Perth,  W.A.  However,  a  female  was  received 
by  the  British  Museum  from  the  same  neighbourhood  a  few  years 
since,  from  which  I  have  taken  the  following  few  points  in  addition 
to  those  pubHshed  by  Mr.  Pocock. 

Teeth  on  inner  falx-edge   7 

5,        outer        „  4 

3  smaller  intermediate  at  lower  end. 


Measurements  in  millimetres. 


Long. 

Broad. 

Cephalothorax 

8 

6 

Abdomen    . .  . 

11 

9 

Mandibles    . .  . 

4 

Pat.& 

Metat. 

Coxa. 

Tr.  &  fern. 

tib. 

&  tars. 

Legs     

1. 

3 

6 

51 

4 

= 

18i 

2. 

3 

H 

5 

4 

= 

17| 

3. 

3 

5 

H 

4 

^ 

161 

Or  4, 1,  2, 3. 

4. 

3 

6 

7 

5i 

= 

2ii 

Palpi    ....... 

.  . . 

3| 

5 

5 

31 

= 

17! 

1901.] 


AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS. 


231 


G-enus  Aganippe  Cambr. 

Aganippe  Cambr.  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  4,  vol.  xix.  1877^ 
p.  28  ;  Simon,  Hisfc.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  p.  106  (1892) ;  Pocock, 
Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  6,  vol.  xvi.  1895,  p.  223 ;  id.  ibid, 
vol.  xix.  1897,  p.  112. 

Type,  Aganippe  subtristis  Cambr.,  loc.  cit. 

Described  from  a  dried  specimen  in  the  British  Museum  received 
from  Adelaide  (S.  Australia),  and  not  recorded  since. 

The  cephalothorax  and  legs  are  bright  chestnut-brown ;  the  eye- 
space  and  mandibles  darker  reddish  brown ;  abdomen  reddish  brown, 
rough  and  hairy.  The  sternum  is  pyriform,  broadest  behind. 
The  posterior  sternal  sigillse  lai'ge  and  removed  from  the  margin  ; 
a  smaller  pair  between  these  and  the  anterior  margin  of  sternum. 
The  sternum  and  coxae  are  copiously  pitted. 

The  lip  is  small,  as  long  as  broad.  Club-shaped  spines  on  base 
of  maxillse,  none  visible  on  lip. 

In  this  the  I'astellum  extends  in  three  rows  of  teeth  right  across 
the  lower  end  of  falx. 


Measurements  in  millimetres. 


Long. 
Cephalothorax     . .       12 

Abdomen     11 

Mandibles     8  falx 

5  fang. 

Coxa 
Legs     1.         5 

2.  4 

3.  4 
Or  4, 1,2, 3.    4.         5 

Palpi  5i 


Broad. 

9 

n 

Tib.  & 

Metat. 

•.  &  fern. 

pat. 

&  tars. 

H 

81 

5i 

= 

28|- 

8 

8 

5i 

^ 

251 

71 

7 

6 

= 

241 

10^ 

9i 

8i 

= 

33 

^ 

H 

^ 

= 

23 

Genus  Anidiops  Pocock. 

Anidiops  Pocock,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat,  Hist.  ser.  6,  vol.  xix.  1897, 
p.  114. 

Type,  Anidiops  manstridgei  Pocock,  loc.  cit. 

Described  from  a  dried  female  specimen  from  Lawlers,  East 
Murchison,  W.A.,  and  not  since  recorded. 

The  front  middle  eyes  are  yellow  with  black  centres,  their 
diameter  apart.  The  rear  side-eyes  are  largest,  two  thirds  diameter 
of  front  middle.  The  rear  row  strongly  procurved.  The  front 
side-eyes  project  beyond  the  margin  of  the  carapace,  and  are  their 
diameter  apart,  one  third  more  than  front  middle. 

Eastellum  along  inner  front  of  falx  and  over  rather  large  area 
behind  same. 


232 


MR.  H.  B.  HO&G  ON 


[June  4, 


Measurements  in  millimetres. 

Long.  Broad. 
Cephalotliorax     .  .         9  7 

Abdomen     8  6| 

Mandibles    6 

Pat.  &       Metat 

Coxa.  Tr.  &  fern.  tib. 

i^egs     1.         4  61  6-^ 

2.         3i  6  6 

3         3^  6  5 

4.         31  71  71 

Palpi 5"  6|  61 


&  tars. 

51 

= 

221 

4^ 

r= 

20 

5 

= 

19 

7-1 

'  2 

= 

26 

4 

= 

22 

Genus  Eucyetops  Pocock. 

Aganippe  Cambr.  {ad  partem,  latio7'),  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist, 
ser.  4,  vol.  xix.  1877,  p.  29,  pi.  vi.  fig.  4. 

Eucyrtops  Pocock,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  6,  vol.  xix.  1897, 
p.  113. 

Eucyetops  latioe  Cambr.,  he.  cit. 

Eemoved  by  Mr.  Pocock  from  Aganippe  in  consequence  of  a 
difference,  which  he  considers  sufficient,  in  the  arrangement  of 
the  eyes  in  the  type,  and  only,  species  from  that  of  Aganippe 
suhtristis  Cambr. 

There  does  not  appear  to  me  much  difference  beyond  that  the 
rear  roAV  is  rather  more  recurved,  and  the  front  middle  eyes  equal 
in  size  to  the  rear  middle,  instead  of  larger.  The  four  side-eyes 
are  also  equal,  \h  diameter  of  the  medians,  and  they  are  all  slightly 
raised  on  low  tubercles.  However,  in  Eucyrtops  the  cephalothorax 
is  broad  er,  apparently  the  reason  of  its  specific  name. 

Type  (in  British  Museum),  one  dried  female  from  Perth,  W.  A. 
Not  recorded  since. 

Measurements  in  millimetres, 


Long. 

Broad. 

Cephalothorax 

H 

9 

Abdomen 

7 

H 

Mandibles    . 

5 

Coxa. 

Tr.  &  fern. 

Pat.  & 
tib. 

Metat. 
&  tars. 

Legs     

1. 

4 

•5| 

6 

51 

= 

21 

2. 

3i 

51 

6 

5* 

= 

201 

3. 

3i 

5 

51 

5 

= 

19 

4. 

4 

n 

7 

6 

^ 

241 

Or  4,  1,  2, 

3. 

Palpi   

H 

51 

H 

H 

= 

20 

1901.]  AIJSTEALIAN  SPIDERS.  233 

Genus  Arbanitis  L.  Koch. 

Pholeuon  L.  Koch  (nom.  prcBOCc),  Arachn.  Aiistr.  1873,  p.  472. 

Arhanitis  L.  Koch,  Arachn.  Austr,  1874,  p.  491. 

Arianitis  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d,  Araign.  vol.  i.  p.  115  (1892). 

Arhanitis  differs  primarily  from  Nemesia  {sec.  Simon)  in  having 
the  pectinations  on  the  tarsal  claws  in  one  row  instead  of  two. 
Judged  by  this  standard,  all  the  species  from  Australia  and  New 
Zealand  described  under  the  two  genera  must  be  included  in  the 
former. 

M.  Simon  has  already  removed  N.  gilliesii ;  and  as  Mr. 
Urquhart's  description  of  his  JSf.  JcirJcii  is  apparently  clear  on  the 
point,  though  he  does  not  state  it  directly,  that  must  also  follow 
suit. 

Type,  A.  longipes  L.  Koch. 

Synopsis  of  Species. 

1.  Middle  eyes  of  front  row  about  ^  diameter  apart 

{sec.  L.  Koch) A.  longipes  L.  Koch. 

Middle  eyes  of  front  row  more  nearly  1|  diameter 
apart  2. 

2.  Cephalothoras  of  adult  ( cJ  or  $ )  not  exceeding 

about  6  mm.  in  length  {sec.  Cambr.  &  Groyen).     A.  huttonii  Oambr. 
Cephalothoras  of  adult  {S  or  $)  8-14  mm.  in 
length 3. 

3.  No  club-shaped  spines  on  lip A.  gilliesii  Cambr. 

Lip  covered  with  small  papillEe,  or  club-shaped 

spines  {sec.  JJrq.)... if  coming  ivitlmi  subfamily...     A.  Jcirkii  Urq. 

Aebanitis  gilliesii  Cambr.     (Text-fig.  24,  a,  h.) 

Arhanitis  gilliesii  Cambr.,  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i. 
p.  115  (1892). 

Nemesia  gilliesii  Cambr.  Trans.  N.  Z.  Inst.  vol.  x.  (1877)  p.  284, 
plate  X. 

Nemesia  gilliesii  Cambr.,  A.  T.  Urquhart,  Trans.  N.  Z.  Inst. 
vol.  xxiv.  (1891)  p.  221. 

A  female  sent  me  by  Prof.  Dendy  from  Christchurch,  N.Z., 
I  attribute  to  this  species,  the  colouring  and  pattern  agreeing. 
Mr.  Cambridge  described  his  species  from  one  male  and  two 
females  sent  by  Captain  Button  from  Oamaru,  Otago. 

The  thoracic  fovea  is  straight,  or  slightly  recurved.  Mr.  Cam- 
bridge draws  his  procurved,  but  does  not  mention  the  point.  The 
scopu-lse  on  tarsus  and  metatarsus  of  two  front  pairs  of  legs  are 
thick  and  undivided.  With  three  long  single  spines  in  the 
scopulse  of  the  metatarsus  ;  none  on  tarsus.  On  the  two  pos- 
terior pairs  there  are  a  good  many  short  spines  on  the  underside 
of  the  tarsus,  and  a  row  on  the  anterior  end  of  metatarsus.  There 
are  very  long  bristles  on  the  anterior  end  and  sides  of  the  sternum  ; 
bristles,  but  no  club-shaped  spines,  on  the  lip,  which  is  as  broad 
as   long,  square  in  front,  and  sunk  below  the  maxillae.     There 


234 


MR.  H.  B.  HOG&  ON 


[June  4, 


is  a  bunch  of  club-shaped  spines  on  inner  side  of  base  of  the 
latter. 

The  front  middle  eyes  are  1|  diameter  apart,  they  are  wholly 
above  the  highest  point  of  the  side-eyes,  \¥hich  are  twice  their 
diameter,  and  the  same  distance  away  from  both  front  middle  and 
rear  side-eyes.  The  rear  row  is  recurved,  the  side-eyes  being  1^ 
diameter  of  front  middle.  The  whole  eye-space  is  twice  as  long 
as  broad,  the  sides  being  parallel,  and  the  front  side-eyes  are 
their  long  diameter  removed  from  the  margin  of  the  clypeus. 

Text-fig.  24. 


Arhanitis  gilliesii.     a.  Eyes.     h.  Rear  tavaal  claws. 
Supposed  A.  huttoni.    c.  Rear  tarsal  claws. 


f-'The  outer  superior  tarsal  claw  has  two  very  long  pectinations 
between  two  shorter,  and  the  inner  claw  two  long  and  one  short 
intermediate  ;  none  on  the  inferior  claw  ;  one  large  at  base  of  palpal 
claw  :  this  is  on  front  edge  of  the  tarsus-end,  and  not,  as  Mr. 
Cambridge  draws  it,  close  up  to  the  other  claws. 

The  inferior  mammillae  are  one  diameter  apart.  The  superior 
have  the  first  joint  longest  and  stoutest,  the  second  one  fourth  its 
length,  the  third  conical,  I'ounded  at  the  end,  the  same  length  as 
the  second. 

There  are  fine  spines  on  both  upper  and  under  side  of  the 
abdomen. 


1901.]  AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS.  235 

Mecimrements  in  millimetres. 

Long.        Broad. 
Cephalothorax     . .         14  11 

Abdomeu     15  10 

Mandibles    Si- 

Tib.  &      Metat. 

Coxa.     Tr.  &  fern.      pat.  &  tars. 

Legs     1.         6  11  lOi  8i       =       36 

2.  5i         10  91  8"       =       33 

3.  5"  8i  8  7i       =       29 

4.  51         Hi         13  111       =       411 
Palpi   6"           8             7  5         =       26 

One  female  in  British  Museum  from  J.  V.  Jennings,  Otago, 
1891,  differs  slightly  in  the  following  particulars. 

Eyes  the  same  as  the  foregoing  (supposed  A.  gilUesii),  but 
distance  between  the  front  side  pair  and  the  margin  of  the  clypeus 
rather  narrower.  Thoracic  fovea  deeper  and  slightly  procurved. 
The  Eev.  O.  P.  Cambridge  draws  his  recurved,  but  does  not 
mention  it  in  his  description.  No  spines  on  the  back  of  the 
abdomen,  and  only  a  few  light  bristly  ones  in  two  of  the  folds  on 
the  underside.  Anterior  abdominal  (genital)  fold  double — the 
same  in  both  species.  Sternal  sigillse  about  the  same  size  and  mar- 
ginal. The  two  rear  coxae  not  quite  contiguous.  Spinnerets 
about  the  same  as  foregoing. 

Three  small  spines  at  front  end  of  tarsus  i.  &  ii.  One  larger 
pair  at  anterior  end  of  metatarsus  i.  &  ii.,  and  two  single  in  the 
middle  and  at  the  posterior  end.  A  single  row  of  large  teeth 
(about  eight)  on  inner  falx-edge.  The  inner  superior  claw  of 
tarsus  iv.  has  about  the  middle  one  very  long  pectination,  with 
another  a  good  deal  shorter  nearer  to  the  base,  and  a  very  small 
one  between.  On  the  outer  claw  is  a  long  one  near  the  base, 
followed  by  two  short,  and  on  the  other  side  higher  up  one  very 
long  and  one  short — a  sort  of  rudimentary  double  pectination. 
This  might,  however,  almost  equally  well  be  a  rudimental  row 
crossing  the  claw,  as  in  the  Di-plurince.  On  the  other  claws  the 
pectinations  are  all  single. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 


Long. 
Cephalothorax     . .         11 

Abdomen     13 

Mandibles    4 

Coxa. 
Legs     1.         5 

2.  4i 

3.  4 

4.  4i 
Palpi  4| 


Broad. 

8i 

8 

Pat.  & 

Metat, 

Tr.  &  fern. 

tib. 

&  tars. 

H 

9 

71 

9 

8 

61 

8 

H 

6* 

9i 

11 

10 

7i 

7 

5 

31 

28 
26 
35 

24j 


236  ME.  H.  E.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

Aebakitis  huttonii  Cambr.     (Text-fig.  24  c,  p.  234.) 

Arbanitis  huttonii  Eev.  O.  P.  Cambridge,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Lond. 
(24  Sept.)  1879,  p.  682,  plate  Hi.  fig.  1  (male). 

Arbanitis  huttonii  Cambr.,  A.  T.  Urquhart,  Tr.  N.  Z.  Inst, 
vol.  xxiv.  1891,  p.  221 ;  P.  Goyen,  ibid.  p.  255. 

Described  from  an  adult  male  sent  by  Captain  Hutton  from 
Dunedin  in  1879  ;  female  by  Mr.  Groyen  in  1891. 

Aebanitis  kiekii  Urquhart. 

Nemesia  hirhii  A.  T.  Urquhart,  Trans.  N.  Z.  Inst.  vol.  xxvi. 
1893,  p.  204. 

One  female  from  Wellington. 

Mr.  Urquhart  says  : — 

Eyes.  Posterior  row  moderately  procurved,  anterior  row  slightly 
recurved  (unless  this  is  a  misprint  it  is  of  course  quite  different 
from  anything  else  in  the  group). 

The  cephalic  fovea  is  circular.  (In  the  other  species  it  is  long.) 
The  superior  tarsal  claws  have  12  teeth,  and  the  inferior  4.  The 
palpal  claw  7  stout  open  pectinations.  In  A.  huttoni  and  A.  gilliesii 
the  superior  claws  have  4  pectinations,  the  inferior  none,  and  the 
palpal  claw  one. 

The  position  of  the  species  must,  therefore,  be  considered  very 
doubtful. 

Aebanitis  longipes  L.  Koch. 

Arbanitis  longipes,  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  1874,  pp.  472 
(Pholeuon),  491  (Arbanitis). 


Maoeiana,  nov.  gen. 

This  genus,  though  near  Arbanitis,  differs  from  it  in  several 
essential  particulars.  The  line  joining  the  centres  of  the  front 
row  of  eyes  is  only  slightly  procurved,  the  upper  margins  of  the 
laterals  being  in  a  line  with  the  centres  of  the  median.  The  front 
lateral  eyes  are  twice  the  diameter  of  the  median,  and  are  close 
to  the  margin  of  the  clypeus,  so  that  the  clypeus  is  very  much 
narrower.  The  line  joining  the  centres  of  the  rear  row  is  about 
straight.  The  thoracic  fovea  is  deep  and  procurved.  The  lip  is 
broader  than  long  and  hollowed  in  the  front  margin.  The  pos- 
terior sternal  sigillae  are  large,  lying  half-way  between  the  margin 
and  the  central  line  of  sternum,  and  the  others  are  away  from 
the  side-margin. 

Maoriana  agrees  with  Arbanitis  in  having  thick  seopula  on  the 
two  front  pairs  of  tarsi ;  none  on  the  two  rear  pairs.  Long 
thhi  spines  on  both  upper  and  under  side  of  abdomen.  Superior 
tarsal  claws  pectinated  in  one  row,  but  with  not  many  in  number. 
E-ow  of  teeth  on  inner  side  of  falx-sheath  only.  Eye-space  much 
broader  than  long;    sides  parallel.      Eyes  well  apart.     Superior 


1901.J 


AUSTEALIAN  SPIDERS. 


237 


spinnerets  short,  stout  and  tapering;  first  joint  longest,  third  quite 
short  and  hemispherical. 
Type,  Maoriana  dendyi. 

Maoriana  dendyi,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  25.) 

Cephalothoras,  mandibles,  legs,  and  palpi  bright  yellow-brown, 
with  a  few  pale  yellowish  hairs  on  the  cephalothoras,  trochanter, 
and  femur,  darkening  into  brown  and  thicker  on  the  remainder 
of  the  leg.  Two  longitudinal  belts  of  yellowish-brown  bristles  on 
the  face  of  the  falx  are  separated  by  bare  spaces.  The  teeth  of 
the  rastellum  are  black.  The  sternum,  coxse,  lip,  and  maxillse  are 
dull  orange,  furnished  \^'ith  brown  bristles   springing  from  round 

Text-fig.  25. 

i 
I 


Maoriana  dendyi.     a.  Eyes.     b.  Profile  (nat.  size). 
c.  Lip  and  sternum,  showing  sigillte. 

roots  ;  the  fringes  are  pinkish  yellow.  The  fangs  dark  red,  almost 
black  at  base.  The  abdomen  is  black  above  with  yellow  spots  in 
transverse  bands ;  underneath  black  irregularly  mottled  with 
yellow.  Spinnerets,  gill-covers,  and  anterior  section  above  genital 
aperture  yellow-brown;  a  few  long  thin  spiues  on  both  upper  and 
under  side  of  abdomen,  and  short  yellow  hairs. 

The  thoracic  part  of  the  cephalothorax  is  flat,  rounded  at  sides 
and  narrowed  at  rear  ;  the  cephalic  part  rises  rather  abruptly  from 


238  ME,  H.  R,  HO&G  OK  [June  4, 

the  deep  and  strongly-procurved  fovea  to  about  half  its  length, 
whence  it  slightly  slopes  downward  to  the  anterior  margin.  The 
side  striations  are  broad,  shallow  and  straight,  making  the  cephalic 
part  almost  triangular. 

The  front  row  of  eyes  is  slightly  procurved,  the  median  pair 
1^  diameter  apart  on  a  common  black  oval  prominence  ;  the 
laterals  are  twice  their  diameter,  the  same  distance  away  as  the 
median  from  one  another.  The  rear  row  is  recurved.  Side-eyes 
l-L  diameter  of  front  median,  and  that  distance  from  the  front 
laterals.  The  rear  median  are  narrow  pear-shaped,  the  length  of 
the  front  middle,  and  just  clearly  separated  at  their  apex  from  the 
side-eyes. 

The  sternum  is  broadest  posteriorly,  and  very  convex,  hollowed 
in  front  opposite  the  Up,  and  slightly  pointed  between  the  rear 
cos£e,  covered  with  long  upstanding  bristles  on  round  roots. 
The  posterior  sigillae  are  transversely  oval,  once  and  a  half  of  their 
long  diameter  from  the  margin  and  the  same  distance  from  the 
central  line. 

The  lip  is  broader  than  long,  hollowed  in  front,  and  curved 
posteriorly  with  the  sternum.  It  is  very  convex,  and  clothed  with 
bristles  on  roots,  but  no  small  club-shaped  spines. 

The  maxillae  are  rather  long,  straight  in  front,  a  rounded  pro- 
tuberance at  the  heel  and  thence  hollowed  over  the  lip.  A  few 
club-shaped  spines  are  sprinkled  from  the  inner  corner  to  half- 
way up. 

Legs  short  and  stout.  Scopulae  on  tarsi  and  metatarsi  of  front 
two  pairs.  A  few  short  stout  spines  on  all  tarsi  and  metatarsi, 
and  longer  ones  on  underside  of  tibia. 

The  superior  tarsal  claws  have  one  very  long  tooth  near  the 
base  ;  the  inferior  claw  is  bare.  One  row  of  teeth  only  on  falx- 
sheath.  On  the  outside  of  patella  iii.  and  iv.  is  an  area  covered 
with  short  stout  spines  very  similar  to  those  forming  the  rastellum. 

The  inferior  spinnerets  are  one  diameter  apart.  The  superior 
are  short,  thick  and  tapering,  the  first  joint  longest  and  thickest, 
the  third  is  hemispherical  and  only  visible  above  the  second  from 
the  underside. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 
Long.      Broad. 

Cephalothorax    8  7 

Abdomen    10  6 

Mandibles  (horizontally)  . .       3 

Superior  spinnerets    2i 

Pat.  &      Metat. 

Coxa.     Tr.  &  fern.     tib.         &  tars. 

Legs     1.  ^  6  5  4       =       181- 

2.      ^     5i     ^     4    =    l^ 

3.  3  5  4  4       =       16 


5i 

41 

^2' 

5 

4 

7 

6 

^ 

4 

4.  31  7  6  6       =       22-1- 


Palpi ••     31  41  4  3       =       15 

One  female  from  Christchurch,  N.Z.,  sent  me  by  Prof.  Dendy. 


1901.]  ATJSTBALIAN  SPIDEES.  239 

Subfamily  BARYCHELiwiE. 

Group  Baetchelb^. 

In  this  subfamily  we  find  the  tarsal  scopulse  projecting  in  strong 
bristly  tufts  beyond  the  claws  at  the  end  of  the  foot,  and  from 
consequent  disuse  the  third  claw  has  disappeared.  Although 
the  members  of  this  group  make  their  home  in  burrows  in 
the  soil  which  has  to  be  dug  out,  the  rastellum  has  not  been 
developed  into  the  strong  teeth  which  are  so  typical  in  the  pre- 
viously described  families  ;  but  in  most  cases  the  bristles  on  the 
front  edge  of  the  mandibles  are  simply  hardened,  retaining  their 
bristly  form.  The  spinnerets,  as  the  name  of  the  group  implies, 
are  short  and  stout ;  the  first  joint  is  longer  than  the  remaining 
tw^o  together,  the  third  shortest  and  nearly  hemispherical. 

The  genera  of  which  we  have  representatives  in  Australia  all  fall 
into  the  one  group  of  Barychelew,  distinguished  by  the  strongly 
procurved  front  row  of  eyes ;  the  front  laterals  being  brought 
down  to  a  position  on  the  margin  of  the  clypeus,  where  they  are 
near  together,  forming  a  pattern  of  which  the  extreme  form  is 
seen  in  Idiops  Perty,  the  whole  group  being  at  least  not  broader 
than  long. 

Grenus  Idiommata  Auss. 

Idiommata  Auss.,  E.  I.  Pocock,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist,  ser  6 
vol.  xvi.  1895,  p.  225. 

Idiommata  Auss.,  Eev.  0.  P,  Cambridge,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Lond. 
1870,  p.  154. 

Idiommata  Auss.  Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien,  1871,  p.  183. 

Idiommata  Auss.,  L.  Koch,  Arachn.  Austr.  1874,  p.  474. 

Encyocrypta  E.  Simon,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Er.  1888,  p.  247. 

Idiommata  Auss.,  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  1892, 
p.  121. 

Type,  Idiommata  blachivalli  Cambr. 

In  the  year  1895  Mr.  Pocock,  on  re-examining  Mr.  Cambridge's 
type  specimen,  discovered  (loc.  cit.)  that  (in  the  male  at  least, 
the  female  not  being  known  to  him)  Id.  hlackivalli  is  furnished 
with  a  Wood-Mason's  stridulating  organ,  which  the  females,  at  any 
rate  those  in  the  British  Museum,  identified  as  Id.  reticulata 
L.  Koch,  had  not.  /.  hlackwalli  being  the  type  of  the  genus 
Idiommata  Auss.,  it  is  clear  that  the  other  species,  until  proved 
to  have  the  stridulating  organs,  cannot  be  included  in  the  same 
genus ;  and  Mr.  Pocock  therefore  re-characterized  the  genus 
Encyocrypta  Simon,  for  the  non-stridulated  species.  I  record  them 
as  such,  as  it  is  necessary  to  obtain  and  examine  more  specimens 
before  it  can  be  seen  how  far  the  males  and  females  agree  re- 
spectively with  those  of  /.  hlacTcwalli. 


240  ME.  H.  R.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

Idiommata  black walli  Cambr. 

Idiommata  blacJiwalli  Eev.  O.  P.  Cambridge,  he.  cit. ;  L.  Koch, 
Joe.  cit. ;  E.  I.  Pocock,  he.  eit. ;  Ausserer,  Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges. 
Wien,  Band  xxv.  1875,  p.  164. 

Described  from  male  only. 

Herr  Ausserer  states  {he.  cit.)  tliat  the  cephalothorax  and  back 
of  abdomen  are  thickly  clothed  with  silver  hair.  Legs  and  palpi 
dark,  nearly  black. 

Genus  Enotocrypta  Simon. 

Encyoevypta  Simon,  li.  I.  Pocock,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  6, 
vol.  svi.  1895,  p.  225. 

Eneyoerypta  E.  Simon,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Er.  1888,  p.  247. 

Idiommata  Auss.,  E.  Simon,  Hist,  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  (1892) 
p.  121. 

Type,  E.  meleagris. 

This  genus  was  created  by  M.  Simon  for  a  New  Caledonian 
member  of  the  group  {meleagris),  but  was  subsequently  merged 
by  him  in  the  genus  Idiommata  Auss.,  from  which,  under  the 
circumstances  above  detailed,  it  was  again  resuscitated  by  Mr. 
Pocock. 

Erom  Herr  Ausserer's  synopsis  of  species  (Verb.  k.k.  zool.-bot. 
Ges.  Wien,  Band  xxv.  1875,  p.  164)  I  translate  the  following : — 

1.  Cephalothorax  and  upper  side  of  abdomen  not  clothed 

■with  silver  hair    2. 

2.  Front  middle   eyes   of   second  group  at  least   their 

diameter   apart  ;     cephalic   fovea    deep   half-moon 

shape  with  the  opening  in  front     E.  fusca  L.  K. 

Front  middle  eyes  of  second  group  less  than  their 
diameter  apart ;  thoracic  fovea  sti-aight  3. 

3.  Abdomen  brownish  yellow,  with  a  dark  reddish-brown 

network  spread  on  it    E.  reticulata  Jj.  li. 

Abdomen    black-brown,   with  yellowish-brown  hairs 
without  any  network  marking E.  aussereri  L.  K, 

Encyocbtpta  beticulata  L.  Koch. 

Encyocrypta  reticulata  E.  I.  Pocock  {he.  cit.). 

Idiommata  retieidata  L,  Koch,  Ai'achn.  Austr.  1874,  p.  47. 

Erom  British  Museum  specimens  (three  females  from  Eock- 
hampton)  labelled  E,  retieidata,  I  take  the  following  particulars  : — 

The  colour  is  chestnut-brown  to  lighter  yellow-brown  all  over. 
The  abdomen  is  clothed  with  thick  short  brown  hair,  intermingled 
with  bristles  and  some  spines.  The  six  rear  eyes  yellow,  the  two 
front  black. 

A  light  rastellum  of  spinous  bristles.  8  large  teeth  on  inner 
margin  of  falx-sheath  ;  12  quite  small  intermediate  at  lower  end  ; 
1  large  at  lower  end  of  outer  edge.     Thoracic  fovea  procurved  (?). 

Sternum  a  broad  oval.  Of  the  sternal  sigillse  the  three  pos- 
terior pairs  are  moderate  in  size  and  marginal ;  the  anterior  pair 
under  the  lip  very  large. 


1901.]  AUSTRAMAlSr  SPIDERS.  241 

The  lip  broader  than  long,  strongly  convex;  no  club-shaped 
bristles  ;  it  is  somewhat  rounded  anteriorly,  with  a  thick  bunch 
of  bristly  hairs.  On  the  lower  end  of  the  maxillae  is  a  distinct 
heel  with  7  or  8  club-shaped  spines.  There  is  a  thick  divided 
scopula  on  all  tarsi,  the  metatarsi  of  the  front  two  pairs,  and  at 
the  anterior  end  of  the  rear  two  pairs.  All  the  tarsi  are  without 
spines ;  the  front  two  pairs  of  metatarsi  are  without  them  ;  the 
other  two  pairs  of  metatarsi  have  a  good  many  spines  on  both 
upper  and  under  side.  The  inferior  mammillae  are  very  minute  and 
close  together ;  in  the  superior  pair  the  second  joint  is  nearly  as 
long  as  the  first,  the  third  short  and  hemispherical. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 

Long.  Broad. 

Cephalothorax     . .           11  7|- 

Abdomen     10  6 

Mandibles   4 

Tib.  &       Metat. 

Coxa.  Tr.  &  fern.    pat.         &  tars. 

Legs     1.         4  8             8             5-i-     =       25i 

2.  4  1\          7i          5       =       24" 

3.  31  61           6|           6|-     =       23 

4.  4'^  8i           81         10       =       31 
Palpi     31  6            5"           ^     =       17 

Encyocevpta  pusoa  L.  Koch  (E.  I.  Pocock,  loc.  cit.). 
Idiommata  fusca  L.  Koch,  Arachn.  Austr.  (1874)  p.  475. 

Encyocetpta  atjssereei  L.  Koch  (R.  I.  Pocock,  loc.  cit.). 
Idiommata  aussereri  L.  Koch,  Arachn.  Austr.  (1874)  p.  476. 

Enoyoceypta  pulighnata  Thor. 

Idiommata  fuliginata  Thor.  Ann.  Mus,  Gen.  xvii.  1881,  p.  243. 

Male  from  Cape  York. 

Grenus  Teittame  L.  Koch,  Arachn.  Austr.  (1874)  p.  482. 
Trittame  L.  Koch,  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  (1892)  p.  124. 
The  type  species,   Trittame  gracilis  L.  Koch.      No  specimen 
recorded  since. 


Grenus  Idiootis  L.  Koch. 

Idioctis  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  (1874)  p.  483. 

Idioctis  L.  Koch,  Simon,  loc.  cit.  p.  125. 

Type,  Idioctis  helva  L.  Koch,  from  Ovalau,  Fiji. 

Idioctis  (Koch)  has  the  eyes  in  one  group  (Idiommata  in  two). 
According  to  Simon,  it  only  differs  from  Idiommata  in  having  the 
lip  longer  than  broad,  an  exceptional  character  in   this  group. 

Peoo.  Zooi,.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  XVI.  16 


242 


MR.  H.  K.  HOaG  ON 


[June  4, 


This  statement  will  be  seen  to  be  only  a  printer's  error  in  the 
description  o£  the  genus,  as  in  that  of  the  type  species  it  is  the 
other  way — the  lip  is  broader  than  long,  and  no  exception  to 
the  rest.  However,  the  eye-space  is  certainly  much  shorter  than 
in  Idiommata  or  Encyocrypta  (at  any  rate  than  in  E.  reticulata 
L.  K.)  ;  and  I  think  the  genus  shoixld  stand, 

I  recorded  specimens  of  Idioctis  helva  L.  Koch  as  having  come 
from  Central  Australia  (Horn  Expedition,  vol.  ii.  p.  335).  On 
comparing  my  notes  with  specimens  of  /.  lielva  in  the  British 
Museum,  this  must  clearly  be  a  new  species,  which  I  describe  below 
under  the  name  of  /.  palmarum. 

Genus  Idioctis  L.  Koch. 
Idioctis  palmaeum,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  26.) 
Text-fig.  26. 


a.  Eyes  of  Idioctis  helva  (Keyserling  Collection),     b.  I.  palmanim. 
c.  Eyes  of  I.  palmarum. 

Cephalothorax,  mandibles,  legs,  and  palpi  walnut-brown ; 
sternum,  lip,  and  maxillae  rather  paler.  Abdomen — upperside 
yellowish  brown  with  dark-brown  median  line,  six  dark  lines  on 
either  side,  thence  sloping  towards  the  rear ;  underside  rather 
paler  without  distinct  markings,  posteriorly  the  yellow  shading 
into  grey. 

Cephalothorax  ovate,  truncate  anteriorly,  rounded  at  rear ; 
cephalic  part  distinctly  separated  by  lateral  furrow.  Thoracic 
fovea  transverse,  straight. 

Pront  side-eyes  rather  less  than  their  diameter  apart ;  front 
median  two-thirds  diameter  of  latter,  half  their  diameter  apart ; 


1901.1 


AUSTEALIAN  SPIDERS. 


243 


rear  side-eyes  about  the  same  diameter  as  front  middle.  "Whole 
eye-space  broader  than  long ;  an  oval  tubercle  between  the  median 
and  side  pairs  of  front  row  of  eyes  has  long  bristles  curling  back- 
wards. 

The  lip  is  broader  than  long,  almost  triangular,  with  a  small 
triangular  process  at  the  apex,  but  without  spines.  The 
maxillae  are  divergent,  hollowed  at  base  round  the  lip  ;  rather 
thickly  bespined  at  the  basal  part.  The  falx-sheath  has  six  large 
teeth  on  the  inner  edge.  Patella  iii.  has  a  thick  row  of  spines  on 
the  anterior  side. 

The  abdomen  is  oval,  rounded  at  the  sides. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 


Long, 

Broad. 

Cephalothorax 
Abdomen    . .  . . 

•  • 

6 

^ 

3  in  front 
5  in  middle. 
6J- 

"4 

Tib.  & 

Metat. 

Coxa. 

Tr.  &  fern.       pat. 

&  tars. 

Legs     

1. 

2 

5             5 

4       = 

16 

2. 

2 

4i           4| 

4       = 

15 

3. 

2 

^          4 

4       = 

14i 

4. 

21 

6             6 

6       = 

201 

Locality.  Palm  Creek,  Central  Australia. 

Besides  its  larger  size,  this  differs  from  L.  Koch's  /.  helva,  from 
Ovalau,  in  having  the  sides  of  the  lip  more  sloping,  the  second, 
third,  and  fourth  pairs  of  legs  longer  in  proportion,  and  both  median 
pair  and  laterals  of  front  row  of  eyes  respectively  nearer  together. 


Subfamily  AvicuLAEiiiir^. 

This  subfamily,  which  contains  all  the  largest  members  of  the 
Mygalomorphae,  is  characterized  by  being  without  both  the  third 
claw  and  rastellum.  Of  the  ten  groups  into  which  M.  Simon 
divides  it,  we  are  only  concerned  with  two,  the  Ischnocolece  and 
SelenocosmiecB ;  and  if  Mr.  Pocock's  supposition  be  found  correct, 
that  after  examination  of  more  specimens  of  the  former,  they  may 
possibly  all  prove  to  be  the  young  of  other  genera,  we  shall  have 
only  about  two  genera,  both  falling  into  the  latter  group.  So  far 
no  specimens  have  been  recorded  from  New  Zealand. 

The  groups  may  be  characterized  as  follows  : — 

Having  no  stridulating  organs.     Scopulffi  of  all  tarsi  divided. 

(Simon,  Nat.  Hist,  des  Ai-aign.  vol.  i.  1892,  p.  132.) IsCHNOCOLaE. 

Havinga  Wood-Mason's  stridulating  organ,  consisting  of  spini- 
form  setffi  on  mandible  and  an  oval  cluster  of  bacilli ; 
without  fringe  of  hairs  on  maxillae.  Tarsal  scopulse  of 
1st,  2nd,  and  3rd  legs  undivided.  (Fauna  of  Brit.  India, 
Aracbn.,  E.  I.  Pocock,  190O.'>.^ Selenocosmie^, 


244  MR.  H.  B,  HOGG  ON  [June  4 

Group  ISOHNOCOLE^. 

This  group  has  been  formed  on  the  distinction  of  the  tarsal 
scopulse  being  divided  by  a  line  of  setse ;  but,  as  shown  by  Mr. 
Pocock  (Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  6,  vol.  xvi.  (1895)  pp".  225- 
230),  among  those  species  which  in  an  adult  state  have  an 
integral  scopula,  it  is  always  more  or  less  divided  in  its  earlier 
stages,  and  also  that  a  considerable  number  of  types  of  described 
species  of  Isclinocolus  Auss.  are  certainly  the  young  of  members 
of  other  genera ;  so  that  it  is  possible  that  this  may  be  the  case  with 
the  only  one  recorded  in  Australia. 

Grenus  Ischngcoltjs  Auss. 

Ischnoeolus  Auss.  Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges.  "Wien,  Bd.  xxi.  (1871) 
p.  184. 

Type,  /.  holosericeus  Auss. 

ISCHNOCOLUS  LUCUBEAKS  L.  Koch. 

Isclinocolus  lucuhrans  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  (1874)  p.  487 ; 
Auss.  Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien,  Bd.  xxv.  (1875)  p.  173. 

This  species  is  unknown  to  me.  It  is  distinguished  (sec.  Auss.) 
by  the  underside  of  metatarsus  ii.  having  no  spines  at  the  fore 
end,  and  by  the  rear-side  and  middle  eyes  being  equally  large — 
points  also  applicable  to  Selenocosmia  crassipes  L.  Koch.  Seleno- 
cosmia  is,  of  course,  easily  distinguishable  by  its  stridulating  organs, 
which  Mr.  Pocock  has  shown  (loc.  cit.)  that  several  so-called 
Ischnocoli  possess. 

Herr  Koch's  type  of  this  species  is  not  available.  I  leave  the 
record  as  it  stands,  but  the  presence  of  the  genus  in  Australia 
requires  confirmation. 

Group  Selenocosmib^. 

Synopsis  of  Australian  Genera. 

Eear  legs  less  stout  and  not  longer  than  front  legs.     Front 

row  of  eyes  straight  or  procurved   Selenocosmia  Auss. 

Eear  legs  longer  and  stouter  than  front  pair.     Front  row  of 

eyes  recurved Selenotypus  Pocock, 

Genus  Selenocosmia  Auss. 

Selenocosmia  A.  Ausserer,  Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien,  Band  xx. 
(1871)  p.  204. 

Phrictus  L.  Koch,  Arachn.  Austr.  (1874)  p.  488  {nom.  prceocc). 

Phlogius  E.  Simon,  Bull.  Soc.  Ent.  Er.  (6)  vol.  vii.  (1887) 
p.  cxcv  ;  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  (1892)  p.  146. 

Selenocosmia  Auss.,  E.  1.  Pocock,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist, 
ser.  6,  vol.  xv.  (1895)  p.  170;  ibid.  vol.  xvi.  (1895;  p.  229, 

Type,  S.  javanensis  Walck. 


1901.] 


AUSTEALIAN  SPIDEBS. 


Synopsis  of  Species. 


245 


Line  joining  centres  of  front  row  of  eyes  straight. 

Eyes   in  same   about  equal  in  size.      Legs  whole- 
coloured  throughout  S.  stirlingi,  n.  sp. 

Line  joiniug  centres  of  front  row  of  eyes  procurved.     2. 

(Male.)     First  and  fourth  pairs  of  legs  about  equal 
in  length.    In  the  front  row  of  eyes  a  line  touching 
the  lower  part  of  the  middle  pair  passes  through 
the  centres  of  the  latei'als.  Femur  i.  &  ii.  chocolate-  ,   o  „,,>•„  „    „„ 
bro^vn  underneath 1  ^iS  crca-ine&'Li  Koch 

(Female.)     First  pair  of  legs  distinctly  longer  than  ^  '     "  -^        ' 

the  fourth.  Front  row  of  eyes  so  far  procurved 
that  a  line  touching  the  lower  points  of  the  middle 
pair  passes  above  the  side-eyes  (sec.  Thor.)    8.  strenua  Thor. 

Selenocosmia  cbassipes  L.  Koch. 

Phrictus  crassipes  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  (1874)  p.  490. 
Phlogius  crassipes  E.  Simon,  loe.  cit. 

Selenocosmia  stirlingi,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  27.) 

Text-fig.  27. 


Selenocosmia  stirlingi.     a.  Male  palpal  organ  ;  h,  extremity,  enlarged 
from  upper  and  under  sides,     c.  Eyes. 

This  species  has  a  wider  range  over  Australia  apparently  than 
any  other  of  the  group.  I  have  met  with  specimens  from  New 
Gruinea  through  Queensland  to  about  the  northern  border  of  New 
South  Wales,  through  Central  and  South  Australia,  to  lat.  25°  30', 
and  in  Western  Australia  from  the  latitude  of  Perth.     Until  the 


246  ME.  H.  B.  HOGG  ON  [June  4 

male  was  known  it  was  supposed  to  be  L.  Koch's  S.  crassipes, 
from  whicli  it  differs  in  the  coloration  of  the  legs. 

To  many  female  specimens  I  have  only  seen  one  male,  sent  to 
the  British  Museum  from  Crown  Point  Station,  S.  Australia. 

The  measurements  (in  millimetres)  compare  as  follows : — 

Female. 
Long.  Broad. 

Cephalothorax     . .        18  <  ,g 

Abdomen     28  20 

Mandibles    ......  6|- 

Pat.  &  Metat. 

Coxa.  Tr.  &fem.  tib.  &tars. 

Legs     1.        9          17  17  15  =  58 

2.  8           14  14  14  =  50 

3.  7           12  12  14  =  45 

4.  8           16  16  18  =  58 
Palpi 9          12  12  7  =  40 

Male. 
Long.  Broad. 

Cephalothorax     . .        16  14 

Abdomen     VJ\  14     Spinnerets  8. 

Mandibles 6 

Pat.  &  Metat. 

Coxa.  Tr.  &  fern.  tib.  &  tars. 

Legs    1.        81        18  19  18  =  Q^ 

2.  7          16  171  16  =  561 

3.  6           14  15  19  =  54 

4.  7          17  18  22  =  64 
Palpi 61         13  14  4  =  37^ 

The  point  of  the  stigma  of  palpal  bulb  of  male  is  broadened 
into  a  flattened  scoop,  but  not  to  the  same  extent  as  in  S.  vuljnna, 
n.  sp.,  below. 

Selenocosmia  strekua  Thor. 

Selenocosmia  strenua  Thor.  Ann.  Mus,  Genova,  vol.  xvii.  (1881) 
p.  253. 

Described  from  an  adult  female  from  Somerset,  Cape  York 
(Gulf  of  Carpentaria). 

This  species  is  unknown  to  me ;  but  the  Austrahan  Museum  at 
Sydney  possesses  specimens  from  New  Guinea,  identified  by 
Mr.  W.  J.  Eambow,  P.L.S. 

SELEifocosMiA  VULPINA,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  28,  p.  247.) 

Male. — Colour.  The  cephalothorax  is  black-brown,  covered  with 
short  matted  yellowish-brown  hair  which  extends  over  the  whole 
of  the  falces  but  is  longer  on  the  lower  half.     The  sheath-fringe 


1901.] 


AUSTBAlilAN  SPIDERS. 


247 


is  darker  reddish  brown.  Lip  and  maxillae  bright  red ;  sternum 
dark  brown.  The  legs  and  palpi  yellowish  brown  above,  darker 
and  redder  on  tarsi  and  metatarsi.  The  coxae  of  all  legs,  and  the 
underside  of  the  femur  and  trochanter  of  1st  and  2nd  pairs  are  a 
rich  chocolate-brown.  Scopulae  a  dirty  dark  brown.  Abdomen 
above  is  a  rather  pale  reddish  brown,  yellower  underneath  ;  spin- 
nerets darker. 

The  cephaloihorax  is  a  tenth  part  longer  than  broad,  tapering  at 
front  and  rear  to  little  more  than  half  its  greatest  breadth. 
Thoracic  fovea  procurved. 

Text-fig.  28. 


Selenoeosmia  vulpina.    a.  Palpal  bulb  from  above  ;  b,  ditto  from  beneath, 
c.  Whole  of  palp.     d.  Eyes.    e.  Profile. 

The  eye-space  is  about  twice  as  wide  as  long,  a  good  deal 
raised,  the  prominence  extending  1^  times  the  diameter  of  the 
front  middle  eyes  beyond  them,  to  over  the  margin  of  the  clypeus. 

The  front  row  of  eyes  is  rather  procurved;  the  middle  pair  being 
three-fourths  of  their  diameter  apart.  The  oval  side-eyes  obliquely- 
set,  once  and  a  half  the  diameter  of  middle  and  once  and  a  half 
their  diameter  away  from  middle.  (A  line  across  the  top  of  the 
middle  eyes  passes  quite  clear  of  the  laterals,  across  the  bottom 


248  ME.  H.  E.  HOGG  OK  [June  4, 

about  through  their  centre.)  The  rear  side-eyes,  oval,  have  their 
long  diameter  equal  to  that  of  the  front  middle.  The  rear  middle 
eyes  are  truncate  posteriorly,  half  the  diameter  of  the  rear  side 
therefrom,  the  line  joining  the  centres  of  the  four  being  slightly 
recurved.  Front  and  rear  laterals  clearly  separated.  The  front 
middle  eyes  have  yellow  rims  with  black  centres. 

The  mandibles  are  as  long  as  the  front  patella,  thickly  clothed 
with  short  down-lying  hair  merging  into  longer  at  the  front  end 
and  on  the  inner  side  of  the  fals.     Fangs  rather  long. 

The  onaxillce  are  divergent,  the  base  being  curved  round  the  lip 
to  a  narrowish  heel  at  the  outer  corner.  There  is  a  bunch  of 
numerous  club-shaped  spines  about  the  middle  of  the  base.  The 
upper  inner  corner  alongside  the  insertion  of  the  trochanter  is 
moulded  into  a  small  rounded  protuberance. 

The  Z?j:>  is  unfortunately  broken  and  its  form  not  distinguish- 
able. 

The  abdomen  is  oval,  long  and  narrow,  thickly  covered  with  a 
mat  of  rather  long  bristly  hair,  but  no  spines.  The  superior 
spinnerets  straight  and  tapering,  one  half  the  length  of  femur  and 
trochanter  iv. 

The  ijaljn  are  comparatively  short.  The  femoral  joint  incurved, 
the  patellar  and  tibial  joints  covered  with  long  bushy  hair ;  meta- 
tarsal quite  short.  The  bulb  is  rather  large  and  well  rounded, 
twisting  at  the  top  so  that  the  stigma,  which  in  length  equals 
twice  the  diameter  of  the  bulb,  proceeds  from  the  inner  side  of 
the  basal  portion.  The  apex  of  the  stigma  is  much  dilated  (as  in 
S,  lanipes  Auss.  Arachn.  Austr.  1875,  p.  187  &  plate),  but  the  bulb 
is  much  more  globular. 

The  legs  are  powerful,  the  front  pair  being  thicker  than  the 
rear,  and  thickly  covered  with  long  bushy  hair.  The  scopula  on 
the  fourth  metatarsi  reach  slightly  beyond  half-way  up  the  joint, 
but  merges  into  bristles.  There  are  no  spines  or  marks  of  them 
visible  on  any  of  the  legs. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 


Long 

Broad. 

Cephalothorax 

161 

f    8  front. 
1  15  middle 

Abdomen     . . . 

• . . 

18 

10 

Spinnerets  4,  3 

9-1 

=  91. 

Pat.& 

Me  tat. 

Ooxa.    Tr.&fem.      tib. 

&  tars. 

Legs 

1. 

8 

19           24 

19 

= 

70 

2. 

8 

17           18 

17 

= 

60 

3.' 

7 

14           15 

17 

= 

53 

4. 

7 

18i        21 

23 

:=:  : 

69i 

Pabi 

7 

13           14 

4 

= 

38 

This  species  (a  single  male  from  Cape  Upstart,  near  Bowen, 
Queensland,  dried  specimen  in  Brit.  Mus.  jN.  H.  received  in  1873) 


1901.]  AUSTEALIAlSr  SPIDERS  249 

is  very  much  smaller  than  S.  lanipes  Auss.,  which  it  somewhat 
resembles,  the  cephalothorax  being  only  two-thirds  the  length. 
The  colouring  is  apparently  lighter,  no  bare  streaks  on  patellae 
and  femora  nor  on  inner  side  of  rear  femora. 

The  1st  and  4th  pairs  of  legs  are  about  equal  in  length,  instead 
of  4th  much  longer,  and  3rd  shorter  than  2Qd  instead  of  slightly 
longer.  The  process  of  the  palp  is  not  so  much  curled  though  the 
end  is  about  the  same  in  shape. 

Coraing  from  the  same  neighbourhood,  this  may  prove  to  be  the 
male  (unknown)  of  L.  Koch's  S.  crassipes. 


Genus  Selenottpus  E.  I.  Pocock. 
Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  6,  vol.  xv.  p.  176  (Feb.  1895). 

For  a  Spider,  a  female,  from  Major's  Creek,  Towusville, 
Queensland,  Mr.  Pocock  rightly  constituted  a  new  genus. 

It  differs  from  Selenocosmia  Auss.  in  having  the  cephalic  part  not 
so  much  convex,  the  fovea  deeper  and  more  procurved,  the  front 
row  of  eyes  recurved,  the  oval  laterals  of  same  not  more  than 
three-fourths  the  diameter  of  the  median,  the  rear  median  nearly 
as  large  as  the  front  lateral  and  larger  than  the  rear,  the  whole  of 
the  clearly  recurved  rear  row  rather  widely  separated  one  from 
the  other,  and  the  4th  pair  of  legs  much  longer  as  well  as  stouter 
than  the  1st. 

Type,  S.  plumipes  Pocock. 

Sblenotypus  plumipes  Pocock.     (Text-fig.  29.) 
Selenotypus  plumipes  Pocock,  loc.  cit. 

This  fine  species  is  the  largest  of  all  our  Australian  Spiders, 
having  a  total  length  of  59  mm.     It  is  much  more  thickly  covered 


Selenotypus  plumipes.     Eyes. 


with  hair  than  is  Selenocosmia  crassipes  L.  Koch,  or  indeed  than 
any  others  of  the  group. 

I  make  the  measurements  as  follows,  but  from  a  dried  specimen 
it  IS  difficult  to  take  them  with  perfect  accuracy. 


250 


ME.  H.  E.  HOGG  ON 


[June  4, 


Measurements  in  millimetres. 


Long. 


Broad. 


Cephalothorax     ..        22^        { n/^^dle. 

Abdomen     30  20 

Mandibles    7 

Pat.  &        Metat, 

Coxa.  Tr.  &  fern.  tib. 

Legs    1.       10  17|  191 

2.  8  15  16 

3.  7  15  14 

4.  9  19  22 
Palpi 10  13  15 


&  tars. 


15 

z= 

62 

14^ 

= 

53i 

16 

= 

52 

24 

z;: 

74 

n 

= 

45i 

Subfamily  DiplueiNjE. 

This  subfamily  is  distinguished  by  having  three  claws,  no  rastel- 
lum,  and  the  lip  free.  The  superior  mammillae  vary  from  less  than 
one-third  the  length  of  the  cephalothorax  {Hadronyche  L.  Koch) 
to  more  than  the  whole  length  (GetJiegiis  Thorell).  The  group 
Masteriece,  though  represented  in  New  Guinea  and  the  Pacific 
Islands,  has  not  been  found  in  Australia  or  New  Zealand. 

The  genera  resolve  themselves  into  fairly  definite  groups  as 
follows : — 

1.  Six  spinnerets HEXATi-iELEiE. 

Four  spinnerets  only 2. 

2.  Tarsal  claws  with  two  rows  of  pectinations.     Inferior 

niammill£e  near  together  (not  more  than  2  diameters 
apart).  Tarsi  nnbespined.  Scopul«  on  front  two 
pairs  of  tarsi  and  at  least  partially  on  same  metatarsi. 
No  teeth  on  the  outer  margin  of  the  falx-sheath. 
Sternal  sigillse  of  moderate  size  and  marginal.  Front 
row  of  eyes  procurved.     Superior  spinnerets  generally 

not  exceeding  half  the  length  of  the  cephalothorax Beachvthele  j;. 

Tarsal  claws  with  one  row  only  of  pectinations 3. 

3.  Inferior  mammillae  widely  separated,  about  4  of  their 

diameters  apart.  No  scopulje  on  any  legs.  No  row  of 
teeth  on  outer  margin  of  falx-sheath.  Sternal  sigillse 
of  moderate  size  and  marginal.    Superior  mammillse  at 

least  not  much  shorter  than  the  cephalothorax  Macrotiiele^. 

Inferior  mammillee  close  together,  about  1  diameter  apart. 
Tarsi  of  all  legs  thickly  bristled  and  bespined.  Two 
rows  (besides  an  intermediate  at  lower  end)  of  teeth 
on  falx-sheath.  Sternal  sigillse  large  and  removed 
from  margin.  Superior  mammillse  short,  hardly  exceed- 
ing two-fifths  the  length  of  the  cephalothorax     Atkace^b. 


Group  Beaohythelb^. 

The  group  into  which  the  genera  hereunder  collected  fall  is 
associated  by  M.  Simon  with  the  genus  Biplura  under  the  name 
of  Diplurece,  In  the  first  place,  however,  we  have  no  genera  to 
record  following  the  Diplura  side  of  it.  Secondly,  as  shown  by 
Mr.  P.  O.  Pickard-Cambridge  (Proc.    Zool.    Soc.    Lond.    1896, 


1901.]  AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS.  251 

p.  716),  at  least  some  of  the  species  hitherto  attributed  to  that 
genus  (Trechona  C.  Koch,  and  those  for  which  he  has  constituted 
the  genera  Harmonicon  F.  0.  P.-C,  and  Melodeus  F.  0.  P.-C,  he. 
cit.)  are  furnished  with  stridiilating  organs ;  and  it  is  not  impos- 
sible that  the  type  species  itself,  D.  macrura  L.  Koch,  may  on 
examination  prove  to  have  them  also,  in  which  case  the  whole 
group  would  require  remodelling.  Thirdly,  the  genera  centring 
around  Brachytliele  Auss.  seem  to  form  a  better  antithesis  to 
M.  Simon's  other  well  distinguished  group  of  Macrotheleoe. 

In  spite  of  the  fact,  therefore,  that  none  of  the  Austrahan 
species  examined  by  me  really  conform  exactly  to  the  genus  itself, 
the  characters  represented  by  Brachytheh  Auss.  seem  to  form  the 
better  natural  group  round  which  to  collect  them,  and  I  have 
adopted  it  as  the  type  genus. 

Synopsis  of  Genera. 

1.  Thoracic  fovea  procurved.     Tarsi  and  metatarsi  of 

front  two  pairs  scopiilated  but  not  to  full  length 
of  latter.     3rd  Joint  of  superior  spinnerets  not 
longer  than  the   1st  joint.     Front  row  of  eyes 
procurved  though  in  some  cases  very  slightly    ...     Aname  L.  Koch. 
Thoracic  fovea  straight    2. 

2.  Tarsi  only  of  front  two  pairs  with  seopula.     None 

on  metatarsi.     3rd  joint  of  superior  spinnerets 

longer  than  1st  (or  2nd),  thin  and  tapering  Ixamatus  E.  Sim. 

Metatarsi  of  front  two  pairs  of  legs  at  least  par- 
tially scopulated     3. 

3.  Front  row   of  eyes   procurved,  side   larger   than 

middle.     Tibia  i.  of  male  furnished  with  a  single 
spur  springing  from  an  enlargement  in  the  middle 

of  the  joint , Chenistonia,  n,  gen 

Front  row  of  eyes  straight.  Tibia  i.  of  male  fur- 
nished vrith  an  apical  spur.  i^Sec.  Auss,  ad  ^a,v- 
i&m  B.  platipus.)    Brackt/thele  Auss. 


Grenus  Aname  L.  Koch. 

Brachythele  Ausserer,  Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges.  "Wien,  1871,  p,  174. 

Aname  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  (1873)  p.  469, 

Brachythele  Auss.,  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  i.  p.  180(1892). 

Type,  Aname  pallida  L.  Koch. 

M.  Simon  apparently  considered  {loc.  cit.)  Herr  Koch's  genus 
Aname  to  be  synonymous  with  Ausserer's  older  genus  Brachythele 
(type,  B.  icterica  C.  Koch).  While,  however,  we  have  a  group  of 
several  species  agreeing  with  the  genus  formed  for  A.  pallida, 
they  differ  in  the  following  important  respects  from  Brachythele. 

The  thoracic  fovea  is  procurved  instead  of  straight,  (M.  Simon 
forgives  this.) 

The  front  middle  eyes  (in  A.  arhorea  and  pellucida,  n.  sp.) 
range  up  to  2  diameters  apart,  instead  of  being  (parum  disjuncti) 
near  together.  In  general  the  row  is  procurved  and  not  straight. 
The  rear  middle  eyes  are,  except  in  A.  pellucida,  smaller  than  the 


252  ME.  H.  E.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

rear  side,  instead  of  nearly  equal,  nor  are  the  latter  (except  in 
that  species)  smaller  than  the  front  side-eyes. 

The  two  front  metatarsi  are  scopulated  only  two-thirds  up  the 
joint  instead  of  to  the  base  ;  and  lastly,  but  most  important,  the 
male  has  no  apical  spur  on  tibia  i. 

The  species  may  be  distinguished  as  follows  : — 

1.  The  middle  eyes  of  front  row  less  than  or  about  their 

diameter  apart     2. 

The  middle  eyes  of  front  row  more  than  (more  nearly 
two)  their  diameter  apart  3. 

2.  On  the  upperside  of  the   abdomen  a  black  median 

longitudinal  stripe  with  side  stripes  depending  there- 
from on  a  yellowish  ground.     {Sec.  L.  Koch.)    A.  pallida. 

Dark  grey  above  with  no  recognizable  pattern  A.  grisea,  n.  sp. 

3.  On  back  of  abdomen  two  longitudinal  rows  of  large 

yellow  spots  on  black  ground.     Front  and  rear  side- 
eyes  the  same  length,  rear  middle  shorter ;   front 

row  procurved A.  arborea,  n.  sp. 

Black  median  and  side  stripes  on  yellowish  ground  on 
back  of  abdomen.  Front  side-eyes  longer  than  rear 
side ;  rear  side  and  middle  eyes  of  equal  length ; 
front  row  nearly  straight  A.  pellucida,  n.  sp. 

Aname  pallida  L.  Koch. 

Aname ])aTlida  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  (1873)  p.  469. 

This  species  was  unfortunately  described  by  Herr  Koch  from  a 
newly  moulted  specimen,  at  which  time  the  whole  of  the  cephalo- 
thorax,  mandibles,  fangs,  mouth-parts,  sternum,  &c.,  are  of  a  pale 
yellow  colour,  quite  different  from  the  normal  dark  brown  or 
yellowish  brown ;  and  consequently  the  description  is  deceptive  to 
the  student.  The  yellow-brown  hair  of  the  cephalothorax  looks 
almost  black  or  dark  grey  in  consequence.  The  dark  median 
and  side  stripes  on  abdomen,  and  front  middle  eyes  only  half  a 
diameter  apart,  serve  to  distinguish  it. 

I  have  seen  no  specimen,  however,  which  I  can  recognize  as 
being  the  same. 

Aname  geisea,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  30,  p.  253.) 

Cephalothorax  and  mandibles  a  dull  yellowish  brown,  with  dark 
brown  hairs  and  black  bristles  on  the  latter.  Legs  and  palpi  yellow 
shaded  with  brown,  with  lighter  brown  hairs.  Lip  and  maxillae 
brownish  yellow ;  sternum  and  rear  coxae  bright  golden  yellow 
with  brown  bristles.  Abdomen  above  black,  mottled  with  irregular 
yellow  spots,  with  long  upstanding  hairs  medium  to  pale  brown; 
underneath  yellow,  with  small  black  mottlings  and  long  dark 
brown  hairs.     Spinnerets  pale  yellow,  with  pale  brown  hairs. 

Cephalothorax  rather  oblong,  truncate  both  anteriorly  and  pos- 
teriorly, sides  curving  slightly  towards  the  rear.  Cephalic  part 
rather  high,  sloping  to  its  highest  point  behind  the  eyes,  thence 
rather  downwards  to  the  margin ;  clearly  separated  by  a  long, 
deep,  straight  thoracic  fovea  and  deep  side  striations  from  the 


1901.] 


AUSTRALIAN  SPIDEES. 


253 


thoracic  part,  on  each  side  of  which  are  three  somewhat  oval 
depressions. 

Eyes.  The  front  row  is  only  shghtly  procni'ved  ;  the  two  median 
three  fourths  their  diameter  apart ;  the  side-eyes  farther  away, 
about  one  third  longer  in  diameter  than  the  median.  The  front 
and  rear  side  are  equal  in  diameter  and  almost  contiguous.  The 
middle  eyes  of  rear  row  touch  the  laterals  with  their  upper  corner. 

Stetmum  broad,  shield-shaped,  very  convex.  Sigillse  quite  mar- 
ginal, the  posterior  pair  rather  large. 

Text-fig.  30. 


Aname  grisea.     a.  Eyes. 

Li])  convex,  cup-shaped,  broader  than  long,  sides  rounded,  the 
front  and  rear  edges  both  recurved  and  parallel ;  one  or  two  club- 
shaped  spines.  Maxillae  rather  broad,  straight  in  front,  a  deep 
rounded  heel  at  the  outer  posterior  corner,  thence  curving  inwards 
round  the  lip.  Above  this  incurved  part  a  thick  group  of  club- 
shaped  spines. 

On  inner  margin  of  falx-sheath  8  large  teeth  and  a  few  small 
intermediate  at  the  lower  end. 

The  superior  tarsal  claws  have  two  rows  of  pectinations  of  4  or 
5  each,  the  3rd  claw  without  teeth.  The  tarsi  are  all  unbespined. 
Scopulae  on  the  two  front  pairs  reach  two-thirds  up  the  metatarsi 
also.  The  tibiae  and  metatarsi  are  all  bespined,  and  there  are  three 
short  ones  on  the  anterior  side  of  patella  iii. 

The  inferior  spinnerets  are  their  diameter  apart.  The  superior 
tapering,  the  1st  and  3rd  joints  equally  long,  the  2nd  shorter. 


254  MR.  H.  -R.  HOGG  OK  [June  4, 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 

Long.  Broad. 

Cephalothorax     . .        4  3J 

Abdomen     4  3 

Superior  spinnerets       2i 

Pat,  &       Metat. 

Coxa.  Tr.  &  fem.      tib.           &  tars. 

Legs     1.         If  31          4            3i       =       12| 

2.  If  3            3^          3         =       111 

3.  11  2f          3^           2f       =       10 

4.  If  34          4            4         =       131 
Palpi li  2|          2i          1|-       =         7f 

Three  females  from  Macedon,  Victoria. 

Aname  aeboeea,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  31.) 

Cepbalothorax    deep  yellow,  thinly  covered  with  down-lying 
pale  yellow  hairs  and  a  darker  belt  of  longer  hairs  round  the  margin. 

Text-fiff.  31. 


Aname  arborea.    a.  Eyes. 

Mandibles  yellow-brown,  with  a  longitudinal  belt  of  brown  hair 
beginning  one-fourth  their  length  from  the  base,  thence  widening 
iind  thickening  to  the  lower  end  of  the  falx,  where  the  bristles 
lengthen  and  harden  into  a  light  rastellum.     Sternum,  lip  and 


1901.]  AUSTEAIilAN  SPIDEES.  255 

masillse,  legs  and  palpi  a  bright  golden  yellow,  with  dark  brown 
hairs  and  bristles.  The  abdomen  has  a  black  ground  on  the  upper 
side,  with  a  double  longitudinal  row  of  large  yellow  spots  joined 
anteriorly  and  reaching  to  the  spinnerets  ;  beyond  these  on  the 
side  slopes  smaller  irregular  yellow  spots ;  underneath  a  yellow 
ground  with  a  few  black  mottlings. 

The  eye-space  is  black,  twice  as  wide  as  long.    The  front  middle 
eyes  are  green,  the  remainder  yellow. 

The  front  row  of  eyes  is  clearly  procurved.  On  a  common  pro- 
tuberance of  their  own  the  median  are  1^  diameter  apart  but  only 
one  half  their  diameter  from  the  laterals,  whose  long  diameter  is 
1 1  times  that  of  the  median.  The  rear  row  is  slightly  recurved,  its 
laterals  the  same  siiie  as  the  front  laterals,  are  half  their  diameter 
away.  The  rear  middle  eyes  are  smaller  than  the  laterals,  and  touch 
them  with  their  upper  corner. 

The  falx-sheath  has  7  large  teeth  on  inner  margin  and  2  small 
off  the  row  to  the  outside. 

The  patella  and  tibia  of  all  legs  have  two  bare  long  streaks  with 
an  intervening  row  of  hairs. 

The  superior  spinnerets  have  the  3rd  joint  but  shghtly  longer 
than  the  2nd,  both  being  shorter  than  the  1st. 

In  other  respects  this  agrees  with  the  foregoing  {A.  grisea). 
It  differs  from  A.  pallida  L.  Koch  in  coloration  of  abdomen, 
and  in  the  front  middle  eyes  being  1|  diameter  instead  of  only 
g  diameter  apart. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 

Long.  Broad. 

Cephalothorax    . .        6  4|- 

Abdomen     6  3|- 

Superior  spinnerets       3^ 

Pat.  &      Metat. 

Coxa.  Tr.  &  fern.      tib.         &  tars. 

Legs     1.         21  5i          51-          4         =17^ 

2.  21  41          41           3i       =       15 

3.  2  4            3            3         =       12 

4.  21  51           6            6         =       19| 
Palpi 2  3            21          11       =         9 

Two  females  from  Macedon,  Victoria. 

Aname  pellucida,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  32,  p.  256.) 

Cephalothorax,  legs,  and  mandibles  rather  bright  pale  yellow;  hairs 
brownish  grey.  Cephalic  part  not  so  much  raised  up  as  in  A.  grisea. 
Abdomen  black  above,  with  yellow  side-streaks  5  in  number.  (The 
other  parts  are  pale  cream-colour,  probably  from  recent  moulting.) 

The  eyes  are  all  pale  yellow.  The  front  median,  each  on  a  round 
■black  tubercle,  are  2  diameters  apart.  The  front  side-eyes  are 
longer  than  the  rear  side  Ig  of  their  diameter.  The  long  diameter 
of  the  rear  middle  eyes  is  the  same  as  that  of  their  laterals,  from 
which  they  are  just  clearly  separated.     The  front  middle  are  the 


256 


ME.  H.  R.  HOGG  ON 


[June  4, 


same  distance  (their  diameter)  from  the  rear  middle  and  the  front 
side.  The  centres  of  the  front  row  are  in  a  straight  line,  those  of 
the  rear  row  recurved. 

Text-fiff.  32. 


Aname  peUucida.    Eyes. 


Measurements  in  millimetres. 

Long.         Bi'oad. 
Cephalothorax     . .       8^  6i 

Abdomen    9  5^ 

Mandibles   3 

Superior  spinnerets  2^,  1,  1^  =  4|. 

Pat.  &       Metat. 
Coxa.     Tr.  &fem.       tib.         &tars. 

Legs    1.  4  7  71  6i  =  25 

2.  31  61  7  6  =  23 

3.  3  51  5^  6|  =  201 

4.  31  7  8  8  =  26| 
Palpi 31  51  5  3  =  17 

In  other  points  the  same  as  the  foregoing  (A.  arborea). 

Besides  its  much  greater  size,  this  differs  from  A.  pallida  L. 
Koch  in  the  greater  distance  and  colour  of  its  front  middle  eyes, 
the  equality  in  size  of  its  middle  and  side  eyes  of  rear  row,  the 
straighter  front  row ;  the  1st  and  4th  pairs  of  legs  being  more 
nearly  equal  in  length. 

One  female  from  Macedon. 


Genus  Beachtthele  Auss. 

This  genus  should  have  the  front  row  of  eyes  straight.  Thoracic 
fovea  straight.  Front  tibia  of  male  furnished  with  an  apical  spur. 
Tarsus  and  metatarsus  of  front  two  pairs  fully  scopulated. 

Type,  B.  icterica  C.  Koch. 

On  comparing  the  Australian  with  some  S.- American  specimens 
of  BracJiythelece  recently  to  baud,  they  certainly  agree  in  many 
points.  In  eyes,  spines  of  lip,  shape  of  maxillae  and  sternum, 
and  type  of  superior  mammillae  they  agree.  In  the  Australian  the 
cephalic  part  is  leather  more  raised  up  and  the  fovea  deeper ;  the 
inferior  mammillae  are  nearer  together.  In  the  S, -American  all  the 
tarsi  are  scopulated  instead  of  only  the  front  two  pairs,  and  are 
more  flexuous  instead  of  straight  and  firm. 


1901.]  AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS.  257 

The  generic  differences  of  Aname  Koch  and  loaamatus  Sim. 
are  very  slight,  and  they  might  well  be  combined,  though  they 
can  be  clearly  distinguished  from  Brachythele  Auss.,  and  Hapalo- 
tJiele  Lenz. 


Brachttkble  platipus  Auss. 

Brachythele  platipus  Auss.  Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien,  1875, 
p.  159. 

Described  by  Ausserer  from  a  cephalothorax  only,  from  Herr 
L.  Koch's  collection  and  marked  New  Holland,  without  further 
description. 

The  length  of  cephalothorax  is  7*5  mm.  =  tibia  +  patella  iv.,  as 
in  all  the  species  of  Aname  L.  Koch.  Breadth  of  cephalothorax 
5'8  mm. 

The  front  middle  eyes  are  somewhat  more  than  their  diameter 
apart ;  and  the  hair-covering  of  the  cephalothorax  is  dingy  yellow- 
brown. 

The  description  is  inadequate  to  show  in  what  it  differs  from 
the  species  of  Aname  above  described,  to  which  genus  it  probably 
belongs;  but  I  leave  it  as  given  until  proof  can  be  shown,  from  more 
material,  of  the  genus  to  which  it  should  really  be  attached. 

Grenus  Ixamatus  Simon. 

Lvalus  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  1873,  p.  469  {nom.prceocc). 

Hapalothele  H.  Lenz,  Zool.  Jahrb.  1886,  Band  i.  pp.  396-7. 

Ixamatus  E.  Simon,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Er.  1887,  Bull.  (note). 

Hapalothele  Lenz,  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i. 
p.  180. 

Type,  /.  varius  L.  Koch. 

M.  Simon  gave  the  above  name  to  Herr  Koch's  genus  Ixalus, 
which  name  had  been  used  before,  for  a  group  of  mammals.  He 
subsequently,  however,  referred  it  to  Lenz's  Hapalothele,  type 
H.  reuteri,  from  the  island  of  Nossi-be  off  N.W.  coast  of 
Madagascar. 

In  Lenz's  genus  the  male  has  an  apical  spur  on  tibia  i., 
which  is  not  the  case  in  either  of  the  species  below,  which 
follow  exactly  Ixamatus  Simon.  Further,  the  front  row  of  eyes 
is  straight  or  recurved,  instead  of  procurved  as  in  Ixamatus,  and 
its  members  have  no  scopula,  instead  of  having  tarsi  i.  &  ii.  thickly 
scopulated  ;  moreover  the  tarsal  claws  have  only  one  row  of 
pectinations  apparently  crossing  them,  as  in  the  Macrothelece  and 
Atracece  groups,  whilst  in  the  Australian  species  of  Ixamatus  they 
are  strongly  biseriated. 

The  superior  spinnerets  are  slender,  the  last  joint  tapering  and 
longer  than  either  of  the  others. 

The  thoracic  fovea  is  straight,  and  the  metatarsi  are  not 
scopulated  on  any  of  the  legs. 

Prog.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  XVII.  17 


258  ME.  H.  E.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

The  species  may  be  distinguished  as  follows  : — 

The  front  row  of  eyes  about  equally  large  ...       1. 

Side-eyes  of  front  row  nearly  twice  the  diameter  of 
middle 2. 

1.  Front  row  clearly  procurved.     Palpal  stigma  in  male 

twisted  and  dilated  at  apex  7.  gregorii,  n.  sp. 

—  Front  row  straight.  Palpal  stigma  in  male  tapering 
to  a  point  and  about  the  length  of  the  bulb  {sec. 
L.  Koch)     I.varmsJj.'KoGh.. 

2.  Palpal   stigma   in   male  very    long    and    attenuated 

(twice  the  length  of  bulb) I,  broomi,  n.  sp. 

IxAMATUS  VARIUS  L.  Koch. 

Ixamatus  varius  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  (1873)  p.  469. 

Described  from  a  male  from  Bo  wen,  Queensland :  the  species  is 
unknown  to  me. 

According  to  L.  Koch,  the  legs  are  much  shorter  in  proportion  to 
the  cephalothorax  and  abdomen  than  either  of  the  other  two  species 
described  below ;  his  measurements  being :  ceph.  7  mm.,  abd.  8, 
palpi  10  ;  legs  16,  15, 13,  and  18  mm.  respectively. 

Ixamatus  geegoeii,  n.  sp.    (Text-fig.  33,  p.  259.) 

The  cephalothorax  and  mandibles  are  dark  yellowish  brown, 
with  down-lying  yellow  hair  and  a  belt  of  upstanding  brown 
bristles  round  the  margin  of  the  former  and  on  the  front  of  the 
latter.  A  straight  deep  fovea  and  bare  side-streaks  separate  the 
long  and  rather  narrow  cephalic  part  from  the  thoracic. 

The  legs  and  palpi  are  the  same,  yellowish  brown  shaded  in 
places  with  darker  brown ;  the  tibiae  and  metatarsi  wholly  dark 
brown.  They  are  thickly  covered  with  a  mixture  of  long  yellow, 
grey,  and  brown  bristly  hairs.  The  tarsi  of  the  front  two  pairs 
have  pale  yeJlow,  almost  white  scopulae  which  extend  half-way  up 
the  corresponding  metatarsi. 

The  lip,  maxillae,  sternum,  and  coxae  are  yellow  shaded  with 
brown,  and  furnished  with  upstanding  bristly  brown  hair,  paler  on 
the  coxae. 

The  abdomen  above  is  dark  grey  mottled  with  large  yellow  spots; 
below  yellow,  with  smaller  black  mottlings. 

The  superior  spinnerets  are  pale  yellow  above,  greyer  under- 
neath, with  yellowish-grey  hairs. 

This  differs  from  /.  broomi  in  having  the  front  and  rear  side- 
eyes  equal  in  diameter  to  the  front  middle,  which  are  half  their 
diameter  apart ;  in  having  the  last  joint  of  the  superior  spinnerets 
equal  in  length  to  the  second  and  shorter  than  the  first.  The 
legs  much  more  bristly;  the  thoracic  fovea  straighter;  a  few 
spines  on  the  front  of  the  lip ;  the  style  of  the  male  palp  short  and 
curling,  the  length  only  of  the  bulb. 

The  tarsi  also  are  weak  and  sinuous,  the  front  two  metatarsi 
partially  scopulated,  and  on  the  anterior  side  of  patella  iii.  are 
three  short  stout  spines  as  in  Aname  grisea  described  above  (p.  253), 


1901.] 


AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS. 

Text-fig.  33. 


259 


Ixamatus  gregorii.     a.  Male  palp.     b.  Eyes. 


Measurements  in  millimetres. 

Long.          Eroad. 

Cephalothorax ....       4^              3| 

Abdomen     4^              3 

Superior  spinnerets  I5,  1,  1  =  8|. 

Pat.  & 

Metat. 

Coxa.    Tr.  &  fern.      tib. 

&  tars. 

Legs     1.         2^           41           5 

H 

^ 

17 

2.         2             41           4| 

5 

r= 

16| 

3.         If           3|           3| 

^ 

= 

13| 

4.         2             41           5 

6 

= 

I7i 

Palpi   If           21           41 

1 

= 

9| 

This  specimen  (a  male)  from  Macedon,  Victoria,  I  have  named 
after  my  friend  Prof.  Gregory,  of  Melbourne  University. 

17* 


260 


MR.  H.  R.  HOea  ON 


[June  4, 


IxAMATUS  BROOMi,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  34.) 

The  cephalothorax  is  dull  reddish  brown  ;  the  mandibles,  which 
are  paler  and  more  yellow-brown,  have  a  bare  streak  along  the 
outer  edge  and  long  brown  bristles  over  the  remainder.  The 
legs  and  palpi  are  reddish  brown  above,  deep  yellow  underneath, 
with  brown  hair,  bristles  and  spines.  The  lip,  maxillae,  sternum, 
and  coxse  are  bright  golden  yellow. 

Text-fig.  34. 


Ixamatus  broomi. 


a.  Male  palp.     , .  . 

c.  Eyes, 


I.  Tibial  joint  of  first  pair  of  legs. 

'es. 


On  the  underside  of  the  abdomen  the  chitinous  shield  forward 
of  the  breathing-slits  is  bright  golden  yellow,  the  gill-coverings 
and  the  spinnerets  are  the  same  colour,  behind  the  breathing- 
slits  pale  yellow  mottled  with  black.  Along  the  back  is  a  dark 
median  stripe,  on  each  side  of  M'hich  large  yellow  spots  are 
irregularly  distributed  on  a  black  ground. 

The  cephalothorax  is  a  short  oval,  the  cephalic  part  only  slightly 
higher  than  the  thoracic.  The  fovea  is  rather  long  and  deep,  and 
clearly  recurved. 

The  front  row  of  eyes,  seen  from  the  front,  is  slightly  procurved; 
the  median  pair  half  their  diameter  apart,  and  rather  less  from  the 
laterals,  of  m  hich  the  long  diameter  is  once  and  a  half  that  of  the 


1901.]  AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS.  261 

median.  The  rear  row  is  recurved.  The  laterals  in  length  equal 
the  diameters  o£  the  front  middle  eyes.  They  are  clearly  separated 
from  the  still  smaller  rear  middle  eyes. 

The  whole  eye-space  is  well  raised  up,  the  eyes  yellow  on  a 
black  ground. 

The  sternum  is  ovate,  rather  convex,  covered  with  short  stiff 
bristles  ;  the  sigillse  are  nearly  marginal  and  moderately  large. 

The  lip  is  without  spines,  broader  than  long,  rather  straight  at 
the  sides  and  hollowed  in  front.  The  maxillae  are  only  slightly 
hollowed  round  the  lip,  with  a  bunch  of  quite  small  spines  above 
that  portion. 

The  falx- sheath  has  one  row  of  7  medium-sized  teeth  and  no 
intermediate. 

The  legs  and  palpi  are  rather  long  and  slight,  thickly  clothed 
with  stout  upstanding  bristly  hair ;  the  tibiae  and  metatarsi  well 
bespined,  the  front  two  pairs  of  tarsi  have  a  light  scopula  which 
does  not  extend  along  the  metatarsi. 

The  tarsal  claws  are  large  and  have  7  or  8  pectinations  on  the 
inner  edge,  one  less  on  the  outer. 

On  the  underside  of  tibia  i.  of  the  male  are  10  irregularly 
placed  spines,  but  no  spur. 

The  thin,  finely  curved  style  of  the  male  palp  is  21  times  tlie 
length  of  the  genital  bulb. 

The  abdomen  is  oval,  sparsely  covered  with  fine  upstanding 
bristles  on  round  roots.  The  inferior  mammillae  are  two  diameters 
apart.  The  superior  pair  have  the  third  joint  cylindrical  and 
longest,  the  second  shortest. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 

Long.  Broad. 

Cephalothorax  ....       6  5 

Abdomen 4^  4 

Superior  spinnerets  1,  f ,  1^  =  3. 

Pat.  &  Metat. 

Coxa.  Tr.  &  fern.  tib.  &  tars. 

Legs     1.         3  6  51          6-|  =  21 

2.  21  51  5"           51  =  18-1 

3.  2  5  4            5  =  16 

4.  21  6  5|           7  =  21 
Palpi     21  4  4            1  =  11^ 

A  single  male  in  the  British  Museum,  sent  by  Dr.  Broom  from 
Hill  G-rove,  New  South  Wales.  I  have  named  the  species  after 
that  industrious  collector. 

Chbnistonia,  nov.  gen. 

Differs  from  Aname  L.  Koch  in  that  tibia  i.  of  the  male  is 
furnished  with  a  powerful  single  spur  springing  from  an  enlarge- 
ment in  the  centre  of  the  joint.     The  front  row  of  eyes  is  slightly 


262 


ME.  H.  R.  HOGG  OIT 


[June  4, 


procurved,  the  side-eyes  being  larger  than  the  middle.  The  front 
and  rear  side-eyes  are  distinctly  separated.  The  thoracic  fovea  is 
straight. 

Type,  C.  maculata,  n.  sp. 

Chenistonia  maculata,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  35.) 

Cephalothorax  and  mandibles  rich  red-brown.  Palpi  and  legs 
somewhat  paler,  with  fine  down-lying  yellow  hair  and  brown 
upstanding  bristles.  Coxse,  sternum,  lip,  and  maxillse  deep  orange, 
with  upstanding  brown  bristly  hair. 

Abdomen,  above,  black  ground  with  transverse  rows  of  medium- 
sized  yellow  spots,  rather  thick  short  yellow  hair ;  on  the  under- 

Text-fig.  35. 


Chenistonia  mccculata.    a.  Tibial  and  metatarsal  joints  of  first  pair 
oi  legs  of  male.     b.  End  of  palp.     c.  Eyes. 

side  a  yellow  chitinous  shield  in  front,  behind  it  black  and  yellow 

motthngs  witn  brown  hair.   Spinnerets  yellowish  with  yellow  hair. 

Ihe  cephalothorax  is  oblong,  only  slightly  narrower  in  front 

thlX'thoracT'     °^^^  straight;  cephahc  part  not  much  higher 

Front  row  of  eyes  slightly  procurved,  median  pair  their  diameter 
apart ;  laterals  li  diameter  of  former,  i  diameter  distant.     Eear 


1901.]  ATJSTRALIAIf  Si^IDBRS.  263 

row  recurved,  laterals,  the  diameters  of,  or  very  slightly  longer 
than  front  middle,  rear  middle  nearly  as  large.  Front  and  rear 
laterals  clearly  separated. 

Sternum  nearly  round,  convex,  furnished  with  upstanding 
bristles ;  sigillae  rather  round,  marginal,  and  moderate  in  size. 

Lip  small,  only  slightly  broader  than  long,  hollowed  in  front ; 
no  spines.  Maxillse  straight  in  front,  round  at  heel,  thence 
hollowed  round  lip,  the  whole  base  covered  with  thick  club-shaped 
spines. 

The  falx-sheath  has  8  large  teeth  on  the  inner  side  and  5  small 
intermediate  at  the  lower  end. 

The  male  has  a  powerful  lateral  spur  springing  from  an  enlarge- 
ment in  the  middle  of  tibia  i.,  but  none  at  the  apex. 

The  genital  bulb  is  a  long  pear-shape,  with  a  short  stylus  not 
more  than  one-fourth  of  its  length.  The  bulb  springs  from  the 
end  of  a  specially  long  metatarsal  joint  of  the  palp. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 

Female. 
Long.  Broad. 

Cephalothorax   ....        6  4i 

Abdomen 7  4 

Superior  spinnerets  Ij,  1,  11=  3|. 

Pat.  &       Metat. 
Coxa.     Tr.  &fem.       tib.         &tars. 
Legs     1.         2,i  41  5  4         =       15| 

2.  2  4  4  H       =       13| 

3.  I4  ^2  %  ^2  —  ^^4" 

4.  2i  41  5  5         =       16| 
Palpi   1|           31          3^  If       =       101 

Male. 
Long.  Broad. 

Cephalothorax  ....       6  4| 

Abdomen    6  d^ 

Superior  spinnerets  1^,  1,  1^=4. 

Pat.  &      Metat. 
Coxa.     Tr.  &  fern.      tib.        &  tars. 
Legs     1.         21  51  61  51       =       20 

2.  21  41  5  5         =       161 

3.  2  41  4^  5         =       15| 

4.  21  51  5f  6|       =       20^ 
Palpi   2            41          41          11       =       12|- 

Locality.  Macedon,  Victoria. 

Chenistonia  major,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  36.) 

Besides  its  much  larger  size,  though  similar  in  colouring,  this 
differs  from  0.  maculata  in  the  pattern  of  the  upper  part  of  the 
abdomen  having  a  black  median  stripe  with  about  5  pairs  of  mottly 
diagonal  side  stripes  on  a  buS  ground ;  underneath  all  yellow. 


264 


ME.  H.  n.  HO&G  ON 


[June  4, 


The  front  middle  eyes  are  nearer  together,  |  diameter  apart, 
and  the  front  side  only  slightly  larger,  about  1|  diameter.  The 
rear  side  are  the  same  diameter  as  the  front  middle,  the  rear 
middle  broad  and  truncate  at  the  top. 

Text-fig.  36. 


Chenistonia  major.    Eyes 

The  mandibles  are  much  more  heavily  clothed  with  hair  and 
bristles. 

The  superior  maxillsB  are  shorter  in  comparison,  stout  and 
tapering  and  darker  in  colour. 

Also  tarsi  are  scopulated  and  a  portion  of  metatarsi  i.  &  ii. 

Lip  rather  round,  with  3  or  4  spines  in  one  row  in  front. 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 
Long.  Broad. 

Cephalothorax    ....      11  8 

Abdomen 14  10 

Mandibles ^ 

Superior  spinnerets  2,  1^,  2=5|. 

Pat.  &      Metat. 
Gosa.     Tr.  &  fern.       tib.         &tars. 
Legs     ......      1.  5  9  9  8         =31 

2.  4  8i  8i  8         =       29 

3.  3|  7  7  7i       =       25 

4.      4      ^     ^     ^    =    321 

Palpi  4  61  6  3         =       19^ 

Among  a  good  many  females  I  have  not  found  a  male. 
Another  female : — 

Long.         Broad. 
Cephalothorax     ....     11  9 

Abdomen    17  11 

Superior  spinnerets  2\,  1\,  l|=5i.     Sternum  5|  x4. 

Pat.  &  Metat. 

Coxa.  Tr.  &  fern.  tib.  &  tars. 

Legs     ......     1.            5  10  10            9  =34 

2.  ^  9  10            8|  =  32 

3.  4  8  8            9  =  29 

4.  ^  9i  10|  10|  =  35 
Palpi   4  7  7            4  =  22 

Locality.  Upper  Macedon,  Victoria. 


1901.]  AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS.  265 


Group  Macrothele^. 

This  group  is  very  clearly  distinguished  from  the  foregoing  by 
the  greater  length  of  the  superior  mammillse,  which  are  not  much,  if 
any,  shorter  than  the  cephalothorax,  by  the  distance  between  the 
inferior  mammillae,  which  are  some  four  diameters  at  least  apart ; 
the  tarsi  and  metatarsi  of  all  the  legs  being  without  scopulae,  and 
the  tarsal  claws  having  the  pectinations  in  a  single  row  only, 
crossing  the  claw  diagonally  from  one  side  to  the  other.  They 
resemble  one  another  in  the  sternal  sigillse,  which  are  of  moderate 
size  and  marginal,  and  in  having  the  teeth  on  the  falx-sheath  in 
one  row  only  on  the  inner  side,  or  one  row  and  a  small  inter- 
mediate at  the  lower  end. 

The  genera  may  be  distinguished  as  follo-^s  : — 

1.  Mandibles  protruding  horizontally  and  normal...     2. 
Mandibles    short,    strongly   kneed   at    base  and 

nearly   perpendicular  (as    in  Migas  L.  Koch, 

sec.  Thor.) Cethegus  Thor. 

2.  Front  row  of   eyes  procurved.     Lip  smooth  or 

only  bespined  at  apex ;  all  tarsi  generally  be- 
spined ;  all  legs  the  same  thickness ;  last  joint 
of  spinnerets  not  longer  than  the  middle,  but 

finer,  smooth  and  straight Stenygrocercus  B.  Sim. 

Front  row  of  eyes  straight  or  lightly  procurved. 
Lip  profusely  bespined  nearly  to  base;  last 
joint  of  spinnerets  as  long  as,  or  longer  than 
second  3. 

3.  No  spines  on  tarsi.     Front  pair  of  legs  stouter 

than  others  Porrhothele  Sim. 

All  tarsi  bespined.  First  and  fourth  pairs  of  legs 
the  same  thickness Macrothele  Auss. 


Grenus  Cethegus  Thorell. 

Cethegus  Thorell,  Ann.  Mus.  G-enova,  1881,  p.  241. 

This  genus,  formed  for  a  specimen  brought  from  Cape  York  by 
d'Albertis,  I  only  connect  provisionally  with  this  group.  It  is 
unknown  to  me ;  and  although  {sec.  Thor.)  it  has  very  long 
spinnerets,  the  form  of  the  mandibles  would  seem  to  make  it 
doubtful  whether  it  should  not  rather  be  joined  to  the  Migince. 

Cethegus  lugubris  Thor.,  he.  cit. 

Grenus  Porrhothele  Simon. 

Mygale  Walck.  Ins.  Apt.  vol.  i.  1837  (ad  part,  antipodiana). 
Oteniza  White,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1849,  p.  3  (ad  part,  hexops  and 
mitipodurii). 

Hexops  Auss.  1871  (ad  part,  tvhitei). 
Macrothele  Cambr.  1873  (ad  part,  huttoni). 


MR.  H.  E.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

Macroihele  Simon,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  1891,  p.  307  (ad  part. 
insignipes). 

Porrhothele  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  (1892)  p.  185. 

Type,  P.  antipodiana  Walck. 

This  is  evidently  the  New  Zealand  form  o£  the  genus  Macrothele 
Auss. ;  but  the  only  real  difference  between  the  two  is  that,  whereas 
in  the  latter  {sec.  Auss.)  the  tarsi  are  all  bespined,  in  the  corre- 
sponding species  of  New  Zealand  they  are  without  spines  and 
the  front  pair  of  legs  is  somewhat  stouter  than  the  others. 

M.  Simon  makes  the  lip  in  Macroihele  only  bespined  at  the  apes, 
but  in  comparing  the  type  species  M.  calpetana  Walck.  with  the 
New  Zealand  specimens,  I  find  no  difference  in  this  respect,  the 
lip  of  both  being  profusely  bespined  to  nearly  the  base.  The 
front  row  of  eyes  in  Porrhothele  is  straight  or  slightly  procurved 
according  to  the  point  of  view. 

M.  Simon  says  {loc.  cii.  &  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Er.  1891,  p.  307)  that 
in  P.  antipodiana  the  eyes  of  the  front  row  are  slightly  recurved. 
He  has  seen  the  type  specimen,  while  I  have  not ;  but  I  would  point 
out  that  Baron  Walckenaer,  though  he  is  not  quite  clear  in  his 
original  description,  rather  suggests  the  contrary  i,  that  no  speci- 
men has  been  since  described  with  the  row  in  question  recurved, 
and  the  type  specimen,  I  think  a  dried  one,  is  between  60  and 
70  years  old,  under  which  circumstances  examination  is  difficult 
and  likely  to  be  deceptive  through  shrinkage. 

Amongst  some  Spiders  sent  me  by  Prof.  Dendy  from  Canterbury, 
N.Z.,  unfortunately  all  females,  there  are  two  distinguishable 
species  of  this  genus,  and  I  have  little  doubt  that  this  includes  all 
therefrom.  It  has  not  so  far  been  met  with  on  the  mainland 
of  Australia,  but  Mr.  Urquhart  has  described  a  species  from 
Tasmania  {M.  acideata,  Proc.  E,.  Soc.  Tasm.  1893,  p.  94),  so  it 
is  not  unlikely  that  it  may  be  found  somewhere  on  the  mainland. 

I  distinguish  the  species  as  follows  : — 

Front  middle  eyes  not  quite  their  diameter  apart ; 
thoracic  fovea  deep  and  round.  Oephalothorax 
bright  orange  or  light  red,  with  dark  median 
stripe  from  eyes  to  fovea ;  mandibles  black- 
brown  P.  antipodiana  Walck. 

Front  middle  eyes  their  full  diameter  apart  (at  least 
in  female) ;  thoracic  fovea  long  and  transversely 
straight.  Oephalothorax  and  mandibles  rich 
chocolate-brown P.  simoni,  n.  sp. 

POBEHOTHELE  ANTIPODIANA  Walck. 

Mygale  antipodiana  Walck.  Hist.  Nat.  des  Ins.  Apt.  vol.  i. 
(1837)  p.  230. 

Mygale  quoyi  Lucas,  in  d'Orbigny,  Diet.  d'Hist.  nat.  vol.  viii. 
p.  503. 

Cteniza  hexops  White,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1849,  p.  3. 

1  "  Les  yeux  intermediaires  anterieurs  ....  sont  sur  la  meme  ligne  que  les 
laberaux  exterieurs." 


1901.]  AUSTEALIAN  SPIDERS.  26.7 

Gteniza  antvpodum  "White,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1849,  p.  3. 

Hexops  tvhitei  Auss.  Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien,  1871,  p.  155. 

Macrothele  huttonii  Cambr.  Trans.  &  Proc.  JST.  Z.  Inst.  vol.  vi. 
(1873)  p.  200. 

Macrothele  huttonii  Cambr.,  A.  T.  Urquhart,  ibid.  vol.  xxiv. 
(1891)  p.  221. 

Macrothele  insignipes  Simon,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  1891,  p.  308. 

Macrothele  (or  Hexops)  Auss.,  R.  I.  Pocock,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat. 
Hist.  ser.  6,  vol.  xvi.  (1895)  p.  224. 

Porrhothele  antipodiana  Walck.,  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign. 
vol.  i.  (1892)  p.  185. 

This  species  was  originally  described  by  Baron  "Walckenaer  in 
1837,  from  a  specimen  collected  in  New  Zealand  and  brought  to 
Paris  by  Messrs.  Quoy  &  Gaimard.  It  would  appear  to  be  fairly 
common  in  New  Zealand,  and  has  certainly  been  the  subject  of 
several  descriptions  since,  but  some  so  vaguely  drawn  as  to  leave 
the  cbaraeteristics  of  their  types  a  matter  of  considerable  doubt. 

Tbe  'Erebus'  and  'Terror'  Expedition  brought  bome  several 
specimens  in  1847,  in  various  stages  of  growth,  from  which 
Mr.  Adam  White  described  two  species  under  the  names  of  Gteniza 
antipodum  and  Gteniza  hexops  respectively. 

Fortunately  the  types  of  these  (two  each)  are  preserved  in  the 
British  Museum,  and  Mr.  Pocock  (loc.  cit.)  has  shown  that  they 
are  both  the  same.  They  are  certainly  also  the  same  as  two  larger 
specimens  of  mine  (from  Canterbury  as  aforesaid,  p.  266). 

Baron  Walckenaer's  original  description  of  his  type  specimen 
of  antipodiana  further  agrees  with  these.  (One  of  the  names 
chosen  by  Mr.  White  rather  suggests  that  he  had  himself  a 
suspicion  that  he  might  be  dealing  with  this  species.) 

M.  Simon  says  that  his  Macrothele  insignipes  differs  from 
M.  antipodiana,  but  the  only  difference  he  quotes  is  the  differ- 
ence in  size,  which  goes  for  very  little  in  the  females  ;  and  also 
he  says  that  the  front  row  of  eyes  of  antipodiana  is  recurved, 
which  I  think,  from  reasons  given  above,  must  be  taken  as 
doubtful.  His  very  careful  description  applies  word  for  word  to 
my  specimens. 

Mr.  Cambridge's  description  of  his  P.  huttoni  has  no  points 
which  disagree  with  these  or  by  which  a  different  species  can  be 
established. 

I  therefore  conclude  that,  at  least  until  some  difference  is  shown 
between  the  males,  the  whole  of  these  species  with  pale  red  or 
orange  cephalothorax  are  really  the  same,  and,  moreover,  the  same 
as  Walckenaer's  type-specimen  of  antipodiana. 

The  unusuaDy  bright  colour  of  the  cephalothorax,  with  darker  area 
about  the  eye-space,  dark  line  from  eye-space  to  the  thoracic  fovea, 
which  is  deep  and  round ;  front  middle  eyes  as  large  as  side-eyes 
and  less  than  their  diameter  apart ;  black-brown  mandibles  ;  black 
or  dark  abdomen,  with  large  round  bronchial  opercula  yellow  at 


71 

in 

31 

7* 

= 

31 

8 

^ 

29 

H 

= 

321 

268  MB.  H.  B.  HO&G  ON  [  June  4, 

the  margins  and  brown  inside,  are  features  common  to  all  the 
descriptions.  The  measurements  of  the  largest  specimen  I  have 
are  as  follows  (in  millimetres) : — 

Long.  Broad. 
Cephalothorax  ....          12  10 

Abdomen 13^  11 

Superior   spinnerets         10| 

Pat.  &        Metat. 

Coxa.  Tr.  &  fern.  tib.          &  tars. 

Legs    1.            5  91           9 

2.  5  91          9 

3.  4  81          81 

4.  41  91           9 
Palpi 41  61          5            4         =       20 

.The  superior  tarsal  claws  have  about  7  pectinations  (in  one  row 
crossing  the  claw). 

Tibia  iv.  above  has  1  pair  of  spines  in  front,  2  pairs  in  middle 
close  together,  and  1  spine  on  outer  side  between. 

Metatarsus  i.  has  1  pair  of  spines  in  front  and  1  spine  in  middle 
of  underside. 

On  the  inner  margin  of  the  falx-sheath  are  about  11  irregularly 
sized  teeth,  with  8  smaller  in  a  row  at  the  lower  end  intermediate 
between  the  two  edges. 

As  is  well  known,  Mr.  White,  after  his  description  of  Cteniza 
heccops,  mentions  (casually  in  a  postscript)  that  it  has  only  six  eyes, 
on  which  statement  Herr  Ausserer  constituted  a  new  genus. 
Hence  arose  the  discussion  (Pocock,  loc.  cit.)  as  to  whether,  on  the 
discovery  that  the  supposed  type  specimen  had  eight  eyes,  the 
generic  name  Hexops  Auss.  should  or  should  not  stand  in  place  of 
the  later  named  genera. 

The  eyes  of  this  species  are  so  particularly  large  and  distinct, 
that  it  is  difficult  to  believe  that  anyone  looking  at  it  sufficiently 
closely  to  describe  a  new  species  could  possibly  have  made  such  a 
mistake  as  that  attributed  to  Mr.  White. 

I  happen  to  have  a  specimen  (of  P.  simoni,  n.  sp.)  with  one  side- 
eye  missing  from  the  front  row,  without  the  faintest  mark  of  its 
ever  having  been  there,  and  have  had  similar  experience  in  other 
genera.  Now  if  Mr.  White's  specimen  had  similarly  lost  two 
corresponding  eyes,  he  may  well  have  made  the  observation  he  did ; 
and  afterwards  substituted  for  the  type  dupUcate  specimens,  instead 
of  the  one  he  had  pulled  about  and  perhaps  broken.  In  that  case 
the  type  specimen  of  Ausserer's  genus  would  simply  have  been  un- 
wittingly destroyed,  and  when  a  similar  one  reappears  the  genus, 
out  of  respect  to  its  founder,  can  come  back  into  our  lists.  Apart 
from  this  there  must  surely  be  an  implied  authority  to  rectify  any 
obvious  mistake,  as  when  a  name  intended  to  be  descriptive  through 
an  error  (or  carelessness)  becomes  misdescriptive. 


1901.] 


AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS. 


269 


PoRRHOTHELE  siMONi,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  37.) 

Mandibles  black.  Cephalothorax  and  sternum  rich  shining  dark 
brown.  Coxae,  lip,  and  maxillae  rather  lighter  brown.  Legs  and 
palpi  medium  reddish  brown,  with  brown  hairs,  bristles,  and  spines. 
Abdomen  dull  black -brown,  with  small  yellow  spots  here  and  there 
and  rather  rough  corrugations  ;  hair  yellow-brown.  Gill-covers 
brown,  edged  with  yellow.  Spinnerets  dark  brown.  The  cephalic 
part  is  only  moderately  raised ;  fovea  deep  and  straight  or  slightly 
procurved. 

The  front  row  of  eyes  is  slightly  procurved,  the  median  pair 
their  diameter  apart.  Laterals  scarcely,  if  any,  larger,  and  half 
that  distance  away.  The  rear  row  is  recurved,  the  laterals  the 
same  size  as  the  front  and  three-quarters  of  the  diameter  away. 
The  rear  median  are  two-thirds  the  diameter  of  the  others,  rather 
square,  half  as  far  from  the  rear  side  as  the  front  middle. 

The  falx-sheath  has  10  large  and  2  small  (1st  and  6th)  teeth 
on  its  inner  margin,  with  a  median  row  of  8  small  teeth  at  the 
lower  end. 

Text-fig.  37. 


Po7'rhothele  simoni.     a.  Eyes.     b.  Profile. 

The  sternum  is  a  broad  oval,  flat,  with  thin  upstanding  brown  hair. 
The  sternal  sigillse  are  moderately  large  and  quite  marginal. 

The  lip  is  rather  square,  straight  in  front,  and  very  convex.  It 
is  profusely  covered  with  club-shaped  spines  from  front  nearly  to 
base.  The  maxillae  are  broad,  with  a  protuberant  inner  front  corner, 
a  thick  group  of  club-shaped  spines  reaches  to  two-thirds  the 
length. 

The  superior  tarsal  claws  are  large,  with  one  row  of  11  pectina- 
tions, longest  in  the  middle,  running  diagonally  across  the  claws. 
The  inferior  tarsal  claw  is  smooth.  The  female  palp-claw  has 
six  pectinations.  The  inferior  spinnerets  are  long,  and  about  four 
of  their  diameters  apart.  The  superior  pair  have  the  first  and  third 
joints  equal  and  longer  than  the  second. 

The  abdomen  is  oval,  high,  and  rounded  at  the  sides. 


270  MR.  H.  R.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 
Long.        Broad. 
Cephalothorax  ....         11^  7  in  front, 

10  in  middle. 

Abdomen 14  11 

Sternum    5  4| 

Superior  spinnerets  3|,  2^,  3|=8|. 

Pat.  &  Metat. 

Coxa.     Tr.  &  fern.      tib.  &  tars. 

Legs    1.         5             9            9  8       =       31 

2.  5            9             9  8       =       31 

3.  4            8            8  9       =       29 

4.  4            9A  10  10       =       331 
Palpi    ........                4            61          51  3i     =       19i 

Two  females  from  Christchurch,  N.Z. 

Genus  Stenygeooeecus  E.  Simon. 

Macrothele  E.  Simon,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Er.  1888,  p.  245  (ad  part. 
silvicola). 

Stenygrocerms  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Araign.  vol.  i.  (1892) 
p.  185. 

Type,  S.  silvicola  Simon. 

M.  Simon  has  constituted  the  genus  Stenygrocercus,  with  a 
New  Caledonian  species  as  type,  in  which  the  lip  is  rather 
square,  both  that  and  the  maxillse  free  from  spines.  The  superior 
mammillse  have  the  first  and  second  joints  of  about  equal  length, 
the  last  joint  being  not  longer  than  middle,  and  the  whole  slim,  the 
first  two  joints  about  four  times  as  long  as  wide.  In  many  cases, 
if  not  always,  the  second  joint  of  the  superior  mammillae  all  through 
this  family  is  certainly  retractile,  and  its  comparative  length  there- 
fore difficult  to  estabHsh  unless  fully  extended.  Apart  from  this, 
however,  the  great  diff'erence  between  the  unbespined  lip  and  maxillae 
in  this  genus,  and  the  profuse  bespining  of  both  in  the  two  genera 
Macrotliele  and  PorrJiotJiele,  is  a  good  generic  characteristic.  There 
is  no  obvious  thickening  of  the  first  pair  of  legs  as  in  PorrJiothele. 

The  front  middle  eyes  are  much  smaller  than  the  side,  thus 
greatly  differing  from  those  of  Porrliotliele. 

Stentgeoceecits  beoomi,  n.  sp.     (Text-fig.  38,  p.  271.) 

Cephalothorax,  mandibles,  sternum,  and  coxae  deep  chocolate- 
brown  ;  eye-space  and  mandibular  fangs  black.  Legs  and  palpi, 
lip  and  maxillse  rather  lighter,  edges  of  the  latter  paler  and  ruddier. 
Eront  median  eyes  greenish,  remainder  bright  yellow.  Hairs  on 
cephalothorax  yellowish,  on  legs,  palpi,  and  sternum  dark  brown. 
Abdomen  dark  grey  ground,  with  small  paler  yellow-brown  pit- 
marks  over  the  upper  surface. 

The  cephalothorax  is  Ij  mm.  longer  than  broad,  only  slightly 
narrowing  in  front  and  rear.  A  deep  round  fovea  and  four  well.- 
marked  depressions  on  either  side. 


1901,]  AUSTEAMAN  SPIDEES.  271 

The  raised  eye-space  twice  as  long  as  broad  and  half  its  breadth 
from  the  edge  of  the  carapace.  The  front  row  of  eyes  is  procurved. 
Laterals  2|  times  the  diameter  of  the  median,  the  latter  one  diar 
meter  apart,  and  the  same  distance  from  the  lowest  point  of  the 
side-eyes.  The  side-eyes  of  rear  row  are  smaller  than  front  laterals, 
^  their  diameter  away.  Eear  median  1^  diameter  of  front  median, 
their  apex  is  close  up  to  the  side-eyes. 

The  mandibles  set  rather  divergently,  are  the  length  of  the  front 
patellae,  and  are  furnished  with  long  stout  bristles  on  the  lower 
half.  Palx-teeth  about  8  of  irregular  size  on  inner  margin, 
with  a  few  small  in  an  intermediate  row  at  lower  end  of  falx- 
sheath. 

The  sternum,  a  broad  oval,  and  the  coxae  are  covered  with  long 
stout  upstanding  bristles  each  springing  from  a  raised  round  radical. 
The  anterior  sigillse  are  very  large  and  situated  in  a  broad  shallow 

Text-fig.  38. 


O   O 


Steny grocer cus  broomi.    a.  Eyes.     b.  Profile. 

depression  behind  the  hp,  which  is  widest  at  base,  slightly  wider 
than  long  and  narrowing  to  a  straight  front  edge.  This  is  alto- 
gether without  spines,  as  are  also  the  maxillse,  which  are  square  with 
a  small  rounded  protuberance  at  front  inner  corner. 

The  metatarsi  and  tarsi  are  all  bespined,  the  latter  rather  weakly  ; 
two  small  pairs  underneath  only  on  the  front  two  pairs.  6  or  7 
pectinations  in  a  single  row  cross  the  superior  tarsal  claws.  5  or  6 
short  teeth  on  the  female  palp-claw. 

The  abdomen  is  oval,  rounded  at  the  sides.  It  has  a  little 
light-coloured  down-lying  hair  and  long  spinous  bristles  with 
bases. 

The  anterior  mammillae  are  well  developed,  more  than  four  times 
their  width  apart.  The  superior  pair  are  about  as  long  as  the 
cephalothorax,  the  last  joint  tapering,  the  others  cylindrical. 

Two  females  were  sent  to  the  British  Museum  by  Dr.  Broom 
from  HiU  G-rove,  N.S.W. 


272  MB.  H.  E.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 


Cephalothorax  .... 
Abdomen 

Long. 

11 

Broad. 

7 
8 

Mandibles 

3 

Superior  mammillae  4, 

3,  2i  = 

=  91. 

Pat.  & 

Metat.  & 

Coxae. 

Tr.  &  fern. 

tib. 

tars. 

Legs     1. 

3i 

H 

6i 

6       = 

22i 

2. 
3. 

Or  4,  3,  2,  1.     4. 

^ 

3i 

6i 
H 

8* 

6       = 

n  = 

22A 

24 

29 

Palpi     

3 

H 

5* 

3       = 

17 

Grroup  Ateaoe^. 

The  two  genera  Atrcix  Cambr.  and  Hadronyche  L.  Koch,  which  I 
have  detached  to  this  group,  differ  considerably  from  either  of  the 
two  previous  genera. 

The  sternal  sigillse  are  large  and  removed  from  the  margin,  and 
the  teeth  on  the  falx-sheath  are  in  two  rows  on  interior  and  exterior 
margins,  with  an  intermediate  row  of  small  ones  at  the  lower  end. 

The  superior  spinnerets  are  short  and  the  inferior  even  closer 
together  than  in  Brachythele ;  while  the  tarsal  claws  are  pectinated 
in  one  row  across  the  claw  as  in  Macrothele,  and  the  lip  very  thickly 
bespined. 

Synopsis  of  Genera. 

Last  joint  of  superior  spinnerets  longer  than  second,  cylin- 
drical and  smooth    Atr ax  Camhr. 

Last  joint  of  superior  spinnerets  short  and  conical HaclronycheJj.  Koch. 

Grenus  Ateax  Cambr. 

Atrax  Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  4, 
vol.  xix.  (1877)  p.  26  ;  E.  Simon,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Pr.  1891,  p.  302 ; 
id.  Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  vol.  i.  (1892)  p.  186. 

Type,  A.  rohustus  Cambr. 

Synopsis  of  Species. 

Front  middle  eyes  more  than  their  diameter  apart,  and 

distinctly  less  in   their  diameter  than  side-eyes  of 

same  row ;  patellre  of  two  rear  pairs  furnished  with 

one  or  two  spines ;  all  four  pairs  of  tibiae  bespined. . .     A.  rohustus  Oarabr. 
Front  middle  eyes  less  than  their  diameter  apart,  and 

about  the  same  in  diameter  as  the  front  side- eyes  ; 

patellae  of  third    pair    furnished    with    numerous 

spines,  fourth  pair  none ;  and  the  front  four  tibi^ 

without  any , A.  modesta  Simon. 


1901.] 


AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS. 


273 


Ateas  eobusttjs  Cambr.     (Text-fig.  39.) 

Atrax  robustus  Cambr.  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  4,  vol.  xix. 
1877,  p.  26,  pi.  vi.  fig.  1  ;  E.  Simon,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Er.  vol.  Ix. 
1891,  p.  301. 

This  rather  powerful-looking  spicier  varies  in  the  colour  of  the 
cephalothorax,  from  a  rich  red-brown  to  a  black-brown.  Abdomen 
yellowish  grey'to  darker  grey,  with  fine  dark  brown  hairs.  The  front 
middle  eyes  stand  on  raised  shiny  black  rims  which  make  them  look 
larger  and  nearer  together  than  they  really  are,  and  these  again 
are  raised  on  a  common  protuberance  outside  of  which  lie  the  side- 
eyes  and  rear  middle.  The  front  row  only  looks  in  any  way  pro- 
curved  when  seen  from  right  in  front. 


Text-fiff.  39. 


Atrax  robustus.     a.  Eyes.     h.  Tarsal  claws. 


There  are  seven  pectinations  in  a  curved  row  across  the  superior 
tarsal  claws,  the  inferior  tarsal  claw  being  smooth. 

There  are  13  large  teeth  on  the  outer  margin  of  tbe  falx-sheath, 
11  on  the  inner,  and  9  rather  large  in  an  intermediate  row. 

The  metatarsi  and  tarsi  of  all  legs  are  thickly  bristled  and  be- 
spined,  but  have  no  real  scopula.  There  are  three  or  four  short 
spines  at  anterior  end  of  tibia  i.  and  ii.,  and  the  same  with  more,  in 
the  middle  of  tibia  iii.  and  iv. 

There  are  female  specimens  from  Queensland  and  New  South 
"Wales  in  the  British  Museum,  and  from  New  South  Wales  in  that 
of  Paris,  but  no  male  recorded. 

I  give  the  following  measurements  in  millimetres  of  about  the  . 
largest. 

Peoc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No.  XYIII.        18 


Pat.  & 

Metat. 

Coxa. 

Tr.  &  fern. 

tib. 

&  tars. 

1. 

7 

12 

12i 

11       = 

421 

2. 

6 

11 

11* 

10     = 

38| 

3. 

5 

10 

10 

10     = 

35 

4. 

6 

12 

111 

lU  = 

41 

..      6 

9 

8 

5'    = 

28 

274  MB.  H,  R.  HOGG  ON  [June  4, 

Long.         Broad. 
Cephalothorax .  .     15  12 

Abdomen     ....      12|  11 

rSuperior  spinnerets  2-1-,  1,  21=6. 


Legs 

Palpi 

Ateax  modesta  Simon. 

j^traa;  modesta  E.  Simon,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Erance,  vol.  Ix.  1891, 
p.  302. 

Described  by  M.  Simon  from  a  female  in  the  Paris  Museum  from 
Melbourne.  I  have  not  seen  it,  but  it  is  apparently  smaller  and 
darker  in  colour.  I  have  given  (above,  p.  272)  the  differences 
deduced  from  M.  Simon's  description. 

Genus  Hadkonyche  L.  Koch. 

Hadronyclie  L.  Koch,  Die  Arachn.  Austr.  1873,  p.  463  ;  E.  Simon, 
Hist.  Nat.  d.  Araign.  i.  1892,  p.  186. 

This  genus  diifers  fi-om  Atrax  in  having  the  pars  cephalica  of  the 
cephalothorax  more  raised  up  and  rounder,  but  not  so  much  so  as 
in  Eriodon.  The  superior  mammillae  are  short  and  tapering  ;  the 
first  joint,  divided  at  the  back  but  not  all  round,  is  equal  in  length 
to  the  remaining  two,  the  second  being  slightly  longer  than  the 
third.  The  inferior  mammillae  are  near  together,  cylindrical,  and 
truncate  at  end.  The  lip  is  square  in  front  but  not  nearly  so  long 
as  broad,  unless  the  whole  distance  from  the  sternum  is  included. 

Type,  H.  cerherea  ,L.  Koch. 

Hadeontohe  ceeberea  L.  Koch.     (Text-fig.  40,  p.  275.) 

Hadronyche  cerherea  L.  Koch,  loc.  cit. 

Herr  Koch's  description  is  from  two  female  specimens  from 
Sydney,  for  which  he  gives  measurements  : — Ceph.  11  mm,  long; 
abd.  14 ;  legs  (without  coxae)  26,  24,  22,  27g  mm.  respectively. 

I  have  a  fully  developed  male  from  Macedon,  Victoria,  a  good 
deal  smaller,  but  in  which  I  can  distinguish  no  specific  difference 
from  his  description.     Still  of  course  the  question  is  doubtful. 

'Male.  Cephalothorax  chocolate-brown,  with  paler  marginal  edging. 
Abdomen  yellowish  grey. 

Eront  row  of  eyes  straight  and  equal  in  size  ;  middle  their 
diameter  apart,  half  that  distance  from  nearest  point  of  side-eyes ; 
rear  side-eyes  smaller  than  front  and  rear  median  rather  close  up 
to  them,  smaller  still. 

Lip  broader  than  long,  straight  in  front,  round  at  sides  and  rear, 
much  bespined.     The  maxillae  have  a  short  rounded  projection  at 


1901.] 


AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS. 


275 


upper  inner  corner.  There  are  11  teeth  on  outer  edge  of  falx- 
sheath,  9  larger  on  inner,  and  5  or  6  very  small  in  intermediate 
row  at  lower  end. 

The  superior  tarsal  claws  have  one  row  of  pectinations  with 
about  6  teeth  apparently  crossing   the    claw.      The  lower   claw 

Text-fig.  40. 


Hadronyche  cerherea.     a.  Eyes.     b.  Right,  and  c,  left  male  palp. 

smooth.  There  are  two  rows  of  stout  spines  on  metatarsus  i. 
and  ii.  Scopulse  and  numerous  spines  on  all  four  pairs  of  tarsi. 
Thoracic  fovea  deep  and  procurved. 

The  stigma  of  the  male  palp  is  about  as  long  as  the  bulb,  the 
apex  is  somewhat  flattened  but  not  dilated :  the  bulb  is  divided  by 
a  deep  long  fovea  underneath,  but  round  and  undivided  above  ; 
metatarsal  joint  short. 

18* 


276  MB.  H.  E.  HOGG  ON  [  Juiie  4 

Measurements  in  millimetres. 


Long. 
Cephalothorax        6g 
Abdomen     . .         6 

Broad. 
5 
4 

Superior  spinnerets  2  mm. 

Pat.  & 

Metat.  & 

Coxa. 

Tr.  &  fern. 

tib. 

tars. 

Legs     ......      1.         2^ 

6 

6 

6       = 

20| 

2.  2| 

3.  2| 

5 

5^ 
5 

5       = 

18| 

in 

4.         2^ 
Palpi 2 

61 
3" 

3^ 

7      = 
1       = 

221 
9 

Group  Hexathele^. 

Genus  Hexathele  Auss. 

HexatJiele  Aus.serer,  Verh.  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien,  1871,  p.  171 ; 
L.  Koch,  Arachn.  Austr.  1873,  p.  459 ;  E.  Simon,  Hist.  Nat.  d. 
Araign.  i.  1892,  p.  188. 

The  genus  {sec.  Auss.)  hardly  differs  from  Macrothele  except 
in  the  addition  of  two  small  spinnerets  to  the  usual  group 
of  four,  but  with  no  scopulae  on  tarsal  joint  or  spines  on  front 
two  pairs.  The  known  species,  of  which  two  only  have  been 
described,  are  confined  to  N.  Zealand, 

Type,  H.  Jwchstetteri  Auss. 

Hexathele  hochstetteei  Auss.     (Text-fig.  41,  p.  277.) 

HexatJiele  JiocJistetteri  Auss.  loc.  cit.  p.  172 ;  L.  Koch,  loc.  cit. 

Since  the  above  was  written,  two  specimens,  a  male  and  a  female, 
have  fortunately  arrived  at  the  British  Museum.  They  were 
collected  from  Pahiatua,  Wellington,  N.Z.,  and  forwarded  by 
Capt.  Hutton.  They  are  larger  than  the  specimens  previously 
described  by  Ausserer  and  L.  Koch,  in  both  cases  females,  but 
fairly  well  conform  to  the  descriptions  of  IT.  Tiochstetteri  Auss. 
I  am  therefore  able  to  give  the  following  particulars  of  this 
previously  imperfectly  known  species. 

Cephalothorax  and  legs  bright  reddish  brown ;  mandibles  dark 
red-brown. 

Abdomen  dark  grey-broAvn  above,  dark  but  rather  yellower  below, 
no  pattern  distinguishable. 

Pront  middle  eyes  half  their  diameter  apart.  Pront  and  rear 
side-eyes  of  equal  size,  their  long  diameter  1|  of  front  middle 
and  I  of  same  apart.  The  long  diameter  of  the  rear  middle  eyes 
equal  to  that  of  the  front  middle. 

Thoracic  fovea  straight  and  deep. 

Sternum  ovate,  broadest  posteriorly ;  sigillaB  moderate  in  size 
and  nearly  marginal. 


1901.] 


AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS. 


277 


Numerous  rather  large  club-sliaped  spines  on  both  hp  and 
maxillge.  The  latter  has  a  rounded  prominence  at  the  inner  fore 
corner  and  a  pronounced  heel  at  the  lower  outer. 

On  the  inner  margin  of  falx-sheath  is  a  row  of  about  15  teeth, 
and  a  thick  fringe  of  orange-coloured  hair  on  the  outer. 

The  first  and  third  joints  of  the  superior  spinnerets  are  equal 
and  longer  than  the  second ;  the  last  cylindrical,  the  others  tapering. 
The  second  pair  are  about  three  diameters  apart,  and  the  small 
third  pair  below  and  outside  these. 

The  tarsi  of  the  female  are  all  without  scopulse. 


Text-fig.  41. 


Hexatkele  hochstetteri.     a.  Eyes.     b.  Male  palp.     c.  Tibia  and  metatarsus  of 
male.     d.  Underside  of  abdomen,     e.  Profile. 


The  front  two  pairs  of  tarsi  in  the  male  have  a  divided  scopula 
but  without  setae,  and  a  small  pair  of  spines  near  the  anterior  end ; 
only  the  posterior  two  pairs  have  a  double  row  of  setae  in  the 
division  of  the  scopula  and  a  row  of  spines  on  each  side. 

One  row  of  about  8  pectinations  crosses  the  superior  tarsal 
claws.     The  inferior  claw  is  bare. 

The  palpal  stigma  of  the  male  is  about  twice  the  length  of 
the  bulb,  the  first  half  flattened  but  tapering  into  a  very  fine 
point. 


278 


OJSr  AUSTRALIAN  SPIDERS. 


[June  4, 


Measurements  in  inilllmetres. 
Female. 


Cephalothorax 

Abdomen 

Superior  spinnerets  3,  2,  3 


Long. 
14 


Broad. 

9 

11 

8. 


Legs 


Palpi 


1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 


Ooxa. 
5 

4i 

4* 

4| 


Tr.  &  fern. 
9 

8A 
7" 
9 
6 


Pat.  & 
tib. 

8 
7 
9 
6 


Metafc.  & 
tars. 


10 
4 


=  31 

=  29 

=  26i 

=  32| 

=  20i 


Long. 
lOi 
111 


Male. 

Broad. 
9 

n 


Cephalothorax 

Abdomen     . . 

Spinnerets      1st  pair  3,  2,  3  =  8 ;  2nd  pair  2;  3rd  pair  1, 

Distance  apart      „       3 ;  ,,        2 ;         „        4. 


Legs 


Palpi 


1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 


3; 

Coxa. 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 


Tr.  &  fem. 
9 

7 


Pat.  & 
tib. 

H 
9 

8i 

9i 

7 


Metat.  & 

tars. 

9i 

Qi 

11 

12 

2    . 


33J 

313 

32 

35 

20 


Hexathele  peteeii  Goyen. 

H.petreii  P.  Goyen,  Proc.  N.  Z.  Inst.  vol.  xix.  (1886)  p.  207. 

H.  petrerii,  A.  T.  IJrquhart,  ibid,  vol,  xxiv.  (1891)  p.  221. 

Pemale  found  by  and  oamed  after  D.  Petrie,  Esq. ;  locality  Otago. 

Total  length  20  mm.  (sec.  Groyen). 

Abdomen  (overhanging  ceph.)  12  mm.  long. 

Mr.  Goyen  makes  no  mention  of  how  his  species  differs  from 
the  type  species.  Except  a  discrepancy  in  the  eyes  I  can  find  no 
difference  in  the  descriptions  of  these  two  species. 

Ausserer  says  of  the  genus,  "  eyes  as  in  JSfemesia,"  i.e.  front  row 
procurved,  rear  row  recurved.     Lateral  eyes  oval. 

Mr.  Goyen  says,  "anterior  row  bent  backward  and  the  posterior 
forward."  If  this  is  meant  in  the  German  sense,  his  description 
tallies  with.  H.  JwchsteUeri ;  if  be  means  recurved  and  procurved 
respectively,  it  must  be  something  very  different  from  the  genus 
Hexathele  of  Dr.  Ausserer. 

Note. — In  a  former  paper  (Proceedings  Eoyal  Society  of  Victoria, 
August  1900),  I  gave  the  name  Hylobius  to  a  new  genus  of  the 
family  Dictynid*.     I  now  find  that  it  has  been  previously  applied 


1901.]  ON  OKAPIA  JOHNSTONI.  279 

to  a  genus  of  Coleoptera.     I  therefore  change  it  to  Tawongia,  after 
the  locahty  where  the  tj'pe  specimens  described  were  obtained. 

In  conchasion,  I  cannot  too  gratefully  express  my  thanks  to 
Mr.  E.  I.  Pocock,  of  the  British  Museum  Natural  History  Depart- 
ment, for  kindly  advice  and  ready  assistance  always  at  my  service, 
and  in  allowing  me  access  to  the  Collections  under  his  charge  ; 
without  which  it  would  have  been  impossible  fcr  me  to  have  in- 
vestigated many  points  of  interest  and  doubt,  some  of  which  I 
trust  I  have  been  able  to  make  clear. 


June  18,  1901. 
Prof.  G.  B.  Howes,  LL.D.,  P.E.S.,  V.P.,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Secretary  read  the  following  report  on  the  additions  to  the 
Society's  Menagerie  during  the  month  of  May,  1901 : — 

The  total  number  of  registered  additions  to  the  Society's  Mena- 
gerie during  the  month  of  May  was  226,  of  which  23  were  by 
presentation,  7  by  birth,  16  by  purchase,  and  180  were  received  on 
deposit.  The  total  number  of  departures  during  the  same  period, 
by  death  and  removals,  was  150. 

Amongst  the  additions  attention  may  be  called  to  : — 

1.  Pour  hybrid  Macaws  bred  at  Milan,  in  Italy,  between  a  male 
Eed-and-Blue  Macaw  {Ara  macao)  and  a  female  Military  Macaw 
(Ara  militaris).  These  birds  have  been  deposited  under  our  care 
by  the  Hon.  W.  Eothschild,  M.P.,  P.Z.S.  This  is,  so  far  as  I 
know,  the  only  instance  on  record  of  hybridism  between  two 
species  of  Macaw  in  captivity. 

2.  A  young  male  African  Elephant  (ElepJias  africanus),  pur- 
chased on  May  21st.  This  animal  was  imported  from  Massowah, 
and  is  said  to  have  been  captured  in  the  Italian  colony  of  Eritrea. 
It  is  about  four  feet  high,  and  is  presumed  to  be  about  four  years 
old. 

3.  A  Guilding's  Amazon  (Ghrysotis  guildingi)  from  St.  Vincent, 
presented  by  the  Earl  of  Crawford,  P.Z.S.,  on  May  25th.  This 
addition  renders  our  series  of  the  peculiar  Amazons  of  the  Lesser 
Antilles  complete.  We  have  now  in  the  Parrot  Plouse  specimens 
of  four  species  of  these  Amazons,  viz.,  Chrysotis  guildingi  from 
St.  Vincent,  O.  augusta  and  bouqueti  from  Dominica,  and  C.  versi- 
color from  St.  Lucia. 

4.  A  male  Eed-flanked  Duiker  {Cephcdoplms  rufilatus)  from 
West  Africa,  presented  by  M.  Th.  Leportier  on  May  28th.  We 
have  received  no  specimen  of  this  Antelope  since  1880. 


Two  skulls  and  the  skin  of  the  new  Mammal,  the  Okapi,  dis- 
covered by  Sir  Harry  Johnston,  K.C.B.,  P.Z.S. ,  which  had  been 
sent  to  the  Natural  History  Museum,  were  exhibited,  and  the 
following  remarks,  by  Prof.  E.  Eay  Lankester,  P.E.S.,  P.Z.S.,  were 
read : — 


280  PROP.  B.  RAY  LAIS'KESTER  ON  OKAPIA  JOHXSTONI.     [June  18, 

The  skin  and  two  skulls  of  the  Okapi,  sent  by  Sir  Harry 
Johnston,  arrived  at  the  Museum  on  June  17th.  The  larger  of 
the  two  skulls  is  stated  by  Sir  Harry  Johnston  to  belong  to  the 
skin.  It  is  not  adult,  and  probably  not  more  than  two-thirds 
grown.  There  are  traces  of  external  male  genital  organs  in  the 
skin,  which  is  probably,  though  by  no  means  certainly,  that  of  a 
male.  The  paired  ungual  phalanges  are  preserved  in  both  fore  and 
hind  feet,  but  not  the  horny  hoofs.  My  attention  was  immediately 
given  to  the  skulls,  the  larger  of  which  is  exhibited  to  the  Society 
this  evening.  It  at  once  showed  itself  to  be  that  of  a  Giraffine 
animal,  and  not  that  of  a  Bovine.  The  characters  thus  indicating 
Giraffine  affinity  are  the  almost  complete  absence  of  the  angle 
between  the  basicranial  and  basifacial  axes ;  the  great  relative  length 
of  the  postorbifcal  or  true  cranial  portion  of  the  sku.ll ;  the  large 
lacrymal  vacuity  bounded  anteriorly  by  the  maxillary  bones ;  the 
swollen  frontal  margin  of  the  orbit;  the  widely  expanded  and 
laterally  depressed  form  of  the  hinder  part  of  the  nasal  bones  ; 
the  brachydont  molars  with  rugose  enamel ;  and  the  excessive 
length  of  the  diastema  between  the  prsemolar  teeth  and  the 
anterior  group  of  canine  and  incisor  teeth  in  the  lower  jaw. 

The  "  Okapi "  differs  from  the  genus  Giraffa  not  only  in  the 
relative  shortness  of  the  neck,  the  greater  equality  in  the  length 
of  the  limbs,  and  the  colour- marking  of  the  hair  as  shown  by  the 
skin,  but  in  the  absence,  in  both  male  and  female,  of  the  bony 
outgrowths  of  the  frontal  region  which  form  the  "  horns  "  of 
Giraffa.  These  are  represented  in  the  Okapi  by  a  posteriorly 
placed  dome-like  upgrowth  of  each  frontal  and  a  knob-like 
thickening  in  the  skin. 

The  Okapi  cannot,  in  my  opinion,  be  associated  generically  with 
any  of  the  described  extinct  genera  of  hornless  forms  allied  to 
Giraffa,  such  as  Ilelladotlierium  and  Lahyiherium,  though  it  has 
similar  relations  to  Giraffa  and  is  undoubtedly  allied  to  those 
extinct  forms.  It  dififers  essentially  from  Helladotherium  in  the 
presence  of  a  large  lacrymal  vacuity.  This  is  present  in  Lydekker's 
Hydaspitherium;  which,  however,  had  horns.  It  differs  also  from 
Helladotherium  in  the  form  of  the  orbifc,  which  is  oblong  and 
depressed  in  that  genus,  whereas  it  is  equal  in  height  and  breadth 
in  the  Okapi.  It  differs  further  from  Helladotherium  in  the 
absence  of  the  frontal  bosses  in  the  case  of  that  genus.  I  have 
been  able  to  compare  the  Okapi's  skull  with  that  of  a  Hellado- 
therium from  India,  preserved  in  the  Natural  History  Museum, 
and  with  the  drawings  of  Gaudry,  the  founder  of  the  genus. 

I  propose  to  establish  the  genus  Olcapia  for  Sir  Harry  John- 
ston's new  animal,  and  provisionally  characterize  it  as  foUows  : — 

Ok  APIA,  nov.  gen. 
A  genus  of  Giraffine  animals  allied  to  the  short-necked,  horn- 
less, extinct  forms  known  as  Helladotherium,  &c.     Distinguished 
from  Giraffa  by  its  shorb  neck,  absence  of  horns,  and  the  uniform 
reddish-brown  coloration  of  the  hair  of  the  body,  neck,  and  head, 


1901.]  O^  THE  IBEX  OF  ABTSSIKIA.  281 

accompanied  by  a  striping  in  dark  brown  and  white  of  the  fore 
and  hind  limbs. 

Distinguished  from  Helladotheriimi  by  the  presence  of  large 
prfe-lacrymal  vacuities  in  the  skull  as  in  Glraffa,  by  the  presence 
of  a  pair  of  lateral  posterior  dome-like  prominences  on  the  f rentals 
(representing  the  bony  outgrowths  of  Glraffa),  and,  lastly,  by  the 
presence  of  a  minute  accessory  tubercle  on  the  mediad  face  of  the 
first  upper  true  molar,  which  exists  sometimes  in  Gira-ffa  but  is 
absent  in  Hellaclotherium. 

Species.  Okapia.  JOHisrsTo:?^!. 

(= Equus  johnstoni  Sclater,  P.  Z.  S.  1901,  vol.  i.  p.  50.) 
The  only  species  known,  now  represented  by  two  skulls  and  a 
complete    skin,  was  originally  described   as  Equus  johnstoni  by 
Dr.  P.  L.  Sclater,  from  two  pieces  of  skin  which  it  appears  were 
cut  from  the  striped  region  of  the  hind  limbs. 

Sir  Harry  Johnston,  who  was  himself  present,  gave  an  account 
of  the  facts  connected  with  his  discovery  of  the  Okapi. 

Sir  Harry  also  stated  that  during  his  last  excursion  to  the  north 
of  Mount  Elgon  he  had  found  large  herds  of  a  Giraffe  in  that 
country  which  appeared  to  be  distinct  from  previously  known 
forms  of  this  mammal  in  having  five  horns,  four  placed  in  pairs 
and  one  anterior  in  the  middle  line.  Pour  examples  of  this 
animal  were  now  on  their  way  home,  and  would  soon  be  here  to 
settle  the  validity  of  this  presumed  new  species. 


The  Hon.  "Walter  Eothschild,  M.P.,  P.Z.S.,  exhibited  specimens 
of  a  mounted  male  and  two  unmounted  males  and  a  female  of  the 
Ibex  of  Abyssinia  {Oapra  ivalie  Eiippell),  and  made  the  following 
remarks  : — 

When  Mr.  E.  Lydekker  wrote  his  great  work  'The  Wild  Oxen, 
Sheep,  and  Groats  of  All  Lands,'  in  1898,  this  fine  species  was 
only  known  from  the  type  specimens  in  the  Senckenberg  Museum 
at  Frankfort.  Since  then  a  few  pairs  of  horns  have  been  un- 
earthed, collected  at  various  times  by  Herr  Menges,  the  wild- 
beast  trapper,  but  it  has  remained  for  Captain  Powell-Cotton  to 
clear  up  the  history  of  Capra  walie  by  the  fine  series  he  has 
collected  of  this  fast-vanishing  form. 

EiippeH's  original  description  is  as  follows  : — "  Pront  and  upper- 
side  of  head,  neck,  and  back  beautiful  chestnut-brown  ;  muzzle,  a 
curved  streak  between  eye  and  ear,  sides  of  neck,  body,  and  rump 
reddish  umber-brown.  Region  under  the  eye  and  ear,  the  chin, 
throat,  chest,  and  inner  surface  of  the  thighs  and  belly  dirty 
white.  Outer  side  of  thighs  and  legs  and  sides  of  belly  dirty  grey. 
Peet  whitish,  with  a  large  spot  at  the  fetlock  and  a  stripe  down 
the  legs  black.  Eoot  of  tail  chestnut- brown,  tip  black.  Inner 
side  of  ears  white,  with  a  reddish  border,  outer  surface  red-brown. 
Iris  of  eye  pale  brown,  pupil  dark  blue." 


282  HO]sr.  w.  eothschild  on  [June  18, 

The  specimen  of  the  female  exhibited  to-night  is  the  first  known 
female  collected  and  brought  to  Europe. 

The  following  notes  were  given  me  by  Captain  Powell-Cotton: — 

"  This  Ibex  is  called  Wala  by  the  Abyssinians  and  is  said  to  exist 
only  in  the  mountains  of  Simien. 

"I  shot  these  specimens  at  the  commencement  of  autumn  (end 
of  June),  just  at  the  beginning  of  the  rutting-season. 

"  There  were  slight  falls  of  snow  and  hail,  and  it  was  very  cold 
at  night.  There  are  said  to  be  two  feet  of  snow  on  the  hilltops  in 
August. 

"  On  25th  June  I  saw  two  males  and  one  female ;  later  on, 
on  same  day,  I  saw  a  larger  male  by  itself  and  shot  it. 

"  On  the  26th,  I  saw  two  large  males  feeding  by  themselves,  and 
later  on  found  them  with  thirteen  females. 

"  On  the  27th,  I  found  the  same  herd  and  shot  the  two  large 
males  and  one  female. 

"These  were  the  only  three  large  males  on  the  ground.  I 
searched  a  good  deal  of  country  round  but  only  saw  old  tracks. 

"  The  natives  hunt  these  animals  persistently  for  their  flesh, 
skins,  and  horns  (which  they  use  for  tumblers),  and  now  that 
they  are  so  much  better  armed,  I  believe  in  a  very  few  years  the 
animals  will  be  extinct. 

"  I  was  told  of  some  other  hunting-ground  farther  to  the  ^.E., 
but  had  not  time  to  visit  it. 

"  The  three  specimens  shot  and  the  head  picked  up  all  have  the 
points  of  the  horns  turned  inwards,  but  a  pair  of  horns,  which 
were  said  to  have  been  obtained  on  Mount  Hay,  had  the  points 
turned  outwards. 

"  I  found  them  on  the  eastern  slope  of  Mount  Buiheat,  one  of 
the  highest  in  the  Simien  range — in  the  French  maps  it  is  marked 
as  4510  m.  in  elevation.  The  top  is  undulating  grass-land,  with  a 
much-frequented  path  running  along  close  to  the  edge  of  the 
cliffs,  at  the  foot  of  which  is  the  Ibex-ground. 

"  The  cliffs  being  too  high  for  a  shot,  and,  so  far  as  I  could  dis- 
cover, there  being  no  direct  path  down,  it  seemed  to  be  a  favourite 
amusement  of  passing  caravans  to  roll  over  stones  in  the  hope  of 
seeing  a  herd  disturbed.  At  the  foot  of  the  first  line  of  cliffs,  and 
below  several  lesser  ill-defined  lines  lower  down,  are  the  runs  and 
lying-up  places  of  the  Ibex  and  Klipspringer. 

"  The  earth  and  stones  dropping  from  above  have  formed  banks 
some  little  distance  from  the  face  of  the  cliffs,  while  here  and 
there  an  overhanging  rock  forms  a  roomy  shelter  under  it. 

"  The  Ibex  appear  to  regularly  use  these  partly  concealed  runs 
in  moving  from  one  part  of  the  ground  to  another,  and  it  was  in 
them  that  I  found  numerous  traces  of  where  native  shikarees  had 
lain  up  to  get  a  shot  at  them,  generally  overlooking  a  drinking- 
place  or  a  favourite  shelter. 

"  The  steep  ground  between  the  different  lines  of  clifl's  is  covered 
with  long  coarse  grass,  among  which  the  curious  Tree-Lobelia 
(Lobelia   rhynchojaetcdum)  grows,   besides  firs,    birch,    and    many 


1901.]  THE  ABYSSIJflAN  WOLF.  283 

scrubby  bushes,  the  whole  reminding  me  very  much  of  where  I 
have  shot  Thar  in  Kistowar,  Kashmir,  and  being  quite  unKke  any 
ground  where  I  had  previously  seen  Ibex. 

"  Even  when  the  animals  were  feeding  in  the  early  morning  and 
late  afternoon,  it  was  by  no  means  easy  to  make  them  out  amongst 
the  undergrowth. 

"  At  the  foot  of  the  mountain  large  flocks  of  sheep  and  goats 
were  grazing,  being  sheltered  at  night  iu  caves,  the  openings  of 
which  were  protected  by  stone  walls  and  wattles. 

"  Lower  down  there  was  a  large  stretch  of  cultivated  laud,  and 
several  groups  of  huts  forming  the  village  of  Lourey. 

"  Although  I  had  a  special  letter  from  the  Emperor  Menelik  to 
the  Governor  of  Simien,  and  from  the  latter  to  the  different 
headmen,  they  placed  every  sort  of  passive  obstacle  in  the  way  of 
my  shooting  Ibex,  and  one  and  all  seemed  most  anxious  to  get 
me  out  of  the  country  as  quickly  as  possible,  in  spite  of  their 
receiving  all  the  meat  killed,  besides  presents  and  liberal  rewards." 

Mr.  Rothschild  pointed  out  that  the  principal  differences 
separating  this  Ibex  from  Capra  nubiana  were  the  shorter  beard 
and  the  horns,  which  are  thick  and  stout  and  more  like  those  of 
Capra  sibiriea.  It  differed  from  all  the  other  Ibexes  in  the  bony 
pi'otuberance  on  the  forehead. 

E-iippell's  type  had  the  horns  only  25  inches  long,  measured 
over  the  curve ;  but  Captain  Powell-Cotton's  largest  adult  male 
had  horns  43^  and  43-|  in.,  while  his  smallest  had  them  41^-  and 
41  in.  

The  Hon.  Walter  Eothschild  also  exhibited  a  mounted  speci- 
men of  the  Abyssinian  Wolf  (Oanis  simensis  Eiippell),  and  made 
the  following  remarks  : — 

This  very  distinct  and  curious  species  has  hitherto  only  been 
known  to  science  from  the  type  specimen  in  the  British  Museum, 
and  the  accounts  of  its  discoverer.  Dr.  Edward  Eiippell.  Last 
year,  during  his  very  successful  expedition  through  Abyssinia, 
Captain  Powell-Cotton  obtained  four  males  and  one  female,  one  of 
which  forms  the  basis  of  this  note.  Captain  Pov/ell-Cotton  first 
met  with  this  curious  animal  in  the  highlands  of  Gogain,  just 
north  of  Abbai.  None  were  observed  in  the  low  hot  country  or 
along  the  west  of  Lake  Tana,  except  on  2nd  April,  1900,  when 
three  were  met  with  together,  evidently  in  search  of  a  female. 
They  were  always  seen  singly  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  large 
colonies  of  a  short-tailed  brown  rat  with  pale  hind-quarters, 
which  is  their  chief  food.  They  appear  to  be  about  in  the  early 
morning  and  at  night.  The  colour  of  this  animal  is  a  curious 
mixture  of  chestnut  and  greyish  white,  which  produces  the  effect 
of  the  colour  known  in  horses  as  "  red  roan." 

This  species  can  at  once  be  distinguished  from  all  other  true 
Wolves  by  its  very  long  and  narrow  and  slender  skull. 

Dr.  Eiippell  records  it  as  inhabiting  most  provinces  of  Abys- 
sinia, hunting   sheep   and   smaller  wild   animals   iu   packs,   and 


284  M.  c.  sATUjS"i]sr  oir  [June  18, 

never  being  dangerous  to  human  beings  ;  but,  except  as  regards 
its  non-dangerous  character,  this  was  quite  contrary  to  Captain 
Powell-Cotton's  experiences. 


Mr.  Oldfield  Thomas  exhibited  and  made  remarks  on  a  peculiar 
Stag's  frontlet  and  horns  which  had  been  obtained  by  Mr.  Charles 
Hose  in  Borneo.  Mr.  Hose  had  informed  him  that  the  Deer 
came  from  a  hitherto  unvisited  part  of  Borneo,  the  Pa  Bauan 
country  in  the  far  interior,  and  that  he  had  been  told  that  several 
people  had  procured  similar  horns  from  that  district. 


Mr.  E.  Shelford,  C.M.Z.S.,  exhibited  a  series  of  lantern-slides, 
exemplifying  mimicry  amongst  Bornean  insects,  especially  amongst 
the  Longicorn  division  of  the  Coleoptera. 


The  following  papers  were  read  : — 

1.  On  a  new  Hedgehog  from  Transcaucasia ;  with  a  Revision 
of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Erinaceus  of  the  Russian 
Empire.     By  Constantin  Satunin,  C.M.Z.S. 

[Received  May  29,  1901.] 

In  the  autumn  of  1900,  I  made  an  excursion  into  the  sandy 
district  lying  along  the  foot  of  Mount  Ararat,  with  the  intention 
of  studying  its  Pauna. 

This  locality  is  highly  interesting,  inasmuch  as  its  Plora  bears 
a  great  resemblance  to  the  Plora  ol:  the  Transcaspian  province,  the 
sands  being  for  the  greater  part  covered  by  shrubs  of  Calligonum 
polygonoides  Pall.,  met  nowhere  else  in  Transcaucasia  but  which 
is  exceedingly  common  in  Transcaspia.  I  likewise  found  a  great 
similitude  between  the  faunas  of  these  sands. 

Of  special  interest  for  the  locality  near  Ararat  is  the  long-eared 
Hedgehog  of  the  district,  which  belongs  to  a  new  species,  and 
which  shows  closer  affinities  to  the  Transcaspian  Erinaceus  alhulus 
than  it  does  to  the  E.  auritus  of  the  Northern  Caucasus. 

I  name  this  Hedgehog  E.  calligoni  on  account  of  its  area  in 
Transcaucasia  being  entirely  limited  to  the  distribution  of  Calli- 
gonum polygonoides. 

I  give  the  following  description  made  by  me  from  six  specimens 
collected  near  the  village  of  Aralyk,  which  lies  some  40  versts  to 
the  south  of  Erivan, 

Ebi^staceus  calligoni,  sp.  nov. 

This  new  species  belongs  to  the  group  of  E.  auritus  and  resembles 
the  young  individuals  of  that  species,  but  diifers  in  some  external 
characters  as  well  as  in  the  structure  of  the  skull.  It  is  even 
smaller  than  E.  auritus,  and  is  thus  the  smallest  of  the  Russian 
Hedgehogs.  The  length  of  my  largest  specimen  does  not  exceed 
160  mm.  from  snout  to  vent,  whereas  a  large  E.  auritus  attains 
a  length  of  210  mm.     The  colouring  of  E.  calligoni  is  lighter 


1901.]  A  NEW  HEDGEHOG.  285 

than  that  of  E.  auritus,  and  this  depends  on  the  circumstance  that 
in  the  last-named  species  the  ends  of  the  spines  are  brown,  whereas 
in  the  former  the  ends  of  the  spines  are  wholly  white.  The 
dusky  bases  of  the  spines  are  broader,  and  the  space  between  the 
latter  and  the  black  baud  is  not  white  as  in  E.  auritus,  but  light- 
grey.  The  upper  part  of  the  head,  the  ears,  and  the  lateral  line 
on  the  margin  which  separates  the  spiny  surface  from  the  fur 
are,  as  in  E.  auritus,  brown.  The  upper  surface  of  the  foot  has 
a  brownish  tinge.  The  whole  underside  is  white  ;  claws  white. 
The  ears  are  comparatively  larger ;  the  snout  more  acuminate. 

The  callosities  on  the  under  surface  of  the  fore  and  hind 
extremities  are  sharply  defined  and  deeply  separated.  The  spines 
attain  a  length  of  20  mm.,  and  have  from  16  to  17  finely  tubercu- 
lated  low  longitudinal  ridges. 

The  skull  bears  great  resemblance  to  the  skull  of  E.  alhulus. 
The  relation  of  the  greatest  zygomatic  breadth  to  the  basal  length 
of  the  skull  is  1  : 1"6,  as  in  E.  alhulus ;  whereas  in  E.  auritus  it  is 
sometimes,  and  that  only  in  very  young  specimens,  1  :  1*5  ;  in 
full-grown  animals  it  is  always  1 :  1-4.  The  other  ])eculiarities 
presented  by  the  skull  are  shown  at  the  end  of  this  article,  in  the 
table  of  measurements  (p.  290). 

Measurements.  , 

a.  0.  c. 

$  senior.  5  adult.  (^  adult. 

mm.  mm.  mm. 

From  snout  to  vent     160  143  142 

From  vent  to  tip  of  tail 25  26-5        16 

From  snout  to  external  meatus  . .        37  39  41 

From  snout  to  the  middle  of  the 

eye    26  2%  25 

Length  of  hind-foot  with  claws  .34  36  33-5 

It  seems  therefore  that  within  the  boundaries  of  European 
Eussia  and  of  the  western  part  of  her  Asiatic  possessions  there 
are  not  less  than  six  species  of  Erinaceus. 

As  there  is  but  little  to  be  found  about  the  Eussian  Hedge- 
hogs in  existing  literature,  and  as  our  information  of  their  geo- 
graphical distribution  is  very  scanty  and,  for  the  greater  part, 
erroneous,  I  will  give  here  a  brief  revision  of  the  species,  following 
the  classification  adopted  by  the  late  Dr.  J.  Anderson  (P.  Z.  S. 
1895,  p.  414). 

A.  The  pterygoid  fossae  are  well  developed  and  the  pterygoids 

do    not    contribute   to  the  enlargement  of  the    auditory 

chamber. 

a.  Postgienoid   process  of   the    squamosal    solid   and    much 

smaller  than  the  mastoid.     A  narrow  tract,  bare  of  spines, 

on  the  middle  of  the  head. 

1.  Erinaceus  eueop^us  L. 

Erinaceus  europceus,'Lmnseus,'8yst.'Na,i. -p.  15  (1766);  Pallas, 
Zoogr.  Eosso-Asiat.  i.  p.    137  (1811) ;    Eversmann,  Nat.   Hist. 


286  M.  c.  SATUNiN  ON  [June  18, 

District  Orenburg,  ii.  p,  75  (1850)  (Eussian)  ;  Simashko,  Fauna  of 
Russia,  ii.  p.  66,  pi.  vi.  fig.  1  (1851)  (Eussian);  Blasius,  Saugeth. 
Deutschl.  p.  153  (1857);  Sabaneieff,  The  Vertebrata  of  the 
Northern  TJral,  p.  12  (1874)  (Eussian);  Dobson,  Monogr.  of  the 
Insectivora,  i.  p.  8  (1882). 

The  distribution  of  the  common  Hedgehog  in  Europe  is  pretty 
well  known.  In  European  Eussia  the  northern  limit  of  its  dis- 
tribution descends  eastward  and  reaches,  in  the  St.  Petersburg 
government,  Wego,  61°  N.  lat.,  whilst  in  the  Ural  mountains  it 
does  not  go  farther  north  than  59°, — e.  g.,  in  the  Verkhotursk 
district  of  the  government  of  Perm,  where  the  species  is  already 
scarce.  In  Central  and  Southern  Eussia  and  in  the  Caucasus  this 
Hedgehog  is  everywhere  common  and  more  or  less  numerous,  being 
found  as  well  in  forests  and  the  steppes,  together  with  E.  auritus, 
as  in  the  hills,  up  to  8000  feet.  In  the  Transcaucasus  these  Hedge- 
hogs attain  a  very  great  size. 

We  have  but  very  scanty  and  little  trustworthy  data  as  to  its 
distribution  in  Asia.  According  to  Pallas  it  is  absent  on  the  other 
side  of  the  TJral  chain.  But  Sabaneieff  ^  says  that  it  is  met  with 
on  the  eastern  slope  of  the  Ui-al  and  that,  there,  it  increases  yearly 
in  number.  This  author  thinks  that  it  is  but  recently  that  this 
species  has  penetrated  into  the  Trans-Ural,  and  that  Pallas's  state- 
ment of  its  absence  there  is  thus  simply  explained.  Slowzoff  ^  found 
it  in  the  government  of  Tobolsk  ;  Schrenck  ^  andEadde^  in  Eastern 
Siberia ;  but,  according  to  Prof.  Kastchenko,  it  is  wanting  in  the 
government  of  Tomsk.  Schrenck  {I.  c.)  distinguishes  the  Amoor 
Hedgehog  as  a  separate  variety.  Eadde  (I.  c.)  does  not  find  it 
possible  to  distinguish  the  Daoorian  Hedgehog  from  the  common 
one.  It  is  difficult  to  come  to  any  decided  conclusion  from  the  figure 
given  by  the  last-named  author,  but  it  looks  as  if  the  skull  figured 
on  plate  v.  of  Eadde's  work  did  not  belong  to  K  europceus,  but 
to  some  other  species.  According  to  Dobson,  E.  dealbatus 
Swinhoe,  from  Peking,  scarcely  differs  from  E.  europceus.  It  is 
therefore  evident  that  our  knowledge  of  the  distribution  of  E.  eu- 
ropceiis  in  Asia  is  in  the  hands  of  future  explorers. 

h.  Postglenoid  process  of  the  squamosal  as  large  as  the 
mastoid  process  and  is  internally  concave.  JS'o  bare 
space  on  the  head. 

2.  Ebustaceus  aueitus  GmeL 

Erinaceus  auritus,  Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  Linn.  i.  p.  116  (1788) ; 
Pallas,  Zoogr.  Eosso-Asiat.  i.  p.  138  (1811);  Eversmann,  Nat 
Hist.  District  of  Orenburg,  ii.  p.  76  (1850)  (Eussian)  ;  Simashko, 
Fauna  of  Eussia,  ii.  p.  72,  pi.  vi.  fig.  2  (1851)  (Eussian)  ;  Dobson, 
Monogr.  Insectivora,  i.  p.  16  (1882). 

1  Sabaneieff,  Vertebrat.  of  North.  Ural,  p.  12  (1874)  (Eussian). 

2  Slowzoff,  The  Vertebrata  of  the  district  Tiimen,  p.  212  (1892)  (Eussian). 

3  Schrenck,  Eeis.  im  Amur-Lande,  i.  p.  100,  Taf.  iv.  fig.  2  (1858). 

<"  Eadde,  Eeis.  im  Siiden  von  Ost-Sibir.  p.  117,  Taf.  v.  fig.  1  a,  c  (1862). 


1901.]  A  NEW  HEDGEHOG.  287 

Differs  manifestly  from  E.  alhulus,  with  wliich  it  has  been  eon- 
founded  by  many  authors,  in  its  smaller  size,  shorter  ears,  darker 
colouring,  and  broader  skull,  as  will  be  seen  in  the  table  of 
measurements  at  the  end  of  the  present  note.  The  geographical 
distribution  of  this  species  is  far  more  restricted  than  it  was 
commonly  supposed  to  be.  It  does  not  go  farther  south  than  the 
Ust-Urt  in  the  Transcaspian  province,  whence  it  has  been  re- 
corded by  Zaroudnoi,  Eadde  and  Walter,  and  others.  These  data  are 
based  on  the  confusion  of  this  species  with  E.  albulus.  I  have  come 
to  this  conclusion  after  having  examined  the  specimens  in  the 
Caucasus  Museum  (collected  by  Dr.  Eadde  and  Dr.  Walter),  as  well 
as  a  great  number  of  Hedgehogs  received  by  me  from  Transcaspia 
through  my  correspondents.  I  know,  from  there,  only  E.  auritus 
and  E.  macr acanthus.  The  distribution  of  E.  aiiritushegms  in  the 
steppes  of  the  Northern  Caucasus,  in  the  plains  of  the  Manytsh  ; 
it  then  extends  to  the  north  between  the  Don  and  the  Yolga, 
up  to  the  hillocks  of  Ergheni,  and  thence  goes  eastward  through 
the  Volga-Dral  and  the  Kirghiz  steppes  approximately  between 
45°  and  55°  IN",  lat.  How  far  its  distribution  extends  to  the 
East  is  not  well  known.  Pallas  says  that  it  reaches  Lake  Baikal, 
but  the  long-eared  Hedgehogs  which  live  along  the  Eiver  Irtysh 
are  much  larger ;  and  those  of  the  Trans-Baikal  attain  a  size  even 
greater  than  does  E.  enropceus,  so  that  they  doubtlessly  belong 
to  some  other  species.  It  seems  probable  that  the  long-eared 
Hedgehog  does  not  extend  to  the  East  beyond  the  Balkhash- 
depression  and  the  80th  deg.  of  E.  long.  (Paris  merid.).  This  sup- 
position is  confirmed  by  the  fact  that,  though  Middendorff ', 
Schrenck  ^,  and  Eadde  ^  mention  in  their  works  E.  auritus  from 
Eastern  Siberia,  they  do  so  on  the  testimony  of  Pallas,  but  have 
not  themselves  succeeded  in  finding  this  species  there. 

What  E.  dauuricus  Sundev.''  is,  I  do  not  know,  but  according 
to  what  Pallas  says  of  the  long-eared  Hedgehogs  of  Daooria, 
it  is  very  probable  that  it  belongs  to  some  distinct,  but  now  over- 
looked species. 

3.  Eeikacetjs  albtjlus  Stoliczka. 

Hemiechinus  albulus,  Stoliczka,  Journ.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  1872, 
p.  226. 

Erinaceus  albulus,  Blanford,  Scient.  Ees.  Second  Tarkand  Mis- 
sion, Mamm.  p.  14,  pi.  i.  fig.  2,  pi.  ii  a.  fig.  1  (1879)  ;  Dobson, 
Monogr.  Insectivora,  i.  p.  17  (1882). 

Erinaceus  auritus,  Lichtenstein  in  '  Naturhistorischer  An- 
hang '  zu  '  Eeise  von  Orenburg  nach  Buchara '  v.  E.  Eversmann, 
p.  124(1823);  Brandt  in  'Zoolog.  Anhang' z.  A.  Lehmann's  'Eeise 
nach  Buchara  und  Samarkand,'  p.  299  (1852) ;  M.  Bogdanoff,  The 
Oasis  of  Khiva  and  the  desert  Kyzil-Koom,  p.  79  (1882)  (Eussianj; 

1  Sibirische  Eeise,  ii.  2,  p.  76  (1853). 

^  Eeis.  in  4mur-Lande,  i.  p.  105  (1858). 

^  Eeis.  im  Siiden  v.  Ost-Sibirien,  i.  p.  124  (1862). 

^  Wiegmann's  Archiv,  1843,  ii.  p.  27. 


288  M.  c.  SATUNiN  ON  [June  18, 

Nikolsky,  in  the  '  "Works  of  the  St.  Petersb.  Soc.  of  Naturalists,' 
vol.  xvii.  pt.  1,  p.  384(1886)  (Eussian)  ;  Eadde  &  Walter,  Zoolog. 
Jahrbiich.,  Syst.  iv.  p.  1006,  partim  (1888) ;  Zaroudnoi,  Eech. 
Zool.  d.  la  Contree  Transcaspienne,  separ.  p.  33  (Bull.  Kat. 
Moscou,  1889-90) ;  Tikbomiroff,  in  the  News  of  the  Imp.  Soc.  of 
Lovers  of  IS  at.  Sciences,  t.  Ixxxvi.  p.  23,  partim  (1894)  (Eussian) ; 
Severzoif,  Vex-t.  and  Horiz.  distr.  anim.  of  Turkistan,  p.  61  (1873) 
(Eussian). 

"Within  the  limits  of  the  Eussian  Ejupire,  this  Hedgehog  is  very 
common  in  the  Transcaspian  province,  where  it  takes  the  place  of 
the  foregoing  species.  The  specimens  from  this  locality  agree 
perfectly  with  the  excellent  description  and  drawing  in  Blanford's 
work.  This  species  will  probably  also  be  found  to  inhabit  the 
southern  parts  of  Eussian  Turkestan. 

4.  Ekinaceus  oalligoki  Satunin. 

Known  for  the  present  only  from  the  sandy  district  along  the 
foot  of  Mount  Ararat,  near  the  village  of  Aralyk,  about  40  versts 
to  the  south  of  Erivan. 

It  is  possible  that  the  long-eared  Hedgehog  of  Mesopotamia 
belongs  to  this  species,  as  the  true  E.  auritus  can  certainly  not 
exist  there. 

B.  The  pterygoid  foss®  almost  disappearing,  the  pterygoids  being 
enlarged  and  bullate,  the  cavity  contributing  to  the  enlarge- 
ment of  the  auditory  chamber.  On  the  top  of  the  head  a 
well-marked  bare  space,  covered  by  folds  of  the  skin. 

'    5.  EaiNACEUS  MACE  ACANTHUS  Blanford. 

Erinaceus  macracanthus,  Blanford,  Ann.  Nat.  Hist.  (4)  xvi. 
p.  310  (1875);  Blanford,  East.  Persia,  ii.  p.  27,  pi.  i.  (1879); 
Dobson,  Monogr.  Insectivora,  pt.  i.  p.  15  (1888);  Zaroudnoi, 
Eech.  Zool.  Contr.  Transcaspienne,  separ.  p.  34  (1889-90). 

Erinaceus  ambitus  (partim  !),  Eadde  &  Walter,  Zool.  Jahrb.,  Syst. 
iv.  p.  1006,  albino  (1888). 

Obviously  not  scarce  in  the  South-eastern  part  of  Transcaspia, 
whence  I  have  received  several  specimens.  More  commonly  met 
with  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Askhabad. 

The  dark  colouring,  as  given  by  Blanford,  I  find  only  in  young 
animals.  With  age  the  colouring  gets  lighter,  and  in  old  speci- 
mens it  becomes  of  a  uniform  yellowish-white. 

6.  EuiNACEUS  HYPOMELAS  Brandt. 

Erinaceus  hypomelas,  Brandt,  Bull.  Soc.  d.  I'Acad.  des  Sci.  St. 
Petersb.  1836,  t.  i.  p.  32 ;  Brandt  in  The  Eauna  of  Eussia,  by 
Simashko,  p.  74,  pi.  vi.  fig.  3  (1851)  (Eussian) ;  Eversmann,  Nat. 
Hist,  of  the  District  of  Orenburg,  ii.  p.  77  (1850)  (Eussian) ; 
Brandt  in  '  Zool.  Anhang '  z.  A.  Lehmann's  '  Eeise  nach  Buchara, 
etc.,'  p.  300  (1852). 


1901.]  A  NEW  HBBGEHO&.  289 

Erinaceus  auritus  juv.  ?,  Dobson,  Monogr.  Insectivora,  i.  p.  16 
(1888). 

Of  late  there  has  prevailed  a  very  false  idea  about  this  species, 
which  has  been  forgotten  for  full  half  a  century.  This  is  probably 
due  to  the  fact  that  Brandt  described  an  apparently  young  specimen, 
and  that  the  description  of  the  full-grown  animal,  given  by 
Eversmann,  and  the  more  detailed  one  of  Brandt,  were  written  in 
Eussian  and  were  published  in  works  that  have  long  ago  become 
bibliographical  rarities.  That  is  the  reason  why  I  find  it  necessary 
to  dwell  at  some  length  on  this  species. 

It  was  evident,  from  the  study  of  the  existing  literature,  that 
Dobson's  opinion  as  to  E.  liypomelas  being  the  young  E.  auritus 
could  not  stand,  as  the  young  Hedgehogs  of  the  last-named  species 
are  much  lighter-coloured  than  are  the  old  ones,  and  they  are 
nearly  white  on  the  under  surface  of  the  body.  I  was  myself  dis- 
posed to  think  that  E.  hypomelas  might  prove  to  be  the  young  of 
E.  macracanthus. 

In  the  summer  of  1900  I  had  the  opportunity  of  examining 
Eversmann's  specimens  in  the  Zoological  Museum  of  the  Kazan 
University,  which  had  served  him  as  types  for  his  description. 
These  were  two  well-preserved  stuffed  specimens,  one  of  them 
having  a  nearly  perfect  skull,  which  I  had  the  good  luck  to  ex- 
tricate entire. 

This  skull  differed  from  the  skulls  in  my  possession  of 
E.  macracanthus  only  by  its  greater  length  (61  mm.)  ;  and  I  think 
that  it  would  be  difficult  to  distinguish  the  two  species  by  the 
skulls  alone. 

The  bare  space  on  the  head  is  as  well-defined  as  it  is  in  E.  ma- 
cracanthus. In  his  article,  P.  Z.  S,  1895,  Anderson  says  (footnote 
on  p.  421)  that  Biichner,  the  then  curator  of  the  Mammalian 
Department  of  the  Zool.  Museum  of  the  St.  Petersburg  Academy 
of  Sciences,  told  him  that  the  type  which  had  served  for  Brandt's 
description  had  no  bare  space  on  the  head  and  that  the  spines  were 
disposed  as  in  E.  auritus.  Now  I  think  that  there  must  have 
been  a  mistake  about  this  point,  and  that  it  is  sometimes  quite 
impossible  to  see  this  character  in  stuffed  specimens  and  espe- 
cially in  such  a  very  old  one  (dating  from  1838)  as  Brandt's  type 
specimen,  which  was  the  skin  of  a  very  young  animal  \  In  both 
the  adult  specimens  of  the  Kazan  Museum  this  bare  space  is  well 
marked.  That  both  Brandt  and  Eversmann  have  described  the 
same  species  was  made  clear  to  me  by  the  following  circumstance  : 
on  the  drawing  made  from  the  St.  Petex'sburg  specimen  (Simashko, 
pi.  vi.)  of  E.  hypomelas,  as  well  as  on  the  stuffed  specimens  of  the 
Kazan  Museum,  there  is  a  very  noticeable  character  which  neither 
Brandt  nor  Eversmann  has  mentioned, — namely,  in  E.  liypo- 
melas the  whole  head  up  to  the  hind  part  of  the  crown  is  quite 

1  At  my  request,  Prof.  N.  Kastchenko  has  obligingly  examined  this  speciraen, 
and  has  found  on  the  head  a  bare  area  of  which  he  has  sent  me  a  drawing. 
This  leaves  no  doubt  as  to  the  bare  space  on  the  head  of  E.  hypomelas  haying 
exactly  the  same  appearance  as  it  has  in  E.  onacracanthios. 

Pbqc.  Zool.  Soc— 1901,  Vol.  II.  No,  XIX.  19 


290 


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1901.]  ON  THE  ANTELOPES  OE  THE  WHITE  NILE.  291 

spineless,  and  the  spines  begin  only  somewhat  behind  the  line 
that  unites  the  bases  of  the  inner  margins  of  the  ears  ;  whereas  in 
E.  macracantJms  the  spines  begin  considerably  in  front  of  this 
line. 

I  give  here  the  following  description  of  an  adult  specimen  of 
this  little-known  species  : — 

Size  of  a  large  E.  europceus. 

Ears  comparatively  a  little  smaller  than  in  E.  auritus.  Head 
and  upper  part  of  neck  whitish,  with  a  rufous  tinge  on  the  upper 
part  of  the  head.  The  spines  are  very  long,  up  to  43  mm.,  and 
have  a  white  base  and  two  black  and  two  white  bands,  and  their 
long  black  apex  has  a  blue  lustre  which  gives  to  the  whole  colour- 
ing of  this  Hedgehog  a  very  dark  appearance.  The  fur  behind  the 
ears  and  on  the  sides  of  the  body  is  brownish  ;  the  abdomen  and  the 
feet  are  pure  black. 

This  Hedgehog  has  only  been  found  in  the  country  named 
Ust-Urt,  which  lies  between  the  Caspian  and  the  Aral  seas.  At 
present  this  is  a  quite  out  of  the  way  place,  distant  from  all  roads. 
This  is  the  reason,  I  think,  that  it  has  not  been  visited  for  a  very 
long  time  by  a  naturalist,  and  that  the  animals  described  from 
this  country  have  been  almost  forgotten,  e.  g.,  Ovis  arlcal  Brandt. 

It  is  very  likely  that  besides  the  above  named  species  of 
Hedgehogs,  there  will  also  be  found  in  the  Transcaspian  province 
E.  megalotis  Blyth,  so  common  in  Afghanistan.  I  may  also  state 
tliat  Zaroudnoi  speaks  of  a  Hedgehog  found  by  him  in  the  Tedgen 
oasis  and  along  the  middle  course  of  the  Murgab  (Bull.  Nat. 
Moscou,  1889),  which,  in  its  characters,  according  to  this 
author,  does  not  agree  with  any  of  the  species  enumerated  here. 
Unfortunately  I  have  not  had  the  opportunity  of  examining 
the  specimens  collected  by  him. 


2.  Field-Notes  on  the  Antelopes  of  the  White  Nile. 
By  Captain  Henry  N.  Dunn  \ 

[Eeceived  May  29,  1901.] 

On  putting  together  these  few  notes  on  the  Antelopes  of  the 
While  Nile,  I  am  merely  giving  information  as  to  what  I  know 
personally  of  their  habits,  and  will  speak  only  of  those  species 
observed  by  myself,  and  that  mainly,  too,  from  a  sportsman's  point 
of  view.  Not  having  my  diary  at  hand,  I  am  unable  to  give  exact 
dates. 

My  only  opportunity  of  shooting  on  the  upper  reaches  of  the 
White  Nile  was  when  attached,  as  Medical  Officer,  to  an  expedition 
formed  for  the  purpose  of  clearing  away  the  sudd-obstruction  in 
the  Bahr-el-Jebel. 

'  Communicated  by  the  Secretary. 

19* 


292  CAPT,  H.  F.  DUNN  0"t«r  THE  [June  18, 

The  expedition  left  Omdurman  in  December  1899  and  returned 
early  in  May  1900,  and  as  I  had  received  only  a  few  weeks'  notice  of 
my  appointment  to  the  expedition,  I  had  very  little  time  for  making 
preparations,  and  had  no  idea  that  any  of  the  Antelopes  we  might 
meet  would  be  particularly  interesting  from  a  scientific  point  of 
view. 

Having  remained  almost  the  whole  five  months  at  the  Base  Camp, 
on  the  right  bank,  within  a  few  miles  of  the  junction  of  the  Bahr- 
el-Zeraf  with  the  White  Nile,  I  had  much  better  opportunities  of 
shooting  than  the  other  members  of  the  expedition,  who  were 
mostly  engaged  in  working  on  the  sudd  itself.  The  season  being  an 
exceptionally  dry  one  we  had  good  sport ;  and  as  most  of  the  game 
was  secured  in  much  the  same  sort  of  country,  I  may  as  well 
describe  what  it  was  like  in  and  around  our  Base  Camp.  The 
Base  Camp  was  situated  at  Gabt-el-Megahid,  on  the  right  bank, 
six  miles  north  of  the  junction  of  the  Bahr-el-Zeraf  with  the  White 
Nile,  and  -was  pitched  in  the  midst  of  a  patch  of  red-gum  scrub 
interspersed  with  larger  trees.  This  site  was  chosen,  as  fuel  for 
the  steamers  was  our  main  object.  The  jungle  extended  more  or 
less  thickly  for  seven  or  eight  miles  along  the  bank,  with  an  average 
depth  of  from  a  quarter  to  half-a-mile.  Outside  the  jungle  stretched 
an  undulating  plain,  as  far  as  the  eye  could  reach,  covered  by  coarse 
brown  grass  averaging  from  a  few  inches  to  2  or  3  feet  in  height, 
but  in  few  places  affording  much  cover  for  stalking  purposes. 

In  the  rainy  season,  of  course,  these  conditions  are  greatly 
changed,  and  from  all  accounts  the  grass  is  then  several  feet  high 
and  the  whereabouts  of  game  is  only  to  be  ascertained  by  climbing 
trees. 

On  the  bank  opposite  to  our  camp  the  country  was  somewhat 
different,  as  the  ground  was  more  low-lying,  and  the  grass  was  longer 
and  higher  and  afforded  excellent  cover.  Stalking  was  difficult 
owing  to  the  numerous  low-lying  strips  of  land  containing  water 
(khors)  and  mud.  The  natives  of  the  country,  Shuluks,  burn  the 
grass  as  soon  as  the  dry-season  has  set  in,  and  these  fires  were  in 
full  swing  on  our  arrival. 

The  following  were  the  Antelopes  that  I  met  with  : — 

1.  Damalisous  tiang.     (The  Tiang.)  ^ 

Several  large  herds  of  this  Antelope  were  seen  on  the  left  bank 
between  El  Duem  and  Fashoda,  but  it  was  well  into  January  before 
I  personally  secured  a  specimen.  My  best  heads  carried  horns 
of  22  and  22|  inches,  but  I  subsequently  saw  one  of  23  inches. 
The  horns  of  the  female  are  lighter  and  more  slender,  and  appar- 
ently average  from  12  to  16  inches.  The  herds  were  generally 
met  with  in  the  drier  ground,  and,  as  is  the  case  with  most 
Antelopes,  coming  down  to  water  in  the  evening  or  moving  up 
from  the  river  as  the  sun  rose.  Even  with  the  aid  of  good  field- 
glasses,  I  always  found  it  exceedingly  difficult  to  distinguish  males 
from  females,  except  that,  if  I  remember  correctly,  the  males  were 

1  Scl.  &  Thorn.  Bk.  of  Ant  i.  p.  63. 


1901.]  ANTELOPES  OE  THE  WHITE  NILE.  293 

of  a  decidedly  lighter  colour.  On  one  occasion  I  came  across  an 
immense  herd  of  fully  three  or  four  hundred  of  this  Antelope,  on 
the  left  bank  opposite  the  junction  of  the  Bahr-el-Jebel  with  the 
White  Nile.  They  allowed  me  to  approach  within  400  yards ;  and 
a  splendid  sight  it  was  to  see  them  galloping  along  when  startled 
and  changing  direction  like  so  much  cavalry,  the  leading  buck  on 
either  flank  going  more  slowly  and  the  wings  wheeling  round,  the 
whole  herd  galloping  off  in  the  fresh  direction  when  squared. 

The  "Tiang,"  when  wounded,  is  sometimes  dangerous  to 
approach.  I  know  of  one  instance  in  which  a  buck  charged  so 
viciously,  that  it  was  only  stopped  by  being  clubbed  across  the 
head  with  a  rifle,  the  sportsman  breaking  his  weapon  in  doing  this. 
In  March  and  April  I  saw  several  young  ones,  but  apparently  the 
mothers  and  young  kept  apart  from  the  males  in  small  herds. 
When  not  vdth  their  young,  the  animals  seem  to  move  about  either 
alone  or  in  small  parties,  and  are  comparatively  easily  stalked,  even 
in  the  open.  Sometimes  single  bucks  attached  themselves  to  a  herd 
of  Water-buck,  and  on  one  occasion  I  observed  a  buck  of  this 
species  attempt  to  have  connection  with  several  females  of  the 
herd,  although  the  male  Water-buck  resented  it.  The  Tiang  at 
times  takes  an  extraordinary  amount  of  killing,  and  I  have  seen  a 
buck  carry  off  eight  -303  bullets  in  him,  and  only  finally  brought  to 
grass  after  a  long  hunt,  and  when  he  had  apparently  but  one  sound 
leg  left  to  travel  with.     The  flesh  of  the  Tiang  is  excellent. 

2.  OuEEBiA  MONTANA.     (The  Abyssiniau  Oribi.)  ^ 

These  animals  were  found  in  considerable  numbers  close  to 
the  Camp,  and  in  fact  afforded  one  of  our  main  supplies  of 
meat  for  our  men.  They  were  not  at  all  shy,  and  generally  moved 
about  in  pairs,  or  in  pairs  with  a  single  fawn.  When  wounded 
they  will  lie  extraordinarily  close  at  times  in  the  long  grass,  so 
close,  indeed,  that  I  found  it  much  simpler  to  approach  a  wounded 
buck  with  a  double  twelve-bore  and  No.  4  shot ;  otherwise  it  was 
not  an  easy  thing  to  kill  him,  as  he  bounded  away  through  the  reeds. 
I  have  never  seen  Oribi  actually  drinking  at  the  river,  but  have 
little  doubt  that  they  do  so,  having  noticed  numbers  of  tracks 
along  the  bank.  When  startled  and  galloping  through  high  grass 
the  Oribi  at  times  bounds  much  after  the  manner  of  a  Black  Buck. 
The  natives  apparently  kill  numbers  by  trapping.  A  small  fence 
of  split  reeds  is  made,  enclosing  a  strip  of  river-bank  on  which 
the  grass  is  exceptionally  good  grazing,  and  to  which  the  Oribi 
come  to  feed  at  night-time.  Small  gates  are  left  in  the  fencing, 
and  in  these  openings  the  traps  are  laid.  The  trap  used  is  made  by 
lashing  a  stick  to  one  upright  of  the  opening,  bending  over  the 
fore  end  and  pegging  down  an  attached  noose  to  the  ground  m 
the  middle  of  the  opening.  Beneath,  where  the  noose  is  pegged 
out,  a  small  pit  covered  by  pieces  of  bark,  has  been  prepared 
beforehand.    By  a  trigger-like  arrangement,  the  Oribi,  in  thrusting 

1  Scl.  &  Thorn.  Bk.  of  Ant.  ii.  p.  25. 


294  OAPT.  H.  N.  DUNN  ON  THE  [June  18, 

his  foot  through  the  bark,  sets  free  the  pegged-down  noose  and  is 
caught  by  the  leg  as  the  bent  stick  springs  upright.  The  natives 
attach  a  rattle  made  of  dome-palm  nut  to  the  string,  so  that  the 
Oribi  is  heard  as  soon  as  he  struggles  to  escape. 

3.  CoBUS  DEPASSA.     (The  Defassa  Water-Buck.)  ^ 

This  "Water-buck  is  plentiful  along  both  banks  of  the  White 
Nile  from  the  north  of  El  Duem  to  the  junction  with  the  Bahr-el- 
Jebel.  They  generally  moved  about  in  herds  of  from  four  to  six 
up  to  forty,  and  on  one  occasion  I  counted  sixty-four,  young  and 
adults  of  both  sexes  intermingled. 

On  our  first  arrival  at  the  Base  Camp,  buck  were  plentiful  in 
the  proportion  of  about  1  to  4  females,  but  owiug  to  the  necessity 
of  obtaining  meat,  they  had  become  greatly  thinned-out  before 
our  departure.  My  best  heads  measured  31  and  31^  inches,  but  I 
believe  one  of  34  inches  was  shot  by  Major  Peake,  S.A. 

Its  native  name  here  was  "  Tetel,"  but  this  does  not  go  for 
much,  as  I  have  heard  the  same  term  applied  to  other  animals, 
including  Tiang  and  White-eared  Kob.  During  the  daytime  the 
herds  moved  out  from  the  river  into  the  open,  and  seemed  to 
spend  their  time  in  grazing  and  lying  up  in  the  long  grass,  coming 
down  towards  the  river  again  as  the  sun  became  lower.  It  was  a 
pretty  sight  at  times  to  watch  a  herd  of  the  Water-bucks  approach- 
ing the  river  of  an  evening.  The  herd,  led  by  the  largest  buck, 
generally  moved  slowly  along  through  the  grass  in  single  file, 
pausing  every  few  yards  and  gazing  around  to  see  whether  the 
coast  was  clear  or  not.  The  massive  horns  of  the  bucks  and  dark 
coats  showed  up  well  against  the  yellow  background  of  the  sun- 
parched  grass.  When  alarmed  the  herd  rushed  together,  but 
were  at  times  very  easy  to  approach  ;  and  I  have  stalked  single 
bucks  in  the  open  by  merely  creeping  along,  keeping  my  eyes  fixed 
on  the  tips  of  the  animal's  horns  as  he  fed,  and  dropping  down 
when  he  began  to  raise  his  head.  When  feeding  anywhere  close 
to  jungle,  they  almost  invariably  grazed  head  on  and  towards  the 
direction  they  feared  danger. 

On  one  occasion  one  of  my  natives  had  a  narrow  escape  from  a 
wounded  buck.  He  attempted  to  grasp  the  buck's  horns  prepara- 
tory to  cutting  the  animal's  throat,  but  was  struck  full  in  his 
chest  by  the  horns,  receiving  a  couple  of  nasty  wounds,  which,  if 
lower,  might  easily  have  proved  fatal.  The  meat  of  the  Water- 
buck  is  poor-eating,  but  the  hide  was  greatly  sought  after  by  our 
workmen  for  making  sandals,  to  protect  their  feet  from  the  thorns 
of  the  red  gum-trees. 

4.  CoBus  MARIA.     (Mrs.  Grray's  Waterbuck.) ' 

So  far  as  my  personal  experience  goes,  I  have  only  seen  this 

Antelope  along  the  left  bank  of  the  Nile  almost  opposite  the 

.anction  of  the  Bahr-el-Zeraf,  on  the  right  banli  in  small  herds 

1  Scl.  &  Thorn.  Bk.  of  Ant.  ii.  p.  115,  pi.  xxxvi. 
^  Ibid.,  p.  121,  pi,  xxxvii. 


1901.]  ATTTBLOPES  OV  THE  WHITE  TiTILE.  295 

between  Lake  No  and  the  Bahr-el-Zeraf,  and  once  in  the  less 
swampy  portion  o£  the  stidd  itself,  close  to  Hellet-el-Nuer.  Cobus 
maria  is  almost  invariably  found  in  swampy  ground  or  close  to  it. 
During  several  trips  up  the  Bahr-el-Zeraf  river,  J  never  saw  one 
at  any  great  distance  from  the  Nile  itself ;  the  banks  of  the 
Bahr-el-Zeraf  at  that  season  of  the  year  being  very  dry  and 
without  much  cover.  When  we  arrived  at  the  Base  Camp  there 
was  a  large  herd  of  from  fifty  to  a  hundred  of  these  Antelopes  on 
the  opposite  bank,  and  several  specimens  were  shot  from  time  to 
time  by  members  of  the  expedition,  I  constantly  watched  them 
from  our  steamer  with  a  telescope.  During  the  day  the  herd 
selected  an  open  bare-burnt  patch  of  ground  to  lie  out  on,  feeding 
down  towards  the  river  in  the  evening,  and  roaming  about  on  the 
higher  and  more  open  ground  during  the  earlier  hours  of  the  day . 
The  herd  seemed  to  keep  very  much  together  ;  and  all  the  various 
gradations  of  colour,  from  the  yellow  and  dirty  white  of  the 
females  and  young  of  both  sexes,  to  the  tawny  black  and  almost 
pure  white  of  the  mature  bucks,  were  to  be  seen  intermingled. 
At  first  we  had  a  certain  amount  of  difficulty  in  distinguishing 
them  from  the  White-eared  Kob,  not  knowing  anything  about 
their  distinctive  markings ;  and  it  was  not  until  I  had  shot  a 
specimen,  and  noticed  the  smooth  kid-like  appearance  of  the  skin 
on  the  back  of  the  fetlock,  between  the  supernumerary  and  true 
hoof,  that  I  knew  they  must  be  of  a  different  species  ;  the  White- 
eared  Kob  having  no  such  distinctive  feature.  Of  course,  the  white 
patch  on  the  withers  of  Cobus  maria  is  very  striking ;  but  it  is 
next  to  impossible  to  distinguish  the  young  and  females  from 
those  of  Cobus  leucotis  at  a  distance.  In  fact,  the  young  buck 
C.  maria,  too,  before  the  horns  have  become  long  enough  to  take 
on  the  spiral  twist,  and  while  the  coat  is  still  yellow,  is  very  like  a 
young  C.  leucotis,  except  that,  no  doubt,  it  is  a  heavier  animal ;  and 
I  could  never  be  certain  as  to  which  species  they  belonged  unless 
I  got  close  to  the  herd.  On  one  occasion,  having  shot  a  young 
buck  C.  maria,  showing  an  almost  entire  absence  as  yet  of  the 
black  and  white  markings  of  the  more  mature  animal,  I  took 
the  trouble  to  skin  it.  As  the  sun  was  hot  and  I  had  been  out 
since  daylight,  I  left  the  feet-bones  in  the  skin  (intending  to 
remove  them  on  arrival  in  camp),  and  gave  the  skin  to  a  native  to 
carry  to  the  boat.  On  arriving  at  the  boat  I  found,  much  to  my 
disgust,  that  the  native  had  cut  the  feet  off  for  the  sake  of  the 
bones  attached.  This  annoyed  me  so  much  at  the  time,  that  I 
threw  the  skin  away,  and  so  lost  what  would  have  been  an 
interesting  specimen  for  the  Museum.  As  I  have  already  stated, 
we,  at  the  Base  Camp,  had  an  exceptionally  good  opportunity  of 
getting  specimens  and  observing  the  Mrs.  G-ray's  Antelopes. 
That  portion  of  the  bank  on  which  the  herd  lived  was  a  semi- 
detached strip  of  land,  of  about  seven  miles  in  length  by  four  or 
five  in  breadth,  and  bounded  behind  by  an  arm  of  the  river,  along 
the  bank  of  which,  on  the  higher  ground,  the  ShuUuks  had  built 
their  villages  ;  and  curiously  enough,  during  the  entire  five  months 


296  OAPT.  H.  N.  DUNN  ON  THE  [June  18, 

of  our  stay  at  the  Base  Camp,  the  herd  never  left  this  portion  of 
the  bank.  At  first  the  herd  was  fairly  easy  to  approach,  but,  of 
course,  they  became  more  wary  later  on.  The  young  and  females 
(in  January  and  February)  kept,  as  a  rule,  close  to  the  bucks,  and 
this  was  probably  due  to  the  more  or  less  constant  worrying  they 
had  from  the  Shuliuks  and  their  dogs,  who  were  always  on  the 
look-out  to  cut  off  a  stray  doe  with  young.  Once,  when  shooting 
along  with  another  officer,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Bahr-el- 
Zeraf,  a  female  dashed  past  within  forty  yards  of  our  camp,  hard 
pressed  by  a  Shulluk  dog  :  my  friend  was  just  in  time  to  cram  in  a 
cartridge  and  put  a  bullet  into  a  second  dog  who  was  following, 
much  to  the  disgust  of  the  owner,  who  shortly  afterwards 
appeared  on  the  scene. 

This  Antelope  will  take  readily  to  the  water  when  pressed.  On 
the  day  after  our  arrival  at  the  Base  Camp,  a  magnificent  buck, 
wounded  by  a  ShuUuk's  spear  and  hard-pressed  by  a  dog,  dashed 
into  the  river  immediately  opposite  to  our  steamer  and  was  shot 
froDi  the  deck  itself.  I  once  shot  a  rather  fine  buck  under  somewhat 
peculiar  circumstances.  Having  set  my  heart  on  a  particularly 
fine  head,  I  had  been  following  the  herd  for  close  on  three  hours, 
but  could  not  manage  to  get  a  shot  at  the  animal  I  wanted. 
Eventually  I  noticed  a  buck  separate  himself  from  the  herd  and 
disappear  into  some  long  reeds  close  to  the  river.  This  had  also 
been  observed  by  the  natives  on  one  of  our  expedition's  sailing- 
boats,  who,  when  I  ari'ived,  were  just  turning  out,  armed  with 
sticks  and  knives,  to  make  what  they  thought  an  easy  capture  of 
a  badly  wounded  animal.  Knowing  that  I  could  not  have  possibly 
wounded  him  myself,  I  formed  the  men  up  in  a  line  and  commenced 
beating  up  through  the  reeds,  having  taken  a  commanding  position 
on  some  high  ground.  It  was  as  well  I  had  done  so,  as  the  buck 
lay  until  almost  walked  over,  and  then,  springing  up,  dashed  off  at 
full  speed,  giving  me  an  easy  shot  as  he  passed  broadside  on,  not 
more  than  forty  yards  off.  To  my  surprise  I  found  on  examining 
the  body,  that  he  had  an  old  un-united  fracture  of  the,  left  shoulder, 
due  to  an  accident  probably,  as  I  could  find  no  external  wound. 
He  had  evidently  become  tired  at  being  kept  so  long  on  the  move, 
and  had  lain  down  for  a  rest,  as  his  leg  was  no  doubt  giving  him 
trouble. 

The  full-grown  Maria  buck  is  a  fine  animal,  his  head  having 
very  much  the  appearance  of  that  of  an  Ibex,  except,  of  course,  that 
the  beard  is  replaced  by  the  somewhat  shaggy  and  coarse  hair  of 
the  neck  and  throat.  When  alarmed  the  herd  dashes  off,  led  by 
one  or  two  of  the  old  bucks,  and  tailing  out  to  almost  single  file. 
When  galloping  the  buck  carries  his  muzzle  well  forward,  horns 
thrown  back,  and  moves  with  a  much  more  lumbering  gait  than 
one  might  expect.  I  never  observed  these  Antelopes  spring  into 
the  air,  and  they  appeared  rather  to  dash  through  than  attempt  to 
clear  small  obstacles.  The  meat  of  this  Antelope  is  excellent. 
The  horns  of  my  best  specimen  measured  29|  inches,  and  I  got 
a  single  horn  of  32  inches. 


1901.]  AiraELOPES  OP  THE  WHITE  NILE,  297 

5.  CoBUS  EEUcoTis.     (The  White-eared  Kob.)^ 

This  species  is  found  in  great  numbers  along  both  banks  of 
the  White  Mle,  Bahr-el-Zeraf,  and  Bahr-el-Grhazal  Eivers,  but 
chiefly  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Nile  between  Lake  No  and  the 
junction  of  the  Bahr-el-Zeraf.  They  were  to  be  seen  in  all  numbers, 
from  solitaiy  bucks  or  females  with  young  to  herds  of  forty  or 
sixty,  or  even  more.  The  young  with  their  mothers,  apparently 
accompanied  the  bucks  in  March  and  April,  although  I  have  often 
observed  herds  of  bucks  only.  The  female  carries  no  horns,  and 
it  is  almost  impossible  to  distinguish  it  at  a  distance  from  the 
female  Mrs.  Gray's  Waterbuck,  both  being  of  much  the  same 
colour  and  size.  This  remark  applies  also  to  the  young  males  of 
both  species.  The  female  does  not  change  in  colour  as  she 
becomes  older,  but  the  buck  develops  the  characteristic  black  and 
white  markings  as  age  advances  ;  and  bucks  in  all  stages  of  reddish 
yellow  with  indistinct  whitish  markings,  to  the  mature  animal  of 
an  almost  pure  black  and  white,  may  be  seen  in  the  same  herd. 
When  compared  side  by  side,  Cobus  leucotis  is  no  doubt  a  much 
lighter  and  smaller  animal  than  Cobus  maria.  My  best  horns 
measured  20|  and  20|-  inches. 

The  White-eared  Kob  is  at  times  exceedingly  easy  to  approach, 
but  sometimes  hard  to  kill,  and  its  fl.esh  is  excellent  eating.  The 
females  are  very  inquisitive  and  will  frequently  approach  to  within 
a  hundred  yards,  circling  slowly  round  and  making  a  peculiar 
whistling  sound  at  intervals.  It  is  stated  that  the  male  bounds  into 
the  air  at  times  like  a  Bless-bok  ;  personally  I  cannot  say  I  have 
noticed  this,  and,  so  far  as  I  can  remember,  they  gallop  with  a 
much  less  springy  action  than  might  be  expected  from  their  build. 

6.  Ceevicapea  bohoe.     (Bohor  Antelope.)^ 

The  single  specimen  of  this  Antelope  obtained  by  me  was  shot 
lying  down  in  some  long  grass  when  I  was  stalking  a  Tiang.  I  was 
attracted  by  the  peculiar  shape  of  the  animal's  horns,  shot  it,  and 
in  my  hurried  inspection  of  the  body  was  disgusted  at  having  killed 
what  I  took  at  the  time  to  be  a  young  White-eared  Kob.  On  my 
return  to  camp,  I  found  that  the  natives  had  cut  up  the  animal  and 
had  merely  kept  the  horns  and  skull,  and  these  I  threw  away  on 
I'eaching  the  Base  Camp.  On  examining  some  heads  shot  by  other 
members  of  the  expedition  subsequently,  I  came  to  the  conclusion 
that  my  specimen  was  also  a  Bohor,  and  I  was  lucky  enough  to 
retrieve  the  horns  and  skull,  which  I  had  thrown  aside. 

7.  Gazella  eueierons.     (Eed-f routed  Gazelle.)^ 

I  only  shot  one  specimen  of  this  Gazelle  south  of  Fashoda,  and 
that  was  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Bahr-el-Zeraf,  about  20  miles 
upstream.  In  fact,  the  only  place  I  saw  a  Gazelle  south  of  Fashoda 
was  on  the  Bahr-el-Zeraf. 

1  Scl.  &  Thorn.  Bk.  of  Ant.  ii.  p.  127,  pi.  sxxviii. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  165.  3  jj^i^^^  iii^  p  igg^  pi  i^^ji 


298  DB.  R.  B.  SHARPB  ON  fJune  18, 

I  presented  the  skin  I  shot  on  the  Bahr-el-Zeraf  to  Capt.  Flower, 
and  see  that  he  has  naaied  it  Oazella  rufifrons  (P.  Z.  S.  1900, 
p.  55).  I  have  shot  Gazelles  at  other  places  on  the  White  Nile, 
but  have  never  noticed  such  distinct  markings  as  ou  those  found 
on  the  Zeraf. 

8.  HipPoxRAGUS  EQUiNUs  BAKERi.     (Baker's  Antelope.)'- 

I  shot  only  one  of  these  Antelopes  and  that  was  on  the 
Bahr-el-Zeraf,  and  I  found  them  very  easy  to  approach.  There 
is  one  point  worth  mentioning,  and  that  is  in  connection  with  the 
name  "  Marif,"  applied  by  Baker  to  this  species.  "  Marif'  in 
Arabic  literally  means  "  I  do  not  know,"  and  is  constantly  used 
by  natives  when  asked  the  name  of  an  animal. 


3.  On  a  Collection  of  Birds  made  by  Dr.  Donaldson  Smith 
in  Northern  Somali-land.  By  R.  Bowdler  Sharpe, 
LL.D.,  F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived  June  18,  1901.] 

During  the  early  part  of  1889,  Dr.  Donaldson  Smith  conducted 
an  expedition  of  several  months'  duration  through  Northern 
Somali-land  for  the  purpose  of  making  collections  for  the  Baroda 
Museum.  It  was  hoped  at  first  that  H.H.  the  Gaikwar  of  Baroda 
would  have  accompanied  the  expedition,  but  he  was  unfortunately 
not  able  to  do  so,  and  Dr.  Smith's  only  companion  was  Mr.  Carlile 
Fraser. 

Starting  from  Bulbar  at  the  beginning  of  January,  the  route 
taken  ran  south  towards  Hargeisa,  and  a  stay  of  some  days  was 
made  at  Ania,  and  again  at  Magog,  which  was  reached  on  the 
11th  of  February.  Thence  the  expedition  proceeded  in  an 
easterly  direction  to  Adadle,  and  on  the  17th  of  February  Dr. 
Donaldson  Smith  went  after  "  big  game "  in  the  Hand,  leaving 
Mr.  Fraser  to  collect  birds  and  insects  in  the  Adadle  district. 
Leaving  here,  they  went  by  Gan  Liban  (Feb.  22)  to  Berbera, 
whence  short  expeditions  were  made  to  the  Goolis  Mountains. 

H.H.  The  Gaikwar  has  very  kindly  presented  to  the  British 
Museum  such  specimens  as  were  desiderata  to  that  Institution. 

List  of  Authorities. 

The  following  books  and  papers  are  referred  to  in  the  present 
paper  : — 

1.  Shelley,  G.  E.— "  On  Mr.  E.  Lort  Phillips'  Collection  of 
Birds  from  SomaU-land."  Ibis,  1885,  pp.  389-118,  plates 
X.,  xi.,  xii. 

1  Scl.  &  Thorn.  Bk.  of  Ant.  iv.  p.  4. 


1901.]  BIEDS  FEOM  SOMALI-LAND.  299 

2.  OusTALET,  E. — "  Catalogue  des  Oiseaux  rapportes  par  M.  G-. 

Eevoil  de  son  deuxieme  Voyage  aux  Pays  de  Qomalis." 
Bibl.  Ecole  Hautes-Etudes  ;  Sci.  Nat.  sxxi.  Art.  x.  pp.  1-12 
(1886). 

3.  Salvadoei,  T. — "  Uccelli  del  Somali  raccolti  da  D.  Eugenie  dei 

Principi  Euspoli."  Mem.  E.  Accad.  Sci.  Torino,  (2)  xliv. 
pp.  547-564  (1894). 

4.  Shaepe,  E.  Bowdlee. — "  On  a  Collection  of  Birds  made  by 

Dr.  Donaldson  Smith  during  his  recent  expedition  in 
Western  Somali-land."  P.  Z.  S.  1895,  pp.  457-520,  plates 
xxvii.,  xxviii. 

5.  Salt adoei,  T.—"  Uccelli  raccolti  da  D.  Eugenio  dei  Principi 

Euspoli  durante  I'ultimo  suo  viaggio  nelle  regione  dei 
Somali  e  dei  Galla."  Ann.  Mus.  G-enov.  (2)  xvi.  pp.  43- 
46  (1896). 

6.  Phillips,  E.  Loet. — "  On  Birds  observed  in  the  Goolis  Moun- 

tains in  Northern  Somali-land."  Ibis,  1896,  pp.  62-87,